International Journal of Environment and Climate Change https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC <p style="text-align: justify;">A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs and without harm to the environment and ecosystem function and service. Meeting this formidable challenge requires a substantial effort under climate change impact, economic development and population growth. <strong>International Journal of Environment and Climate Change (ISSN:&nbsp;2581-8627)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications. This is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. It has long been recognized that the long-term viability of natural capital is critical for many areas of human endeavour under climate change impact. The aims are to support engineering science research with the goal of promoting sustainable development with environmentally benign engineered systems that support human well-being and that are also compatible with sustaining natural (environmental) systems.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 2581-8627 Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth, Yield Attributes and Economics of Spiny Brinjal (Solanum melongina L.) Var VRM (Br)-1 https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30486 <p><strong>Background: </strong>An experiment on “Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth, Yield Attributes and Economics of Spiny Brinjal (<em>Solanum melongina </em>L.) var. VRM (Br)-1” were conducted at Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College farm, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Eleven treatments of integrated nutrient management <em>viz.</em>, T<sub>1</sub>-RDF of N:P:K (100:50:30 kg/ha.), T<sub>2</sub>– FYM (25 t/ ha.), T<sub>3</sub>- Humic acid (20 kg/ha.), T<sub>4</sub>- RDF of N:P:K (100:50:30 kg/ha.) +FYM @25 t/ ha, T<sub>5</sub>- Humic acid (20 kg/ha.) + RDF of N:P:K (100:50:30 kg/ha.), T<sub>6</sub>- <em>Azospirillum </em>(2 kg/ha.), T<sub>7</sub>- Phosphobacteria (2 kg/ha.), T<sub>8</sub>- <em>Azospirillum </em>(2 kg/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (2 kg/ha.), T<sub>9</sub> – 75% RDF of N (75 kg/ha.) + 100% RDF of P&amp;K (50:30 kg/ha.) + <em>Azospirillum </em>(2 kg/ha.), T<sub>10</sub> - 75% RDF of P (37.5 kg/ha.) + 100% RDF of N&amp;K (100:30 kg/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (2 kg/ha.) and T<sub>11 </sub>- 75% RDF of N &amp; P (75:37.5 kg/ha.) + 100% RDF of K (30 kg/ha.) + <em>Azospirillum </em>(2 kg/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (kg/ha.) replicated thrice in Randomised block design.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The various treatments of integrated nutrient managementin spiny brinjalclearly showed that growth and yield attributes were high in T<sub>11.</sub>The economic assessment of different treatments revealed that maximum net profit Rs.2,16,570/ha.with benefit cost ratio (2.60) was also recorded in treatment T<sub>11</sub> 75% RDF of N &amp; P (75:37.5 kg/ha.) + 100% RDF of K (30 kg/ha.) + <em>Azospirillum</em>(2 kg/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (kg/ha.).</p> S. Nantha Kumar Mhaddalkar Tejas Vijay Vidhya K. Rathika ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 1 6 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030486 Evaluation of Yield Performance of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Varieties with Varied Dates of Planting under North Central Plateau Zone (NCPZ) of Odisha https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30487 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To identify the proper variety and suitable date of planting of potato for North Central Plateau Zone (NCPZ) of Odisha.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The experiment was laid in a Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with three replications.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The field experiment was carried out at Field Experimental Block, Regional research and Technology Transfer Station (RRTTS), Keonjhar, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Odisha. The investigation was conducted during <em>rabi</em>-2015-16 and <em>rabi</em>-2016-17.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>There were four high yielding potato genotypes used as sub-factor for the study such as V1: Kufri Jyoti, V2: Kufri Surya, V3: Kufri Ashoka and V4: Kufri Pukhraj. The materials were planted in three different dates (D1: 15<sup>th</sup> November, D2: 25<sup>th</sup> November and D3: 5<sup>th</sup> December) as main-factor to identify the superior variety with suitable dates of planting.