https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/issue/feed International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 2024-06-15T12:21:38+00:00 International Journal of Environment and Climate Change contact@journalijecc.com Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs and without harm to the environment and ecosystem function and service. Meeting this formidable challenge requires a substantial effort under climate change impact, economic development and population growth. <strong>International Journal of Environment and Climate Change (ISSN: 2581-8627)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal. It has long been recognized that the long-term viability of natural capital is critical for many areas of human endeavour under climate change impact. The aims are to support engineering science research with the goal of promoting sustainable development with environmentally benign engineered systems that support human well-being and that are also compatible with sustaining natural (environmental) systems.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>NAAS Score: 5.16 (2024)</strong></p> https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4207 Geoelectrical and Physicochemical Characterization of Groundwater Contamination around a Cassava Processing Factory in Ogbomoso, Southwestern Nigeria 2024-06-02T13:08:37+00:00 Ismaila Abiodun Akinlabi abiodunakinlabi@yahoo.com Zainab Adeola Akinlade <p>2D resistivity profiling and hydro-geochemical analyses were carried out to assess groundwater contamination. in and around the Cassava Processing Factory at Aarada, Ogbomoso, Southwestern Nigeria. The dipole-dipole profiling was conducted along eight traverses, trending NW-SE, using electrode spacing a = 5m and expansion factor n=1 to 4. The resistivity data were inverted using 2D inversion procedure to produce the 2D inverted resistivity sections beneath the traverses. Water samples were also taken from seven hand dug wells within and around the study area for physicochemical analyses to determine the pH, EC, TDS, and concentrations of cations and anions which included Fe<sup>2+</sup>, Zn<sup>2+</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup>, Pb<sup>2+</sup>, Cu<sup>2+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, NO<sub>3</sub><sup>ˉ</sup> and CN<sup>-</sup>. The 2D inverted resistivity sections revealed that the study is characterized by relatively low resistive zones typical of contamination plumes beneath the traverses near the cassava processing factory and general dumpsite. The pH values range from 7.2 to 8.0 and indicate that the groundwater is basic. They are within the WHO (2011) recommended limits. The electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) exceed the WHO limit in the wells close to the cassava processing factory and the dumpsite, indicating that the water is harmful to human health. The major indicators of groundwater contamination in the study area are the Fe<sup>2+</sup> and NO<sub>3</sub><sup>ˉ</sup> caused by percolation of the dumpsite leachate, and CN<sup>- </sup>caused by infiltration of the cassava effluent, into the aquifers. The level of contamination in the wells is closely related to proximity to the cassava processing factory and the dumpsite. The discharge of the effluents from the cassava processing factory contributes significantly to cyanide contamination of groundwater in the study area. Appropriate remediation measures should be taken to forestall further contamination of groundwater in the study area.</p> 2024-06-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4209 A Comparison of the Frequency and Intensity of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI) during the Meteorological Drought across Harohar-Punpun Basin (India) 2024-06-04T12:46:02+00:00 Ishika Singh ishikasingh633@gmail.com Alok Kumar Mishra Shakti Suryavanshi Arpan Sherring Mukesh Kumar <p>The term "drought" applies to a prolonged period when there is a water shortage because of insufficient precipitation, an excessive rate of evaporation, and excessive use of water from reservoirs and other storage, including ground water. It is a slow-onset phenomenon that can have significant social, economic, and environmental impacts. Both the frequency and severity of droughts are increasing globally due to manmade and natural factors. This study looked at how well SPIs (3, 6, 12-month time scales) and RAI (Rainfall Anomaly Index) performed at identifying drought occurrences over a period of 70 years (1951 to 2021) in India's Agro-Ecological Zones. The RAI and SPI values were computed using rainfall data from 9 meteorological stations located throughout the Harohar- Punpun Basin. According to the results, the RAI is more capable than SPIs in detecting historical records of actual occurrences. Additionally, RAI is more effective than SPIs for determining both short- and long-term droughts. Since RAI can better capture the true nature of the drought situation in the Harohar-Punpun Basin, it appears to be more responsive to drought circumstances. The primary causes of drought, according to the study, include minor variations in precipitation, willful ground water removal, changing cropping patterns, and substantial changes in land use. Regional planners and administrators will surely find use for this scientific study and integrated watershed management methods for sustainable water resource management, particularly for this region.