International Journal of Environment and Climate Change https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC <p style="text-align: justify;">A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs and without harm to the environment and ecosystem function and service. Meeting this formidable challenge requires a substantial effort under climate change impact, economic development and population growth. <strong>International Journal of Environment and Climate Change (ISSN:&nbsp;2581-8627)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications. This is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. It has long been recognized that the long-term viability of natural capital is critical for many areas of human endeavour under climate change impact. The aims are to support engineering science research with the goal of promoting sustainable development with environmentally benign engineered systems that support human well-being and that are also compatible with sustaining natural (environmental) systems.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 2581-8627 Enhancing Farmer Income through Value Addition to Rice in Khammam District, India https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30224 <p>Rice is the staple food to half of world’s population providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide. Cereal grains are rich sources of phenolic compounds present in cell walls that help in combating many life style diseases occurring due to oxidative stress. Rice has been domesticated more than 10000 years ago but even today the farmers prefer selling freshly harvested paddy at a lower price. Few entrepreneurial farmers have come up with the idea of primary processing the paddy as semi polished and brown rice that can fetch them more profits along with providing health benefits. Each Kg of paddy, white, semi polished and brown rice cost Rs. 17 – 18.50, 46 – 48, 58 – 60 and 65 respectively. Similarly, one Kg of brokens get Rs. 15, bran Rs. 12 during season and Rs. 20 during off season.</p> <p>The rice without any processing fetched the farmer profit of about Rs. 24400 to 36000 on an average per acre. But if the farmer subjected the rice to primary processing and sold as white, semi polished or brown rice, the profits generated per acre were Rs. 57156 – 66480 Rs. Rs. 82996 – 102400and Rs. 105910 – 120400 can be generated.</p> <p>As can be seen the decrease in processing produced lower quantity of brokens and bran and income from them was comparatively lower than on processed rice indicating that there can be rise in income with minimal processing with added health benefits. There can an increase in profits by 4 to 5 times due to primary processing benefiting the paddy growers.</p> <p>The white, semi polished and brown rice can increase the income of farmer by 76.92, 127.79 and 161.58% per one bag of paddy weighing 75 Kg. There was a significant decrease in brokens and bran produced in semi polished and brown rice that actually fetch less prize than the actual produce. The growing awareness of consumers towards health foods, improved eating habits and health consciousness is expanding brown rice market at higher compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) compared to overall rice market.</p> W. Jessie Suneetha J. Hemanth Kumar P. Jagan Mohan Rao Y. G. Prasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-24 2020-07-24 1 7 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930224 GIS-Based Climate Change Induced Flood Risk Mapping in Uhunmwonde Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30225 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Flood is one of the climate change induced hazards occurring in most parts of the world. It exposes humanity and many socio-ecological systems to various levels of risks. In Nigeria, extreme rainfall events and poor drainage system have caused inundation of several settlements to flooding. To contain the disaster, risk mapping were among the measures recommended.</p> <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this paper is to highlight flood risk zones (FRZ) in Uhunmwonde Local Government Area (LGA), Edo State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Flood risk (FR) was mapped using hazards and vulnerability and implemented using geographic information system (GIS)-based multi-criteria analysis analytic hierarchy process (MCA-AHP) framework by incorporating seven environmental and two socio-economic factors. Elevation, flow accumulation, soil water index of wettest quarter, normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall of wettest quarter, runoff of wettest quarter and distance from rivers constituted the hazard component while population density and area of agricultural land use was the vulnerability layer. The climate change induced flood risk was validated using the responses of 150 residents in high, moderate and low flood risk zones.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The resulting flood risk map indicated that about 40.4% of Uhunmwonde LGA fell within high flood risk zone, 35.3% was categorized under moderate flood risk zone whereas low flood risk zone extended up to about 24.3% of the LGA. The high number of respondents who reported occurrence of flooding with frequency being very often and the fact that flooding was a very serious environmental threat during on-the-spot field assessment validated the generated climate change induced flood risk.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The utilitarian capabilities of GIS-based MCA-AHP framework in integrating remotely-sensed biophysical and climate change related flood inducing indicators with socio-economic vulnerabilities to arrive at composite flood risk was demonstrated.