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results of pooled analysis of variance (ANOVA) shown that the genotypes had significant differences for the dates of planting on yield. Higher tuber yield was recorded in the variety Kufri Pukhraj in both <em>rabi</em>-2015-16 (28.37 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and <em>rabi</em>-2016-17 (35.53 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) along with higher mean yield (31.95 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). All the varieties have higher yield when planted on D1 (15<sup>th</sup> November) as compared to the other two date of planting.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The varietal and environmental variations as well as their interaction had a considerable influence on yield and its attributes. In this investigation, Kufri Pukhraj was identified as higher yielder and 15<sup>th</sup> November was found best suitable planting date for north central plateau zone of Odisha, as this date given higher yield as compared to the other two dated of plating. Therefore, if a specific window of date of planting can be ascertained to the farmers of this region then it would help to cultivate potato exactly when the climatic conditions are favorable for its growth and ultimately to get a high crop yield.</p> N. Mishra K. C. Sahoo M. Ray P. K. Majhi S. Das S. Tudu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-19 2021-10-19 7 18 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030487 Design and Development of Environmental Friendly Sub-Baric Storage Bin https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30488 <p>Developments in vacuum storage technology present an opportunity to achieve significant improvements on protection, preservation and storage of agricultural commodities for residential and commercial use. Sub-baric storage is a environmental friendly, non-residue organic technology which provides chemical-free and insect contamination-free products. Due to creation of vacuum, there is a change in the environment inside the storage structure. This study therefore contributes an important knowledge and method in the development, fabrication and application of a sub baric storage bin (SBSB) as a best alternative to the commonly used traditional and modern storage structure. In its embodiment, the work focuses on the design and fabrication of the sub-baric storage bin to provide efficient storage of food grains by preventing the use of pesticides and insecticides and to reduce material loss during storage, a sub-baric storage bin of 500 kg capacity was designed and developed. The developed storage bin consists of storage chamber (500 kg), Vacuum pump, suction blower, grain inlet with pipe for loading, grain outlet for unloading, vacuum gauge, thermocouple, control panel, agitator, air filter, two inlet valves for gas infusion, vacuum release valve and SS mobile skid. The designed sub-baric storage bin is cylindrical in geometry with conical shape at bottom side and flat circular plate on top side and the storage bin has capacity of 500 kg to store food grains with hopper angle of 60°. The storage bin was designed in such a way that, it has provision for both bulk and bag storage and to work from 0-650 mm Hg vacuum. The developed SBSB was subjected to hydraulic pressure test and vacuum drop test to ensure a safe operation. It was observed that there was no implosion (compression) or explosion confirming to the fact that the design was adequate and also safe to operate. Also, there were no signs of bulging, buckling or any deformations observed in any of the components or the pipe lines, connections, fixtures or fasteners. Hence, it was concluded that the designed equipment could be operated safely at 650 mm Hg vacuum pressure satisfying all the applicable safety assurances and standards relevant to the industry.</p> C. T. Ramachandra H. G. Ashoka G. Mahesh Kumar B. Shivanna Babu R. M. Ray P. Sivamma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-21 2021-10-21 19 28 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030488 Effect of Irrigation and Herbicides on Most Tenacious Weed Cyperus rotundus in Wheat https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30489 <p>To manage the <em>Cyperus rotundus</em> (Purple nut sedge.) is a troublesome, economically damaging weed, widely naturalized in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A field experiment was done at Students Instructional Farm of Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture &amp; Technology, Kanpur (U.P).The study was conducted to investigate the competitive effects of&nbsp;<em>C. rotundus </em>in wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em>&nbsp;L.) under varying irrigation regimes and herbicides in field conditions at&nbsp;Kanpur during <em>Rabi</em> 2017-18 and 2018-19 in a split plot design.