</p> 2024-06-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4210 Socio-Economic Analysis of Cauliflower Growers in Jammu Region of Jammu and Kashmir (UT) 2024-06-05T09:43:30+00:00 Anamika Sharma anamikaraina730@gmail.com L. K. Sharma Tsewang Dolma Ananda K. R. Ankit Pal <p>A comprehensive investigation was undertaken in 2020-2021 in the Jammu district of the Jammu region, Jammu and Kashmir (Union Territory), India employing a descriptive study design. The primary objective was to discern the socio-economic characteristics of the cauliflower cultivators. Utilizing a multistage sampling methodology, a total of 160 cauliflower growers constituted the study sample. The results indicate that a substantial proportion of respondents (37%) fall within the middle-age category, holding matriculation level education (41%). The majority of respondents (54%) reside in joint family setups and agriculture emerges as the predominant occupation (76%). The majority of cauliflower growers in the study area have marginal farm sizes, primarily irrigated using canal water. While several critical information sources were conveniently located near the study area, including the agriculture office and input stores, access to others such as the SAU, KVK and the market was more distant. Respondents occasionally sought information from nearby sources in their villages.</p> 2024-06-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4212 Spatial and Temporal Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature Data in Malwa Region of Kshipra River Basin, India 2024-06-06T07:40:37+00:00 Pramod Kumar Meena pramodcae@gmail.com Deepak Khare Surendra Kumar Chandniha Harithalekshmi V <p>This study investigated trends in climatic variables, such as rainfall and temperature (mean, maximum, and minimum), on both annual and seasonal basis (pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon, winter) at four stations viz. Mahidpur, Alot, Dewas, and Indore in the Kshipra River basin, India. Using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator, trends were analyzed for data from 1980 to 2012. The analysis revealed statistically significant positive trends in maximum, minimum, and average temperatures on both annual and winter scales across all stations. Additionally, a significant positive trend in average temperature was observed in the post-monsoon season, except at Alot station. The annual trend magnitude for average temperature (Tavg) ranged from 0.020°C/year (Indore) to 0.024°C/year (Mahidpur). Rainfall trends on an annual scale showed a non-significant increase at Indore and Alot, while Mahidpur and Dewas exhibited a decreasing trend. Over the 32 year period, 2000 and 1993 were identified as breakpoint years for rainfall and temperature, respectively. From 1993 to 2012, annual minimum, maximum, and average temperatures increased by approximately 1.5%. Findings of this study can be used as a valuable information for water resource and crop planning, policy making and preparation of contingency plans.</p> 2024-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4214 Two Prominent Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin as Natural Enemies of Lepidopteran Larvae from Rayalaseema Region of Andhra Pradesh 2024-06-07T10:55:27+00:00 S. Abdul Mujeeb mujeebsam001@gmail.com K. Manjula P. N. Harathi A. Kandan P. Lavanya Kumari <p>Roving survey was conducted for searching the natural occurrence of <em>Beauveria bassiana </em>and <em>Metarhizium anisopliae </em>during <em>kharif </em>season of 2022 and <em>rabi </em>season of 2022-23 in Kurnool, Kadapa, Chittoor and Anantapuramu districts of Andhra pradesh. The crops surveyed were Groundnut, Maize, Cotton, greengram and blackgram during September to October of <em>kharif </em>season and January to February of <em>rabi </em>season. The pest population found in among groundnut crops were <em>Spodoptera litura</em>, <em>Helicoverpa armigera </em>and <em>Aproarema modicella </em>and maize, <em>Spodoptera frugiperda </em>which were found at vegetative stage. The fungal infected cadavers of lepidopteran lavae were observed on the soil below the canopy or adhering to the foliage of groundnut and maize crops. The larval cadavers were collected in separate aseptic vials and soil samples were also collected from the surveyed fields. During the survey, it was found that the mean number of infected cadavers with fungi varied from 2.6 to 3.2 per square meter in Kurnool district during Sep-Oct of 2022. In Anantapuramu district the mean number of cadavers were 1.4-2.2 during Jan-Feb of 2023. In Chittoor district the mean number of infected cadavers were varied from 2.4-3.6, whereas in Kadapa district it was 0.2 per square meter during Jan-Feb of 2023. The cadavers were cultured in the lab and based on morphological characters confirmed the isolates as <em>Beauveria bassiana </em>and <em>Metarhizium anispoliae. </em>The cadavers of <em>B. bassiana </em>were found to be high in Kurnool district followed by Chittoor district and least in Kadapa district where as the cadavers of <em>M.anispoliae </em>were found to be higher in Chittoor district followed by Anantapuramu district and Nil in Kadapa district.</p> 2024-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4215 Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment in Jalisco: A Comprehensive Analysis 2024-06-07T13:22:05+00:00 Ramírez-Sánchez Hermes Ulises hermes.ramirez@academicos.udg.mx Fajardo-Montiel Aida Lucia García-Guadalupe Mario Enrique Ulloa-Godínez Héctor Hugo <p>The changes in temperatures and precipitation estimated for the different climate change scenarios will have an impact on all sectors in the world, Mexico and Jalisco. Variations in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, melting glaciers, expansion of water bodies due to thermal expansion and the rise in sea level in recent decades in the intertropical zone are evidence of the country's high vulnerability to climate change. Significant increases in temperature, decreases in precipitation and runoff will cause scarcity and pressure on water resources, health, agriculture, livestock, marine ecosystems, industry, biodiversity, urban development, energy, housing, mobility, economy, waste, among others.</p> <p><strong>Aims</strong>: The objective of this study is to present regional projections of temperature and precipitation in Jalisco, under the IPCC's AR6 climate change scenarios, improving the projections of the Oceanic-Atmospheric General Circulation Models and estimating the possible impacts of climate change in Jalisco.