</p> Obot Akpan Ibanga Osaretin Friday Idehen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 8 23 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930225 Spatial Variability and Associated Risk Assessment of Nitrate and Ammonium Concentration in Hail Haor Wetland, Northeastern Bangladesh https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30227 <p>Nitrate-nitrogen and ammonium-nitrogen concentration were evaluated to assess the current nutrient condition of an ecologically as well as economically important wetland of Bangladesh. The contamination condition of surface water nitrate and ammonium of Hail Haor wetland was assessed to understand its probable risk to human health using the water samples collected from total-fifty monitoring stations, 25 each for two different seasons within 2018 to 2019. Nitrate concentration was measured using the spectrophotometer by colorimetric method, whereas ammonium was quantified using the micro Kjeldahl's distillation method. Statistical and geo-spatial analysis revealed an extensive understanding of the temporal and spatial variability as well as possible source identification of the nutrients in the studied area. Medium to a low level of nitrate ranging from 0.95 up to 9.25 mg/L and high ammonium with values from 0.32 up to 1.92 mg/L was a sporadic trend observed in wetland water, with low water season having more concentration than that of wet high water season. Hazard quotients (HQ) obtained from wetland water for four individual age groups recognized wetland water to be safe for consumption (HQ&lt;1) based on its nitrate level. Wetlands can provide valuable ecosystem services, conserve the native and exotic wetland inhabitants and mitigate flood along with their purifying properties of nutrient removal to lessen the public health concerns about nitrate-nitrogen in drinking water. Therefore, appropriate rein in measures, incentivizing water use efficiency, and continuous monitoring of water quality will ensure safety for wetland habitats, also may aware of the risks or opportunities associated with using wetland water for both drinking and agricultural use.</p> Humyra B. Murshed Arafat Rahman M. J. Uddin Muhaiminur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-27 2020-07-27 24 37 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930227 Effect of Lockdown amid COVID-19 Pandemic on Weather Parameters of Mid Hill Region of Jammu District of J&K, UT https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30229 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>A study was conducted in mid hill region of Jammu district, J&amp;K to analyze the impact lockdown amid covid-19 pandemic on weather parameters so as to define it as a tool to mitigate the pace of climate change.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Day and night temperature readings were recorded fortnightly during 22<sup>nd</sup> March to 10<sup>th</sup> June 2020 from maximum and minimum thermometer, relative humidity from dry and wet bulb thermometers in stevenson screen, rainfall values from ordinary rain gauge,&nbsp; evaporation readings from pan evaporimeter and soil temperature at different depth from soil thermometers.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>After analyzing the data statistically using “Descriptive statistics” in MS-Excel 2010, it was observed that after the implementation of lockdown and with the beginning of unlock down the change in day temperature was -8.07% from normal mean value, night temperature was -4.44% from normal mean value, rainfall pattern was 30.00% more from normal mean value, Relative Humidity (morning) pattern was 6.94% more from normal mean value, relative humidity (evening) pattern was 20.94% more from normal mean value, evaporation pattern was 7.66% more from normal mean value. The average change in soil temperature in morning at 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm depth was -3.46%, -3.84% and -7.23% as compared to year 2019 (22<sup>nd</sup> March to 10<sup>th</sup> June 2019) mean value and the change in soil temperature in evening at same depths was -7.69%, -6.31% and -4.14% from year 2019 (22<sup>nd</sup> March to 10<sup>th</sup> June 2019).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>With the variable significant pattern observed in almost all parameters, it can be concluded that lockdown might be an effective tool in mitigating pace of climate change in future.</p> Mahinder Singh Vishaw Vikas Charu Sharma Rohit Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 53 77 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930229 Organoleptic Properties of Ready to Reconstitute Little Millet Smoothie with Fruit Juices https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30230 <p>Millets being climate resilient crops with high nutritional value are far better than staple grains like wheat and rice. Being adaptable to wide range of agro ecological conditions, the nutricereals little millet can grow on low fertility dry lands meeting demands of exploding population and providing solution to agrarian and nutritional challenges the world is dealing with. Further, value addition could be a strategic intervention in popularization of underutilized small millets and transform the billions of people from nutrient insufficiency to nutrient adequacy. The present fast-paced era with increased nuclear families and changing eating habits due to rapid urbanisation and globalisation demands for development of ready to consume nutrient dense food. In addition, growing awareness regarding health benefits of millets demands for millet-based designer foods to meet diversified needs of consumers. In view of these aspects, a ready to reconstitute (RTR) little millet smoothie mix was developed and tested for its suitability to blend with fruit juices through sensory profiling. The nourishing little millet and fruit-based smoothies would be a healthy inclusion in one’s daily diet with a great market potential.