&nbsp; The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with four irrigation schedule <em>viz</em>. irrigation at CRI and active tillering stage (I<sub>1</sub>), irrigation at CRI + jointing + booting (I<sub>2</sub>), CRI + active tillering + booting + flowering stage (I<sub>3</sub>) and&nbsp; irrigation at CRI + jointing + booting + flowering + milking stage (I<sub>4</sub>) were assigned to main plots and weed management practices <em>viz</em>. W<sub>1</sub>-weedy check, W<sub>2</sub>-two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS, W<sub>3</sub>-sulfosulfuron @25 g/ha , W<sub>4</sub>- pendimethalin (pre emergence) <em>fb</em>WCPL-15(clodinafop- propargyl 15 %) @400 g/ha , W<sub>5</sub>- carfentrazone ethyl 20% + sulfosulfuron 25%WG @ 100 g/ha , W<sub>6</sub>- halauxafen + penxasulam 23.5% @ 75 g/ha , W<sub>7</sub>- halauxafen - methyl 1.21% w/w + fluroxypyr @&nbsp; and W<sub>8</sub>- clodinafop- propargyl 15% + metsulfuron 1% @ 400 g/ha&nbsp; were allocated to sub plots. Application of two irrigations at CRI and active tillering stage (I<sub>1</sub>) significantly reduced the density of <em>C. rotundus </em>and their fresh and dry weight with highest weed control efficiency (WCE) over irrigation at CRI+ jointing+ booting+ flowering+ milking stage (I<sub>4</sub>), irrigation at CRI + active tillering + booting + flowering stage (I<sub>3</sub>) and irrigation at CRI + jointing + booting (I<sub>2</sub>). However, maximum yield was recorded with the application of five irrigation at CRI+ jointing+ booting+ flowering+ milking stage (I<sub>4</sub>). Among herbicidal treatments, lowest density, fresh and dry weight of <em>C. rotundus </em>with&nbsp; the highest WCE resulted in higher&nbsp; yield of wheat was recorded with the application of carfentrazone ethyl 20% + sulfosulfuron 25%WG as post emergence (35 DAS) at 100 g/ha as compared to other treatments. However, none of the herbicidal treatments as effective as hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS.</p> Kairovin Lakra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-22 2021-10-22 29 37 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030489 Influence of Light Parameters on Photosynthetic Rate of Sorghum Based Intercropping System https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30490 <p>Selecting the appropriate row proportion in the intercropping system is required for the effective harnessing of solar radiation. In Semi-arid areas, Sorghum based intercropping is commonly adopted by the farmers for effective utilization of the available resources. The treatments consisted of T<sub>1</sub>-Sorghum Sole crop (SS), T<sub>2</sub>-2rows of Sorghum+2rows of Cowpea (2S:2C), T<sub>3</sub>-2rows of Sorghum+1row of Cowpea (2S:1C), T<sub>4</sub>-2rows of Sorghum+2rows of Greengram (2S:2G), T<sub>5</sub>-2rows of Sorghum+1rows of Greengram (2S:1G), T<sub>6</sub>-2rows of Sorghum+2rows of Lablab (2S:2L), T<sub>7</sub>-2rows of Sorghum+1rows of Lablab (2S:1L). The results of the study showed that sorghum under 2:1 pattern had enhanced LAI, Radiation absorption efficiency which resulted in a high photosynthetic rate. The intercrops under 2:2 pattern were suffered from shading of sorghum than 2:1 pattern which affected the photosynthetic rate of intercrops under 2:2 pattern. Hence, planting sorghum under 2:1 pattern with Lablab will be the ideal row ratio to harness maximum sunlight.</p> S. Divya Dharshini SP. Ramanathan S. Kokilavani M. Djanaguiraman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-22 2021-10-22 38 44 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030490 Impact of Phenophase Wise Climatic Parameters on Growth and Fruit Yield of Autumn Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30491 <p>A field experiment was conducted during <em>kharif</em> season 2019to study and identify the impact of weather on growth and fruit yield of tomato under open field Crop was planted on eight different dates viz., 02 Jul, 12 Jul, 22 Jul, 02 Aug, 11 Aug, 23 Aug, 03 Sep and 13 Sep as main plots and two cultivars viz., US 440 and TO-3251 (Saaho) as sub-plots in split plot design