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A total of 27 CLIMDEX climate change indices were calculated, using 197 stations distributed in the 125 municipalities of the State of Jalisco. For the regional modeling, the PRECIS (Providing Regional Climates for Impact Studies) model was used, developed by the Hadley Center of the United Kingdom, in a domain that covers the west of the Mexican Republic with a resolution of 25 km in the period 2020-2099.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Regional models for Jalisco show temperature increase between 0.5 to 5°C, while % precipitation will range between -20.3 and 13.5% depending on the scenario and period of analysis. The increase in temperature will cause soil moisture deficits, water stress, sparse vegetation and semi-permanent meteorological drought. Under these scenarios, the entire country is expected to be subject to moderate to extremely severe droughts that will last and worsen between now and the end of the century. Regional modelling shows significant impacts on the water sector with low water availability; in the agricultural sector with a decline in the productivity of the state's crops, mainly affecting small landowners and subsistence farmers. As for livestock, the increase in temperatures will decrease the availability of water and feed; cattle will enter heat stress and increase respiratory and heart rate, which will decrease productivity and with the possible disappearance of livestock areas. In terms of biodiversity, it is estimated that between 20-30% of plant and animal species are at greater risk of migration and/or extinction due to temperature increase &gt;3 ºC. The vulnerability of biodiversity will occur due to the weakening of ecosystems, forest fires, land use change and the decline of water resources. The energy sector will be affected by the increase in temperature, greater demand for energy, decrease in energy production, the main effects will be on its distribution. The health sector will be affected due to the presence of heat waves, heat stress and heat stroke; diseases due to high concentrations of pollutants, respiratory, cardio-vascular, vector-borne and contaminated water diseases, neurological and/or mental diseases, among others. Children, the elderly, and people with chronic and degenerative diseases will be the most vulnerable groups. All areas of the state will be impacted, although in a differentiated way, the lack of availability of water will occur throughout the state, agriculture and livestock in the area of Los Altos, floods and loss of biodiversity in coastal areas, the central area will concentrate most of the impacts due to the high population density.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: it is estimated that Jalisco's vulnerability to climate change is high to very high in all sectors and in all regions of the State of Jalisco.</p> 2024-06-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4217 Floral Biology of Chinar (Platanus orientalis L.) under Temperate Conditions in the Kashmir Himalayas 2024-06-10T12:32:53+00:00 Oyais Ahmad Wagay owaiswagay777@gmail.com Anup Raj P. A. Khan J. A. Mugloo Aashfaq A. Mir Jauhar Rafeeq <p>Chinar, <em>Platanus orientalis</em> is a huge, widely distributed, and long-lived deciduous tree native to the eastern Mediterranean. It is the only species of the Platanaceae family found in India and grows throughout the valley. Since ancient times, this particular species has garnered fascination and reverence, leading to its continuous examination and admiration. However, the information related to its floral biology is meagre. The floral biology of <em>P. orientalis</em> is crucial to understanding its reproductive mechanisms and ecological interactions. The present study, therefore, aimed at investigating the floral characteristics of <em>P. orientalis</em>. For this study, seven young sexually mature trees were selected to study the floral characteristics. It was revealed that, in general, male flowers often emerge earlier than female blosssoms. The position of the male flower is always proximal and that of the female flower is distal when present on terminal branches. The average male female ratio recorded was 7:1 and the ratio between pollen and ovules on average was 9550 to 1. The pollen-ovule ratio is a fundamental reproductive parameter that provides insights into the reproductive strategies and ecological adaptations of plant species. The floral biology of <em>P. orientalis</em> demonstrates its adaptation to wind pollination and efficient seed dispersal mechanisms. This knowledge enhances comprehension and aids in gaining a deeper understanding of the reproductive strategies of <em>P. orientalis</em> and its ecological significance within its native range. Research in this field can help in developing effective conservation strategies and utilizing this species for research purposes.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4218 Integrated Farming System for a Sustainable Livelihood 2024-06-10T12:46:05+00:00 S. Kavitha kavithasagri1@gmail.com G. Samuel I. Sreenivasa Rao M. Goverdhan D. Srinivasa Chary <p>This paper discusses about the success story of farmer practicing Integrated Farming System (IFS) for sustainable livelihood. Present study was conducted during 2018-19 in Bayyaram village of Bayyaram mandal in Khammam district of Telangana State. A case study method was followed to document the success of IFS farmer. Mr. Vidyasagar hails from Bayyaram village of Bayyaram mandal in Khammam district of Telangana State. He adopted different IFS components such as Horticulture, Dairy, Poultry, Piggery and Fishery units. He closely supervised multiple enterprise units and followed new technologies in IFS to get sustainable livelihood. He used new methods of cultivation in IFS and believed that diversification with various components of farming systems results in desired profitability for IFS farmers. Hence, integration of different components with higher input recycling increased farm productivity of different farm components and also he was able to provide employment opportunities to other farmers through IFS.