</p> B. Neeharika W. Jessie Suneetha B. Anila Kumari M. Tejashree ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 78 82 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930230 Influence of Weather Parameters on Foliar Diseases of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in Coastal Ecosystem of West Bengal, India https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30231 <p>Sesame is one of the most important oilseed crops in India due to mainly its high quality seed oil and antioxidant properties. Occurrence of foliar diseases, like Alternaria leaf spot and Cercospora leaf spot has become a major constraint in recent years for successful and profitable cultivation of sesame. Field experiments were conducted with sesame var. savitri in a factorial randomized block design with three different dates of sowing with 15 days interval and two different plant protection situations (Protected <em>i.e.,</em> treated with disease control protocols and unprotected <em>i.e.,</em> control), replicated four times, during two consecutive summer seasons of 2018 and 2019 at Agricultural Experimental Farm, Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta, Baruipur, South 24 Parganas. The diseases incidence was estimated and correlated with the weather parameters. The average of weather parameters <em>viz</em>.<em>,</em> maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity (morning), relative humidity (evening) and rainfall prior to seven days of disease appearance were considered for study the correlation between the weather factors and the disease. In 2018, disease incidences of the plants shown at third date of sowing (26<sup>th</sup> April, 2018) in both the protected and unprotected plots had significant (<em>P</em>=.05) but negative correlation with maximum temperature. For plants sown at first date of sowing (27<sup>th</sup> March, 2018) in 2018 had disease incidences significantly (<em>P</em>=.05) and positively correlated with minimum temperature. However, in 2019, except for the relation between disease incidences in the unprotected plots and maximum temperature, all other disease-temperature correlations were non-significant. Disease incidences were positively and significantly correlated with relative humidity (both morning and evening) in all dates of sowing irrespective of experimental years, except with morning relative humidity at first date of sowing in first year. Total rainfall was positively and significantly correlated with disease incidences at all dates of sowing in 2018; however, such relation was non-significant in 2019.&nbsp;</p> Nayan Kishor Adhikary Krishnendu Roy Kajal Kumar Biswas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 83 88 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930231 Amount of Waste used for Different Purposes: A Socio-ecological Impact https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30232 <p>Waste is a ceaselessly developing issue at worldwide and territorial just as at neighborhood levels. Due to vigorous globalization and product proliferation in recent years, more waste has been produced by the soaring manufacturing activities. The social ecology of waste recycling implies the structural, functional and managerial intervention of waste generation process. The specific objective of the research was to isolate and identify the system variables characterizing and the management of waste recycling process and to estimate intra and inter level of interaction amongst and between the variables for respective, inductive and interactive contribution. The present study takes a look into the approach, process and impact of ongoing waste management process, followed by the both kalyani and jalpaiguri municipalities. A set of agro-ecological, socio-economic and techno managerial factors have been developed by selecting&nbsp; two sets of operating variables: Independent Variables: Age(x<sub>1</sub>), Education(x<sub>2</sub>), Family member(x<sub>3</sub>), Total cost of energy(x<sub>4</sub>), Household land(x<sub>5</sub>), Income(x<sub>6</sub>),&nbsp; Expenditure of family(x<sub>7</sub>), Volume of waste generation per household(x<sub>8</sub>), Water consumption per day(x<sub>9</sub>), Total bio diversity(x<sub>10</sub>), Impact of waste management on health(x<sub>11</sub>), Impact of waste management on agriculture(x<sub>12</sub>), Impact of waste management on livestock(x<sub>13</sub>), Impact of waste management on water(x<sub>14</sub>),&nbsp; Impact of waste management on soil(x<sub>15</sub>), Impact of waste management on micro flora and fauna(x<sub>16</sub>), Exposure to media(x<sub>17</sub>),Training received(x<sub>18</sub>), Participation on waste recycling programmer (x<sub>19</sub>), Perception on environmental impact of waste management(x<sub>20</sub>), Waste management at household level with value addition by percentage (x<sub>21a</sub>), Waste management at household level with value addition by percentage (x<sub>21b</sub>). Dependent variables: Volume of waste used for different purposes (y<sub>1</sub>). The following independent variables have come out with stark contribution on this consequent variable. Result suggested that in terms of variable, behavior and responses there have been stark differences between jalapaiguri and kalyani municipal areas. In kalyani, some few variables like perception of environmental impact on waste management, waste management at household level with value addition by percentage, impact of waste management on agriculture have recorded the distinct contribution on volume of waste used for different purposes and in jalpaiguri total household land, volume of waste generation from household, water consumption per day have gone in the determinant way. So, in kalyani and jalpaiguri municipal areas these variables have maximum influence on the dependent variable. Household wastes mostly are bio degradable in nature. It can be converted to organic manure which has a great nutritional value for plants and if these bio wastes can be converted into organic manure then amount of waste will be reduced. Not only bio waste but we can use non bio degradable wastes for energy production also.