International Journal of Environment and Climate Change https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC <p style="text-align: justify;">A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs and without harm to the environment and ecosystem function and service. Meeting this formidable challenge requires a substantial effort under climate change impact, economic development and population growth. <strong>International Journal of Environment and Climate Change (ISSN: 2581-8627)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal. It has long been recognized that the long-term viability of natural capital is critical for many areas of human endeavour under climate change impact. The aims are to support engineering science research with the goal of promoting sustainable development with environmentally benign engineered systems that support human well-being and that are also compatible with sustaining natural (environmental) systems.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>NAAS Score: 5.16 (2024)</strong></p> en-US contact@journalijecc.com (International Journal of Environment and Climate Change) contact@journalijecc.com (International Journal of Environment and Climate Change) Wed, 08 May 2024 13:07:57 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Assessment of Plant Diversity and Soil Quality Management in Forest Land of West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4168 <p>The field experiment was set in home-garden areas under forest land of eight small towns viz. Borampalem, Venkatapuram, Gundugolanukunta, Ramannapalem, Abdullapuram, Tirumaladevpeta, Venkatakrishnapuram, Appalarajugudem in West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh during November to March in 2021–22 assess the Plant and Tree Diversity and Soil quality parameters. The plant/tree species <em>Phoenix sylvestris,</em> reported the highest frequency (245.00), dominance (3.27), and basal area (7542.96 cm<sup>2</sup>). <em>Plumbago zeylanica</em> had the highest relative density (6.96) and relative abundance (6.81) among all the shrub species. <em>Plumbago zeylanica</em> reported the highest Important value index (IVI) 17.10 while Herb species with highest density was found in <em>Centella asiatica</em> (0.95), frequency (35), and highest Important value index (IVI) 14.60. Soil quality parameters reflects that at the depth 0-15cm the average value of pH is found to be7.52, organic carbon is 0.56%, the amount of available nitrogen is 213.78 kg/ha, amount of available of phosphorus is 41.25 kg/ha and available potassium is 38.22 kg/ha. At the depth of 15-30 cm the Average value of pH is found to be 6.61, organic carbon is 0.39%, the amount of available nitrogen is 189.51 kg/ha, amount of available of phosphorus is 34.75 kg/ha and available potassium is 31.37 kg/h.</p> Ujji Pushpa Latha , Ram Bharose , Hemant Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4168 Thu, 09 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Mean Performance and Genetic Variability Exploration for Fruit Yield and its Attributing Traits in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4169 <p>The present study was conducted to access the relative performance, genetic variability, genetic advance and heritability in thirty genotypes of tomato crop. The crop was sown under Randomized Block Design (RBD) in three replications at Regional Research Station Karnal, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, during the <em>Autumn Winter</em> season of 2021-22. The observations were recorded for eight parameters pertaining to the fruit yield and its attributing traits in tomato. Statistics from analysis of variance showed substantial differences among the genotypes that unveils the plausible presence of significant genetic variability which could be positively exploited in crop improvement programs. The results obtained in the experiment showed that Pusa Ruby (38 days) was earliest to flower in 50% plants followed by EC-631351 (40 days). Genotype Selection 7 took the least (66) number of days to first picking and genotype Kashi Hemant took the maximum (155 days) number of days to last picking. Genotype EC-615056 recorded the maximum (57.71 g) average fruit weight and genotypes namely EC-631457, EC-631357 and Pusa Early Dwarf observed highest fruit yield per plant. Narrow differences were recorded for the phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation for all the characters, which denotes that environment had very little influence in expression of the characters and phenotype truly represents the genotype. High to moderate magnitude of genotypic coefficient of variation and phenotypic coefficient of variation was recorded for almost all the characters in our investigation. Plant characters days to first picking, days to 50% flowering, days to last picking, plant height at harvest recorded high (&gt;70%) magnitude of heritability in broad sense implying least influence of environment over these characters. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for characters like days to 50% flowering and plant height at harvesting.