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4221 Efficacy of Silica Solubilizing Bacteria as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Their Biochemical Characteristics 2024-06-12T07:59:01+00:00 S. Vinod Babu vinodsandamala22@gmail.com A. Vijaya Gopal N. Trimurtulu G. Kishore Babu S. L. Bhattiprolu <p>Twenty eight isolates of silica solubilising bacterial inoculants were collected from rhizosphere soils of rice crop in Kurnool, Prakasam, Guntur and Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh by using insoluble source of silica. These isolates were verified for plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) activity and then subjected biochemical tests in the Department of Agricultural microbiology, Advanced Post Graduate Centre, ANGRAU, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India. Two isolates, SiKPP-1 (Silica solubilizing isolate from Kurnool district, Pamulapadu Mandal and Pamulapadu Village - 1) &amp; SiPYY-3 (Silica solubilizing isolate from Prakasam district, Yerragondapalem Mandal and Yerragondapalem Village - 3) showed the highest efficiency in the aspects of silica solubilization, phosphate solubilization, potassium release, exopolysaccharide production activity, indole acetic acid production activity, siderophore production activity and biochemical tests including starch hydrolysis, Hydrogen sulphide test, Indole production, Catalase test, Oxidase test, Gelatine liquification, Methyl red test, Vogues Proskauer test, Citrate Utilization and Ammonia production. Therefore these two isolates (SiKPP-1&amp;SiPYY-3) were selected for further pot and field studies in direct sown paddy crop.</p> 2024-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4222 Status of Heavy Metals in Soil and Vegetables Grown in Peri-Urban Areas of Jabalpur District, Madhya Pradesh, India 2024-06-13T07:09:30+00:00 Sangya Singh sangyasingh8183@gmail.com YM Sharma GS Tagore RK Sahu <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The contamination of soil and vegetables by heavy metals is a critical environmental and public health issue, particularly in regions where wastewater is utilized for irrigation. This study assesses the concentration of heavy metals, (Cr, Zn, Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, As, Co and Cu) accumulated in soils and vegetables grown in <em>Peri</em>-urban areas which are mainly irrigated with wastewater.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study</strong>: This study was conducted in Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, JNKVV, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh during 2022-23.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Heavy metal content was measured using an Inductively coupled plasma-Mass Spectroscopy.&nbsp; Few indices for human health were also studied. Ten sites were chosen for soil and plant samples for analysis of metal content.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study revealed that the metal content of soil samples were below the permissible limits except for soil collected from Khandari site which had Co above the permissible level (203.65 mg/kg) and slightly Cd contamination in Khurji site (0.09 mg/kg). In case of vegetables, brinjal collected from Regama and Kumhi site showed Fe and Cd contamination (735.67 mg/kg, 476.33 mg/kg) and (0.35 mg/kg, 0.34 mg/kg), respectively. Potato and cabbage collected from Khurji and Khandari sites showed Fe contamination of 455.67 mg/kg and 670.83 mg/kg, respectively. Further the result on transfer factor for vegetables was &lt;1, except potato collected from Khandari site which had Cd accumulated in edible portion (11.70). Wheat crop collected from Khurji site also had Cd accumulated (24.66) in grain portion.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Despite few vegetables showed contamination by metals, health risk parameters <em>viz </em>Daily intake of metals, Health risk index and Metal pollution index but were found at safe levels. Thus, it can be concluded that there was no apparent risk for human beings after consumption in <em>Peri</em>-urban regions of Jabalpur district. Still to ensure quality of soil, vegetables and human health measures should be taken to regulate and address pollution of heavy metals in peri-urban areas.</p> 2024-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4225 Optimizing Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Yields: An Effect of Sowing Dates and Planting Densities in India Hot Arid Regions Under a Changing Climate 2024-06-14T06:40:47+00:00 Madan Lal Reager Subhash Chandra Naval Kishor Richa Pant Sang-Min Chung smchung@dongguk.edu Saleh Alfarraj Mohammad Javed Ansari Meenakshi Badu Seema Tripathy Ankita Mohanty S. Kumaraswamy Bhagwat Singh Kherawat skherawat@gmail.com Mahipal Singh Kesawat mahibiotech@snu.ac.kr <p>Groundnut (<em>Arachis hypogaea</em> L.) holds immense significance as an oilseed crop on a global scale. The growth and development of plants, along with crop productivity, are substantially impacted by the adverse effects of global climate change. In view of this, a research initiative was undertaken to investigate the effects of distinct sowing dates and planting densities on the yield and economic aspects of groundnut in the hot arid region of Rajasthan, India. The experiment, conducted over a span of three years during the kharif seasons of 2017, 2018, and 2019 at Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. The experimental design utilized a split-plot layout with four replications, comprising nine treatments. The main plot treatments involved three different sowing dates (15<sup>th</sup> May, 30<sup>th</sup> May, and 15<sup>th</sup> June), while the sub-plot treatments encompassed three planting densities (1.67 lakh, 2.50 lakh, and 3.33 lakh plants per hectare). Notably, the diverse sowing dates and planting densities exhibited notable effects on groundnut yield and economic viability. Comparative analysis revealed that sowing on May 30<sup>th</sup>, while statistically comparable to June 15<sup>th</sup> sowing, yielded the highest number of branches, pegs, pods per plant, kernel and pod yield, net return, and benefit-cost ratio. Interestingly, the