</p> Arindam Ghosh Dibyendu Pal Amitava Biswas S. K. Acharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-10 2020-08-10 89 99 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930232 Effect of Salinity Stress on Antioxidative Enzyme Activity in the Leaves of Tolerant and Susceptible Genotypes of Groundnut https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30233 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To better understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms in the light of antioxidative enzymes activity under salinity stress between tolerant and susceptible genotypes of groundnut.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Completely Randomized Design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The laboratory experiment was carried out in the departmental laboratory of Plant Physiology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Mohanpur, Nadia, and West Bengal during the year 2017-18.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A controlled study was conducted to screen 26 genotypes of groundnut under 200 mM NaCl salinity stress. Fourteen-day old seedlings were subjected to salinity treatment. For this, the modified Hoagland nutrient solution containing 200 mM NaCl (osmotic potential: -0.8 MPa) was applied in each case and the pH was adjusted to 6.3. The treatments were repeated on every third day. Control set without salinity stress was also maintained similarly in each case for comparison of results.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The salt tolerance index or STI of the genotypes ranged from 47.57% to 96.40%. Out of all the genotypes KDG-197 (STI= 96.40%) was found to be the most tolerant under a salinity stress of 200 mM NaCl and it was closely followed by R 2001-2 (STI=87.92%), VG 315 (STI=84.05%), TCGS 1157 (STI=77.59%) and TG 51 (STI=73.67%). While the genotypes Girnar 3 (STI= 47.57%), OG 52-1 (STI=49.09%), TVG 0856 (STI= 49.28%) and J 86 (STI= 50.66%) were the most susceptible genotypes based on their relative performance under stress in respect of total dry weight. It has been noted further that, out of the nine genotypes, enhancement of antioxidative enzyme like super oxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) and catalase (CAT) activity was recorded maximally in tolerant genotype KDG 197 (64.18%, 71.74% and 52.82% increase over control respectively) and R 2001-2 (53.68 %, 93.48% and 53.96 % increase over control respectively) but the activity of these enzyme in the four susceptible genotypes declined considerably under salinity treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Tolerant genotypes of groundnut in general registered much higher activities of antioxidative enzymes in their leaves as compared to the susceptible genotype under high salinity stress.</p> Apurba Pal Debjani Dutta Anjan Kumar Pal Sunil Kumar Gunri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-12 2020-08-12 100 111 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930233 Zero Budget Natural Farming in India: Aiming Back to the Basics https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30228 <p>Crisis of Indian agriculture is very pertinent at this moment as green revolution is gradually losing its hope. Excessive, pointless exploitation of broods of green revolution has left bad footprints on country’s food security and environmental safety. With the motto to ensure food security by reviving Indian agriculture in environmentally safe way as well as to release farmers from debt cycle and suicides, zero budget natural farming (ZBNF) has come in the picture, which discards uses of all the chemical farming inputs and relies on natural way of farming i.e. rejuvenating soil and crop health through its own practices (<em>Jivamrita, Bijamrita, </em>mulching, soil aeration, intercropping, crop diversification, bunds, bio-pesticides etc.). ZBNF movement right now is the most popular agrarian movement which begun in 2002 in Karnataka and later successfully spread in many states (specially, of South India) of the nation through numbers of trainings, demonstrations and various promotional activities. Successful outcomes from farmers’ fields of south Indian states like Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka etc. are encouraging and grabbing attention of farmers, public and private organisations towards ZBNF in recent times. Yet, various controversies regarding its transparency,&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; inadequate information, efficacy, practices, idealisms, even the term ‘zero budget’ etc. have agglutinated around ZBNF over the years since it debuted. Critics in fact have cited several references of drastic yield reductions with ZBNF practices in many places. Adequate scientific evaluation or monitoring of ZBNF’s successes or failures through multi-locational trials is now therefore the needful before allowing or restraining its run in Indian agriculture.</p> Saikat Biswas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 38 52 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930228