and replicated thrice. Result revealed that, significantly more yield attributes and fruit yield of tomato was recorded with maximum temperature range of 30.7 to 32.8<sup>o</sup>C during vegetative phase, morning Relative humidity (RH) of 88 to 92% during fruit development phase, Vapour Pressure Defficient (VPD) of 0.6 to 0.7 kPa and 0.4 to 0.6kPa during fruit development and harvest phase. Further correlation studies revealed that the most critical weather parameter from fruit initiation to first picking stage was morning RH as this was negatively correlated with drymatter production at fruit development (-0.93**), harvest (-0.95**) and total fruit yield (-0.91**) of tomato, which accounted for 86%, 89% and 83% variation in drymatter production during fruit development, harvest phase and total fruit yield respectively.</p> L. Shravika G. Sreenivas A. Madhavi A. Manohar Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-22 2021-10-22 45 51 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030491 Influence of Rain Water Recharging on the Chemical Properties of Groundwater https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30492 <p>The study was conducted to analyze the impact of different seasons and sources of rainwater (rooftop runoff and runoff plots) used in recharging borewells on chemical properties of groundwater. There were nine borewells considered for the study, among them five borewells are recharged through rooftop runoff water, two borewells are recharged through water from runoff plots and the two borewells have no treatments. After each runoff event, water samples from each borewell were collected for five days and analyzed for various chemical parameters. The electrical conductivity, pH and concentration of bicarbonate ions were <em>analyzed</em>. The result revealed that the recharge that took place during the <em>Kharif</em> season had an impact through reduced salt concentration and it also had an influence during the Rabi season. The electrical conductivity and concentration of bicarbonates in water samples from borewells was low in Kharif than rabi. The values of these chemical properties indicated that recharging of borewells is having the beneficial effect on the groundwater properties.</p> N. Soundarya H. G. Ashoka K. Devaraja K. S. Rajashekarappa M. N. Thimmegowda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-23 2021-10-23 59 66 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030492 Delineation of Efficient Paddy Cropping Zones in Andhra Pradesh https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30493 <p>The research delineated efficient paddy crop zones in Andhra Pradesh. The area, yield and production of paddy were gathered from the Andhra Pradesh Department of Economics and Statistics to compute the Relative Spread Index (RSI) and Relative Yield Index (RYI). The definition of an efficient cultivation zone for paddy shows that in all nine districts of Andhra Pradesh there are numerous possibilities to increase overall paddy production. The primary source of irrigation is groundwater, comprising tubes and wells that cover 49 percent of net irrigation. The grade is of four types: Most Efficient Cropping Zone (MECZ) and Area Efficient Cropping Zone (AECZ) and Yield Efficient Cropping Zone(YECZ) and Not Efficient Cropping Zone (NECZ). It was noted that the West Godavari, East Godavari, Krishna, Guntur and Nellore are five districts inside Paddy's Most efficient cropping zone. Srikakulam and Vizianagaram are two districts within the Area efficient cropping zone. The Kurnool and Prakasam are two districts in which Yields efficient cropping zone. Visakhapatnam, Chittoor, Kadapa and Anantapur are four districts belong to the Not-efficient cropping zone. It is concluded that there was a lot of possibilities of increasing the overall production of paddy in all nine districts of Andhra Pradesh by delineating the efficient cropping zone for paddy. In the case of AECZ there is a need for popularisation of high-yielding cultivars, for better management technologies like the Rice Intensification System (RIS) and for integrated nutrient handling to increase yield levels and convert this zone into MECZ. In the case of YECZ, these sites offer promise for rice growing, although a decrease in water availability may be attributed to the less extensive area.</p> Katha Reddy Baswanth Kumar M. Anji Reddy Ramasamy Gowtham Vellingiri Geethalakshmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-23 2021-10-23 52 58 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030493