highest haulm yield per hectare was achieved with the May 15<sup>th</sup> sowing, yet the harvest index improved progressively as sowing was delayed from May 15<sup>th</sup> to June 15<sup>th</sup>. However, the various sowing dates had no discernible effect on kernels per pod, seed index, and shelling percentage. Furthermore, employing a planting density of 1.67 lakh plants per hectare was resulted in the highest counts of branches, pegs, pods, kernels per pod, seed index, and shelling percentage. Remarkably, the elevation in planting density up to 2.50 lakh plants per hectare led to enhanced kernel and pod yields, harvest index, and net return. In an intriguing interaction between sowing dates and plant populations, the most favorable pod yield, kernel yield, and net return were recorded with a planting density of 2.50 lakh plants per hectare for the May 30<sup>th</sup> sowing. These findings underscore the significant effect of sowing date and planting density on yield attributes and ultimately on groundnut yield in the challenging hot arid region. Therefore, the timing of sowing and the density of planting play pivotal roles in enhancing groundnut productivity within this region, particularly in light of the changing climate conditions.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4226 Evaluation of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genetic Diversity Germplasm in Prayagraj Agro-climatic Conditions Using Metroglyph Analysis 2024-06-14T08:04:57+00:00 Patra, L. R. Yadav, M. Maxton, A. ann.maxton@shiats.edu.in <p>Total 25 genotypes of chick pea were investigated during current study. The experiment was conducted during <em>Rabi</em>-2022 in RBD having three replications and the data were recorded on 12 characters to study the variability, heritability, genetic advance, metroglyph analysis. Analysis of variance revealed that there was considerable genetic variability in the available germplasm for most of the characters studied for 12 different quantitative characters and analysed on the basis of heredity, Genetic advance and metroglyph analysis. Performance of grain yield and its components depicted that UDAY was found best followed by NBEG-3 and NBEG-47. A &nbsp;&nbsp;close perusal of variability coefficients revealed that the difference between PCV and GCV was small indicating little influence of environment on the expression of characters studied. High estimates of PCV and GCV were recorded for Harvesting index. The highest heritability was observed for Harvesting index (92.17 %), followed by Seed yield (91.76%) and Number of pods per plant (85.61%). In the present study a perusal of genetic advance showed that it was high for Harvesting index (14.10). We have noticed that among selected 25 genotypes, UDAY, NBEG-3, NBEG-47, ICC-313, FLIP-09-162, RVG-202, IPC-11-85 were observed as higher yielder and identified for higher index score.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4227 Dynamic of Cropping Pattern Changes in Selected Block of Virudunagar District, India 2024-06-14T13:11:53+00:00 Sathishkumar M. sathishkumar@klu.ac.in Sivananthan J. Jayaprabha J. <p>The assessment in dynamic of cropping pattern in several regions is vital part for a much-improved insight intothe farming development method. The present study was commenced to inspect the dynamicsof cropping pattern in Kariapatti block of the virudhunagar district of Tamil Nadu. The data analyzed with the help of Markov chain by year wise and for all years with analyzed as transitional probability matrix for dynamic changes. The main findings from the study exposed that any type of crops did not hold its area. But, the acreage of the crops was simultaneously changing from one set of crops to another set throughout the season. The cereals (cholam) area was observed to be more stable and the less area observed in gingelly and sunflower crops. Indicated that the cropping pattern of the region moves towards diversification from cholam to cotton followed by groundnut, sugarcane, paddy and maize, gingelly and green gram and sunflower in Kariapatti block. The reducing trend has been observed in the uncultivable land. This specifies that the area for cultivation has increased in Kariapatti. There is a greater possibility for deciding within the choice of crops to place the agriculture on the base of property growth that has to be supposed about in analysis and extension programmes.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4228 Optimizing Soybean Cultivation in Uttarakhand's Tarai Region Using the DSSAT CROPGRO Modeling Approach 2024-06-15T12:21:38+00:00 Naveen Kumar Bind Amit Bijalwan amitbijlwan07@gmail.com Chinmaya Kumar Sahu Ravi Kiran <p>Soybean (<em>Glycine max</em>) is a vital oilseed crop globally, but in India, its average grain yields remain relatively low despite the presence of high-yielding varieties. This study aimed to optimize soybean cultivation in the Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India, by exploring the impact of different sowing dates on crop growth and yield using the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) CROPGRO model. The experiment was conducted in 2022 and 2023 at Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, using a split-plot design with three replications. The model was calibrated and validated for different sowing dates, and key parameters such as emergence days, physiological maturity days, grain yield, harvest index, and leaf area index were compared between simulated and observed values. During validation RMSE and R2 was 48.44 and 0.90 for grain yield, 1.10 and 0.99 for physiological maturity, 0.042 and 0.99 for harvest index and 1.14 and 0.97 for LAI respectively. The results showed that adjusting sowing dates can significantly affect soybean growth and yield, with optimal sowing times resulting in higher yields and better crop performance. Specifically, sowing on July 22nd resulted in the highest grain yield, while sowing on August 21st led to the lowest. The DSSAT CROPGRO model proved to be a valuable tool for simulating soybean growth and predicting crop outcomes under varying environmental conditions.