</p> Sudesh, Lila Bora , Renu Fandan , Sapana Gurupad Hegde, Tanvi Mehta , Hardeep Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4169 Thu, 09 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Physiological Responses of Stress Tolerant Rice Varieties across Different Cropping Systems under Rainfed Stress https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4170 <p>Rice, sustaining half of the world's population, is traditionally cultivated through transplanting, particularly in Asia. However, challenges like excessive water use, labour demands, and environmental stresses like drought prompt the search for alternatives. Our study evaluates the impact of various crop establishment methods (CEs) – conventional puddled transplanting, direct drill seeding on flatbeds (DSR), and direct seeding on raised beds (FIRB) – on five stress-tolerant rice varieties (V): DRR 42, DRR 44, Sukha Dhan 5, Sukha Dhan 6, and Sarjoo 52. The key physiological parameters like Relative Water Content, Membrane Stability Index, and Chlorophyll content were analysed across different CE and V combinations. Notably, FIRB consistently surpasses other methods, suggesting its potential in bolstering stress tolerance and yield. Among the five varieties, Sukha Dhan 5 (V3) displays the highest RWC, Sarjoo 52 (V5) in MSI, and DRR 44 (V2) demonstrates superior chlorophyll content. These varieties underscore their pivotal role in maintaining plant water status, facilitating robust photosynthesis, and enhancing stress resilience, thereby ensuring stable yields. Our findings underscore FIRB's promise in curbing water waste and mitigating drawbacks associated with conventional transplanting practices.</p> Deepti Tiwari , Manoj Kumar Patel, Payal Priyadarsini , Ankita , Shatakashi Mishra , Vijai P., UP Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4170 Thu, 09 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Climate Change on Nigerian Economic Sustainability https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4171 <p>Climate change is seen as a statistical variation that persists for an extended period, frequently for as long as a decade or more. Moreover, the issue of climate change which has gained global attention poses a serious threat to developing economy like Nigeria, which is characterized by widespread poverty as a result of economic instability. It is against this backdrop that this research is aimed at investigating the effect of climate change on Nigerian economic sustainability. The research made use of Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL)/bond test approach and OLS estimation technique, while data for the period of 1990-2020 was collected. Changes in average temperature and carbon emission were used to capture climate change, while variation in exchange rate and agricultural production were used as control variables. The result of the analysis showed that the goodness-of-fit (R-Square) is 0.998. This means that 99.8% of the changes in the dependent variable (GDP) can be explained by the changes in the independent variables (CEM, AGRIC, EXR, TEMP). The annual speed of adjustment from short run to long run relationship is 34%. At F-statistic = 195.8052 and P value = 0.000, the model is statistically significant at 1% level. The results of the analysis further demonstrated that both in long-run and short-run, carbon emissions adversely affect Nigerian economic sustainability. Additionally, average atmospheric temperature was significantly related to sustainability of Nigerian economy in the short run. It was concluded that environmental stakeholders as well as Nigerian government should develop and enforce policies to reduce carbon emissions and forest depletion. Also, efforts should be made by government towards ensuring that policies that are environmentally friendly are made that can encourage agricultural production in order to reduce import of agricultural produce, thereby boosting economic growth.</p> Okoroafor, Okechukwu Ucheje, Obiageli, Jacinta Okolo, Okonma, Mark Chukwueloka Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4171 Fri, 10 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the Effects of Drought Stress on Biomass and Yield Traits in Sorghum Genotypes https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4172 <p>The study aimed to identify drought-tolerant sorghum genotypes by evaluating twenty sorghum genotypes over two <em>Rabi</em> seasons (2021-22 and 2022-23) under irrigated and rainfed conditions using a split plot design. Results showed that moisture stress significantly affected sorghum performance, including leaf and stem dry matter accumulation, grain yield per plant, stover yield, and harvest index. Among the genotypes, BJV-44 and M-35-1 exhibited the least decline in grain yield per plant under rainfed conditions, with yields of 76.17 and 73.50 g/plant, respectively, compared to irrigated conditions. Conversely, genotypes M 148-138 and Tandur L experienced the most significant reductions in grain yield per plant under rainfed conditions. Basavana pada exhibited the highest harvest index. The study concluded that BJV-44 and M-35-1 are drought-tolerant sorghum genotypes with relatively higher grain yields per plant under rainfed conditions, providing valuable insights into sorghum genotype performance and resource utilization in drought-prone regions.