International Journal of Environment and Climate Change <p style="text-align: justify;">A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs and without harm to the environment and ecosystem function and service. Meeting this formidable challenge requires a substantial effort under climate change impact, economic development and population growth. <strong>International Journal of Environment and Climate Change (ISSN:&nbsp;2581-8627)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications. This is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. It has long been recognized that the long-term viability of natural capital is critical for many areas of human endeavour under climate change impact. The aims are to support engineering science research with the goal of promoting sustainable development with environmentally benign engineered systems that support human well-being and that are also compatible with sustaining natural (environmental) systems.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 2581-8627 Thermal Indices of Fodder Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cultivars in Bundelkhand Region of Central India <p>The present study was conducted to identify the impact of temperature indices on different phenophases and yield of cowpea varieties growing in Jhansi region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The cowpea (<em>Vigna unguiculata</em> L.) is a warm season legume crop grown in arid and semi-arid regions of India. Traditionally, it is very important as a staple food and source of fodder for the African continent, India and other semi-arid regions. A field experiment was conducted during rainyseasons (July to October) of 2010 and 2011 to determine the thermal indices for fodder cowpea varieties at Central Research Farm, ICAR-IGFRI, Jhansi. All the data were subjected to ANOVA using PROC GLM procedure in SAS (v 9.3). In ANOVA, varieties, date of sowing and year effect is considered as fixed factors and replication as random factor. Crop sown on 12<sup>th </sup>July took higher accumulated growing degree days (GDD) during 50% flowering (1111°C days) and maturity (2074°C days) as compared to crop sown during 4<sup>th</sup> August. Green fodder yield of Kohinoor recorded highest heat use efficiency (HUE) (32.4 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>°C day<sup>-1</sup>) over BL-2 and EC-4216 at the time of 50% flowering while it is at par with BL-1. From the results, it is found that early sownfodder cowpea recorded maximum duration, heat unit and heat use efficiency at maturity. The Variety Kohinoor recorded the highest grain yield, lowest calendar days and highest HUE as compared to all other varieties.</p> Suchit K. Rai . Reetu G. Prabhu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 19 23 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130263 A Study on Mass Media Channels in Promulgating Farm Technologies among Banana Growers in Trichy District of Tamil Nadu <p>Farming decisions are crucial to farm productivity ie., providing technical agro information to the farmers at the right time in a right way that leads to assured good yield and sustainable economic returns. In the digital era, there is a clear cut digital gap between knowledge centres and individual farmers. Though knowledge centres develop many novel technologies to disseminate farm information to farmers, the individual farmer face difficulties in accessing those information. Thus bridging the information gap is crucial for extension services to occupy a strategic position in the transfer of technology (ToT) in the agricultural sector. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools such as Electronic media (Radio, television) print media (newspapers, magazines, posters and notices etc.,) and new media (Computer, Internet, Website, Smartphone, Social media) play a pivotal role in bridging the gap between the source (Knowledge centres) and target audience (Farmers). In the information explosion era, digital interventions could revitalize the ToT practices. The present study assesses the satisfaction level of mass media communication in the dissemination of cultivation technology among banana farmers in Tiruchirapalli district of Tamil Nadu.</p> P. Ravichamy K. C. Siva Balan S. Nandakumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-23 2020-10-23 1 7 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130260 Gender Influence on Access to and Control of Resources for Coping to Climate Variability. A Case of Mbita Fisher Community, Homa Bay County, Kenya <p>Global warming effects have far reaching impacts of livelihoods of many rural communities including fishers. It is in record that fishing accounts for world’s 36 million fishers nearly 1.5 billion consumers who rely on fish for their dietary animal protein. Past studies have concentrated on fisher communities and climate variability in marine waters and oceans; mainly investigating the impact of climate variability on fish distribution and production. Limited focus has addressed the interaction between impacts of climate change on the fishing activities on inland and fresh waters such as in Lake Victoria and the fishers coping and adapting with changes and variability of climate. The discussions in this article focused on Lake Victoria shore location of Mbita where the livelihood of local community is largely fishing. The objectives were to: Determine the influence of gender on access and control of fisher resources for climate adaptation in Mbita sub-county; Document the current coping strategies and constraints to Climate variability/change in Mbita sub-county. The study used a constructivist epistemology and the mixed methods research design to help it achieve its findings. Yamane’s formula (1964) is used to get the sample size of 388 respondents out of a population of 13191. Primary data was collected through use of&nbsp; questionnaires, interview schedules for KII and FGDs. Secondary data collection was collected through document reviews of relevant past studies reports and working papers on&nbsp; (temperature/rainfall data) of Mbita for the last 30 years data to get the trend of these elements and to determine climate variability and change. The instruments were validated using experts’ content validity with the supervisors. Piloting was used to ascertain reliability of the instruments Analysis was accomplished using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences. Presentation was done in descriptive and inferential statistics. The study found that there was gender discrimination in access and control of resources which support adaptive activities that makes women more vulnerable to Climate Variability/Change hazards and disasters. The study further found that adaptation&nbsp; requires access and control of factors of production which were traditionally under the control of male fishers making women more vulnerable and susceptible to surviving through <em>chamas</em> and table banking activities. Statistically access to and control was significant to adaptation at p-value of 0.000. Under coping strategies the study found that adaptation required transformation of mind set that called for bigger investment which required the collaboration and consultation of entire Mbita community and county government to address environmental and conservative resource utility. The study concluded that lack of alternative livelihood opportunities/options is the major constraints to adaptation for people living in the Lake Victoria region escalated with limitation of skills outside fishing industry, limitation of other employable professional skills including lack of capital. The study recommends a transdiciplinary concientization of adaptive strategies which can translate into flexible and sustainable climate change adaptation and gender inclusive livelihood activities. Future research should explore participatory action research on environmental influences affecting CCA by comparing findings across other beaches and livelihoods to see if gendered resources have any role in their adaptation.