</p> 2024-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4205 Root Adaptation Traits under Water Logging Conditions 2024-06-02T11:29:27+00:00 Shambhavi Modgil shambhavimodgil@gmail.com Nilesh Talekar <p>A problem known as "waterlogging" occurs when the soil is saturated, which can seriously hinder plant growth and development. Waterlogging limits the amount of oxygen that can reach the roots of the plant, which affects the physiological and biochemical changes that occur in the plant. Plants, however, have developed a variety of adaptive strategies to deal with this kind of stress. Several morphological adaptations are displayed by plants to withstand waterlogging. Aerenchyma development, adventitious roots, and a shallow root system are a few of these. Plants respond to waterlogging stress by undergoing metabolic changes at the biochemical level. Increased ethylene synthesis, a stress hormone, controls the formation of aerenchymas and adventitious root growth, among other adaptive responses. In addition, plants store osmoprotectants such as soluble carbohydrates and proline to preserve the osmotic balance within their cells and prevent harm from waterlogging. Plants are able to tolerate waterlogging stress because of complex interaction of morphological, physiological, and biochemical adaptations together. In order to produce resilient crop varieties and sustainable agricultural techniques, it is imperative to comprehend the underlying mechanisms determining root architectural features under waterlogging circumstances. Subsequent investigations aimed at clarifying the molecular mechanisms behind plant reactions to waterlogging will aid in the creation of novel approaches to lessen the deleterious consequences of this environmental stressor.</p> 2024-06-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4208 Remediation of Saline Soils Using Halo-Tolerant Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria 2024-06-04T11:50:20+00:00 Charan Singh Gayatri Kumari ydvgayatri714@gmail.com Lalita Vishal Gandhi Ashish Jain Sukham Madaan Sumit Saini Amit Kumar Mahaveer Rakesh Kumar <p>Soil salinization poses a significant threat to global agriculture, affecting approximately 6.73m Ha land area in India. Salinity stress impacts plant growth and soil health negatively, leading to reduced crop yields and soil degradation. This review examines the sources and effects of soil salinity, highlighting the intricate interplay between salinity and soil nutrients and its remediation. Traditional methods for soil remediation often have detrimental long-term effects, prompting the exploration of alternative strategies such as the use of halo-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. HT-PGPR offer a promising solution for sustainable agriculture by enhancing soil fertility and plant resilience to salinity stress through various mechanisms. Furthermore, this review identifies research gaps in understanding the metabolic pathways and strain selection of HT-PGPR, as well as their interactions with soil microbiota. Future research directions include field-scale experiments to validate the effectiveness and economic viability of HT-PGPR inoculation for large-scale application in saline soils. Overall, leveraging the potential of HT-PGPR represents a critical step towards mitigating the global challenge of soil salinity and ensuring food security in the face of climate change.</p> 2024-06-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4211 Adaptation of Drought Stress by use of Silicon Element in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 2024-06-05T09:54:18+00:00 Aleti Nitha Reddy Rajeev aletinithareddy02@outlook.com Prasann Kumar <p>Drought stress is a menacing type of abiotic stress caused by low rainfall, high temperature, etc., where water sparsity condition occurs in soil, affecting the process of plant growth and development. Drought stress has become a serious issue that must be considered before it becomes a significant threat to agricultural production. Wheat is India's second most crucial cereal crop; even its production is affected due to prevailing drought conditions in the fields, which causes many physiological, morphological &amp; biochemical changes in the plant, indirectly affecting yield. Many methods are adopted to improve wheat crop efficiency even under drought-stress conditions, such as releasing resistant varieties, following advanced agronomic practices, using elements, etc. Still, the most recent method is to use the silicon element to mitigate the drought stress conditions in wheat crops. Silicon had not been regarded as an essential plant element; However, when applied to plants, it still promotes proper root growth, provides resistance against many diseases, decreases the abiotic stress effect on plants &amp; increases the crop's growth and yield. So, in recent times, many research experiments have been performed in pots &amp; laboratories where silicon is applied to wheat crops in the form of priming, fertilization &amp; foliar spray in different stages of the crop to know its efficiency. Even silicon is also supplied to wheat crops in the form of nanoparticles. In the end, though, the silicon can be sprayed in any form and prevents the harm that drought stress does to wheat crops. Ultimately, Silicon is helping the wheat crop mitigate drought stress and produce better yields by enhancing its growth.</p> 2024-06-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4213 Harnessing Earth's Green Guardians: Exploring Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Practices 2024-06-06T13:01:00+00:00 Pratiksha Patil Shalini shalinisomanakatti@gmail.com Deepika J T Saniga N S Sanjeev Kumar Tejaswini R Ayesha Siddiqua Himanshu Sekhar Behera <p>The article for delves into the critical role of sustainable agriculture in mitigating climate change. It examines innovative farming techniques that enhance carbon sequestration, the process by which CO<sub>2 </sub>is captured and stored in the soil and biomass. By integrating practices such as cover cropping, agroforestry, and no-till farming, the research highlights how these methods can significantly reduce atmospheric carbon levels. The study underscores the dual benefits of these techniques, not only in improving soil health and crop yields but also in contributing to global efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions. Through a combination of field experiments and modelling, the findings provide compelling evidence for policymakers and farmers to adopt these green practices, positioning agriculture as a pivotal player in the fight against climate change.</p> 2024-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4216 Impact of Indoor Plants on Human Health: A Review 2024-06-10T06:56:21+00:00 Smriti Pathania smritipathania944@gmail.com Homraj Sahare Sarath Jayakumar Rasika Ashok Sarje Ritika Gupta B. Vidya Sree <p>One of the goals of a construction was to have a sustainable and healthy interior, something that engineers took seriously when creating and utilizing it. Physical approaches can be used to design arrangements, such as in the layout arrangements, lighting, and air reflections. Still, there has been a fierce pushback against the natural approach paradigm. This paper addresses the greening of interior spaces as a means of preserving and improving the quality of interior spaces. The sick-structure pattern, disinclinations, nasal and ocular vexations, and respiratory dysfunction, including unseasonable fatalities, have all been linked to poor IAQ. The use of phytoremediation is a novel method to lessen air adulterants and improve IAQ by absorbing, adsorbing, assimilating, or transferring them. Thus, the current review's goal is to investigate the role that inner sources play in perfecting inner air quality, including their sanctification capabilities. There’s adding substantiation that colorful factory species or their corridor can reliably reduce the attention of multitudinous air adulterants in the inner medium and promote mortal good. still, the inner air adulterant junking effectiveness depends on the species of the factory, and colorful factory characteristics like splint size, consistency, area, photosynthetic exertion, and light intensity. One of the cheapest and most reliable ways to create a healthier inner terrain is by using inner shops. If more focus is put on developing a biophilic environment and increasing the usage of inner stores, more public health can be maintained at a lower cost and with less load on the health care system. As of yet, no standards have been set for fashionable interior stores or how they affect vibrant elements like internal ventilation, moisture content, and temperature. Thus, further experimental exploration is demanded that simulates the interior terrain to cover the impacts of inner shops on factors like moisture, temperature, and ventilation., in perfecting the medium of unrestricted space.</p> 2024-06-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4219 Enhancing Crop Resilience to Climate Change through Biochar: A Review 2024-06-11T11:43:39+00:00 Bidisha Kundu kundubidisha2000@gmail.com Rajesh Kumar <p>Crop resilience is crucial in the face of climate change, as agricultural regions face unprecedented challenges such as rising global temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and increased extreme weather events. These changes impact food security, crop yields, and the livelihoods of millions of farmers worldwide. Crops face threats from heat stress, changing pest and disease dynamics, water scarcity, and unpredictable growing seasons. Crop resilience involves a complex interplay of genetics, environmental factors, and agricultural practices. Researchers and agricultural scientists are exploring innovative approaches like selective breeding, genetic modification, and precision agriculture to enhance crop resilience. Integrating traditional knowledge and indigenous farming practices into modern agricultural strategies is essential for securing food production, ensuring the sustainability of agricultural systems, conserving biodiversity, and supporting community resilience in an uncertain climate future. Crop resilience is central to ensuring global food security, supporting rural livelihoods, preserving ecosystems, and advancing sustainable agriculture in the face of climate change challenges. Biochar, a climate-resilient agricultural amendment, is gaining attention for its role in enhancing agricultural sustainability and mitigating climate change. Its porous structure and high carbon content sequester carbon dioxide, improve soil health, and reduce nutrient leaching. Biochar's porous nature fosters a rich microbial community, aids in nutrient cycling, and aids in rehabilitating degraded soils. It also reduces synthetic fertilizer requirements and environmental pollution. Climate change significantly impacts crop agriculture, disrupting traditional growth patterns and threatening global food security. High temperatures cause heat stress, while droughts and floods cause soil desiccation, impairing crop yields. Increased plant diseases and pests spread, while higher CO2 levels stimulate photosynthesis but reduce essential nutrients. Rising temperatures disrupt vegetative and reproductive growth phases, pollination, and seed formation, compromising crop quality and market value. Biochar is a porous material formed through pyrolysis, a process where organic biomass is decomposed under limited oxygen conditions. It is primarily carbon-rich but contains hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and minerals. As a soil amendment, biochar is a stable carbon sink with a high carbon content of 70-90%. Its porous structure allows it to efficiently adsorb and retain water, nutrients, and organic compounds. Its large surface area facilitates interactions with soil microbes and nutrient ions, and its high CEC helps in nutrient retention and soil fertility.