</p> Robert David Lubalo Onyango Christopher Oludhe Doris Amwata ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-26 2020-10-26 8 18 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130262 Investigation of Climate Variability Over High Rainfall Zone of Tamil Nadu, India <p>Rainfall is one of the most important climatic variables that determine the spatial and temporal patterns of climate variability of a region, which also provides useful information for the planning of water resources, agricultural production, and others. Climate change is one of the most significant worldwide issues talked among scientists and researchers, and one of the consequences of climate change is the alteration of rainfall patterns. 'India's population and the economy is linked to climate-sensitive activities, including rainfed agriculture and excess climate anomalies, deficient and flooded rainfall years have a dramatic impact on the economy as well as on the living conditions of the inhabitants of the affected region. An understanding of current and historical trends and variation is inevitable to her future development, especially in agricultural and hydrological sectors. In the present study, historical weather data for 33 years (1981-2013) was analyzed for rainfed cropping season (September - December) to understand the climatic variability in the Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu. The maximum daily air temperature increased on average by 0.02°C per year, whereas minimum daily air temperature remained constant during the rainfed cropping season. The high rainfall zone receives an annual and rainfed cropping average rainfall of 1307and 672 mm, respectively. Analysis of rainfall during rainfed cropping period over 33 years showed ten years had standard RF, nine years had deficit rainfall, six years had below standard RF, one year had above standard RF and seven years had excess RF. Analysis indicates that the deficit condition prevailed in every alternate year in recent decades. The onset of rainfed cropping season varied over the years (1981-2013), 13 years had onset in the slot from 1<sup>st</sup> to 5<sup>th&nbsp; </sup>September, and in others, years onset occurred between 6 and 30<sup>th </sup>September. Cessation also had a variation over 33 years and 16 years had cessation from 26 to 31<sup>st</sup> December while remaining years had cessation in the period of 1-25<sup>th </sup>December. LGP ranged from 57 to 143 days, with an average LGP of 106 days.&nbsp; Dry spell varied from 3 to 12 days with the mean of 6 days, and wet spell varied from 2 to 8 days with an average of 5 days.</p> V. Guhan V. Geethalakshmi K. Bhuvaneswari M. Rajavel Dhanya Praveen G. R. Mugilan S. Pavithra K. Senthilraja ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 24 33 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130264 Community, Dominant Tree Species Leaf Phenology and Seasonality in a Tropical Dry Forest, India <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Plant phenology is a tool to assess climate variability, but less is known about the differences in phenological sensitivity at community, life-form and individual species level. The aim of the present study is to know the contribution of individual, life-form leaf phenophases within the community.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The leaf phenology of tropical dry forest trees in Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Karnataka, India was observed during June 2004 to May 2009. A total of 277 trees belonging to 45 species were monitored on monthly basis for different phenophases of leaf phenology. Simple Spearman’s correlations and multiple regressions were performed between different phenophases and environmental factors like rainfall and temperature. Seasonality was determined with circular statistics analyses using the phenological variables and dates of observation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The influence of temperature was stressed with multiple regressions. Seasonality of each of the phenophases was also tested with circular statistics. There is a strong seasonality observed in all phenophases, the strength of seasonality was highest with leafless phenophases. Leafing phenophases among some dominant species within the community was described for seasonality and differences among them were also analyzed. Understorey species had longer leaf life span compared to canopy species. At the community level different phenophases are distinctly seasonal, though the strength of seasonality varied considerably with flushing and expansion of leaves, the strength of the seasonality was high with leaf senescence for all species.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this research are in agreement with previous study but the present study suggests that community, population and individual sensitivity might vary under the present context of increasing climatic variability and their adaptation helps to understand the climatic influence in shaping phenology at individual, species and community level.</p> Appaji Nanda Hebbalalu S. Suresh Yelugere L. Krishna Murthy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 34 49 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130265 Flood Vulnerability Assessment of Settlements in the Niger-benue Trough, Central Nigeria <p>Flooding has become a household phenomenon, particularly for communities in close proximity or situated in floodplain areas, although only on extreme cases that serious alarms are given. The brunt of this study assessed the flood vulnerability levels of settlements located in the Niger-Benue Trough of Central Nigeria by considering their livelihood assets. Data were sourced via a random administration of questionnaire in 36 communities in the study area earmarked; water level and discharge data obtained; communities were mapped; and remotely sensed data (Spot 5 and the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data were retrieved and analyzed using ArcGIS 10.5 and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 25) software. The simulated worst-case scenario of flooding revealed 22 settlements were inundated in the 2019 flood between July – September, covering larger areas before the confluence with more than 50% of the area under the high and moderately high-risk zones. Natural and physical livelihood assets were vulnerable and seriously damaged with indices greater than 3.0, while human, financial and social assets were all below 3.0. Generally, vulnerability index computed for all communities was 2.82, indicating moderate vulnerability of the communities to the flood event of 2019. Also, the Pearson correlation test revealed a strong, positive relationship (r = .769, α = .036) between the level of communities’ flood vulnerability and the livelihood assets in the study. It was therefore recommended that yearly flood events are worth simulating to aid prioritization of decisions and development of a comprehensive flood management plan for the area.</p> O. O. Ifatimehin P. S. U. Eneche N. A. Ismail ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 50 67 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130266