</p> 2024-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4220 Understanding Pollen Behaviour under High Temperature for Climate Resilient Breeding 2024-06-11T12:44:53+00:00 Aisha Renju N.A aishiyas221109@gmail.com Roy Stephen <p>Global warming raise challenges for plant reproduction as pollen development and functioning are the most heat-sensitive processes. Hence, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms and processes underlying heat-related male sterility in order to maintain food security. Elevated temperatures elicit acclimation responses that permit pollen development under restricted heat stress conditions; physiological injury leading to pollen development and functioning failure occurs at higher temperature stress. Pollen and the surrounding anther tissues respond to increased temperature at the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome levels. To counteract the damaging effect of misfolded proteins under heat stress, HSPs (Heat Shock Proteins) accumulate in the cytoplasm and organelles to stabilize, resolubilize, and refold proteins. The pathways leading to the production of carbohydrates, amino acids, phenolic compounds, polyamines, hormones and lipids are interconnected and contribute to the metabolic homeostasis required for the growth and viability of the pollen. The pathways leading to the production of carbohydrates, amino acids, phenolic compounds, polyamines, hormones and lipids are interconnected and contribute to the metabolic homeostasis required for growth and viability of the pollen. Using molecular markers to access specific genomic regions associated with a specific trait along with QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) fine mapping can identify several candidate genes associated with thermo-tolerance.&nbsp; A deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms and metabolic processes involved in the stress response to high temperatures in flowers and particularly in the male reproductive organs will be a major step towards developing of effective breeding strategies for high and stable production in crop plants.</p> 2024-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4223 Optimizing Spacing and Nutrient Management for Enhanced Growth and Yield of Summer Green Gram (Vigna radiata L.): A Comprehensive Review 2024-06-13T12:46:41+00:00 Naveen Saini Sushant Sukumar Patil naveensaini72721@gmail.com Swapnil Mahesh Birunagi <p>Summer green gram (<em>Vigna radiata</em> L.), a vital legume in many agricultural systems, requires precise agronomic practices to maximize its growth and yield. This review examines the influence of optimized plant spacing and nutrient management on the performance of summer green gram. Proper spacing is crucial for minimizing competition for resources among plants, ensuring adequate sunlight, and promoting effective pest and disease control. Different plant densities and their impact on biomass production, pod formation, and seed quality are analysed. Nutrient management, particularly the balanced application of macro and micronutrients, plays a significant role in enhancing physiological and biochemical processes in the plant. The review highlights the importance of integrating organic and inorganic fertilizers to improve soil fertility, boost microbial activity, and increase nutrient uptake efficiency. Studies indicate that appropriate nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium levels, along with essential micronutrients like zinc and boron, are vital for optimal plant development and yield. The synergistic effects of spacing and nutrient strategies on green gram's growth parameters, including plant height, leaf area index, nodulation, and chlorophyll content, are explored. This comprehensive review synthesizes current research findings and offers practical recommendations for farmers and agronomists aiming to enhance green gram productivity sustainably. By adopting optimal spacing and tailored nutrient management practices, significant improvements in yield and resource use efficiency can be achieved, contributing to food security and agricultural sustainability. The review underscores the need for continued research to refine these agronomic practices under diverse environmental conditions to fully realize the potential of summer green gram cultivation.</p> 2024-06-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4224 Impact of Climate Change Disasters on the Education Sector of Coastal Bhola District, Bangladesh 2024-06-14T06:23:49+00:00 Md Zafar Alam Bhuiyan zafar.design@gmail.com Nasreen Sarker Mohammed Kamal Hossain Naznin Afrose Huq <p>Bhola is a coastal district in the southern part of Bangladesh which prone to natural disasters, mainly cyclones, and upsurges of saline water in the sea due to the impact of climate change through increasing temperature. Natural disasters are the key forces for river erosion, loss of assets, increasing poverty along some other socioeconomic impacts. The objectives of the study were to check the impact of climate change through natural disasters on the education sector of the district by creating various challenges and vulnerabilities in the education system, resource allocation, and maintenance resulting in students dropping out, child marriage, livelihood changes, etc. There is much research on climate change and its impacts on the coastal areas of Bangladesh but publications, and research works on the same topic were not found. Content Analysis has been adopted for this study to investigate the causes and effects of a tabulation method. Related books, articles publications in journals, and features on the topic in the reputed online media have been scrutinized for this study. The coding of the content analysis has been carefully checked and synchronized with the problem statement based on the research question of the study. The impact of climate change has a significant role in student dropout because of the destruction of infrastructures, migration of people, increasing poverty, child marriage, changes in the livelihoods of the people, etc. To address this problem massive and comprehensive intervention is necessary along with increasing capacity building and adaptation of the people.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.