</p> Navyashree R, Mummigatti UV, Nethra P, Basavaraj B, Hanamaratti NG Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4172 Fri, 10 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Groundwater Quality Status of the Parambikulam Aliyar Palar Basin, Tamil Nadu, India Using RS and GIS Techniques https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4173 <p>The dependency of ground water is rising day by day. The ground water gets recharged mainly through rainfall. Thirty five water samples were collected from Parambikulam Aliyar Palar basin from open wells, bore wells and dug cum bore wells and analysed for chemical properties such as pH, Electrical Conductivity, cations and anions for two years duration (2020 and 2021) at three months interval (summer, winter, southwest monsoon, northeast monsoon) and analysed for the quality parameters. T Electrical conductivity values were ranged from 0.3 to 5.19 dsm<sup>-1</sup>, 0.29 to 6.80 dsm<sup>-1 </sup>0.3 to 6.84 dsm<sup>-1 </sup>and 0.64 to 4.17 dsm<sup>-1 </sup>during south west, north east, winter and summer seasons of 2020, respectively. The salt content was slightly increased during winter and summers seasons as compared to south west and north east. he samples were classified under USSL classification.&nbsp; Most of the samples come under medium salinity class (C<sub>2</sub>) (48.57%) followed by low salinity class (C<sub>1</sub>), high salinity class (C<sub>4</sub>) and very high salinity class (C<sub>3</sub>) with 28.57, 14.29 and 8.57 per cent respectively in all the seasons. Majority of the samples exhibit there is no permeability hazard. Salinity persists in the basin and possibility of salt accumulation in irrigation pipes observed from LSI values. Using remote sensing and GIS technique, the mapping was done for the groundwater quality of PAP basin. The variations in the ground water quality of the basin are directly positively correlated with rainfall pattern and geology of the basin. For effective utilization of saline water in the basin, management strategies were formulated and field experiments were conducted in the farmer’s holdings in the sampling area of the basin.</p> Palanisamy Jothimani, Chidamparam Poornachandhra, Govindaraj Kamalam Dinesh, Shanmugam Vinothkanna, Koothan Vanitha, Paravel Nishanth Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4173 Fri, 10 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Seasonal Variation of Groundwater Quality in Bonny Island, Rivers State Nigeria https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4174 <p>This study investigated the seasonal variations in physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater samples collected in nine locations in Bonny Island, Rivers State Nigeria. The water samples for the dry season were collected in December and January while for the wet season, water samples were collected in July and October. A quantitative approach was employed, involving the collection of quantitative data through field sampling and laboratory analysis. Physicochemical parameters, including pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrient levels, were measured using standard analytical techniques. Heavy metal concentrations (Fe, Cd, etc.) were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while petroleum hydrocarbons (total hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were analyzed through solvent extraction and gas chromatography techniques. The study revealed significant seasonal variations in several parameters, with notable significant decreases in phosphate during the wet season and significant increases in chromium and cadmium levels during the dry season (p-value &lt; 0.05). Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations also exhibited seasonal fluctuations, potentially influenced by precipitation patterns, oil and gas activities, and accidental spills or leaks which were observed during the dry season.</p> Ejike Okoli, Ify L. Nwaogazie, Ejikeme Ugwoha Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4174 Fri, 10 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Groundwater Marketing Dynamics in Northern Dry Zone Farms of Karnataka: A Comparative Study (2006 to 2021) https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4176 <p>Groundwater is an essential resource, but it is becoming increasingly scarce and depleting rapidly, particularly in Karnataka. As a result, groundwater markets have emerged as an alternative strategy to manage this limited resource more efficiently and equitably. These markets enable farmers who cannot afford water extraction machinery to access irrigation. This article, aims to study present status of groundwater markets, temporal depletion of water table, groundwater security, economics and factors affecting water trade in Northern Dry Zone of Karnataka, mainly to compare with the results obtained in the past study [1] to analyze changes in scenario and have historical lessons. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select farmers, who were then categorized into water sellers, self-users, and buyers. Primary data was collected through a structured, pre-tested schedule and analysed using descriptive and logit regression analysis. Results show that unlike earlier study, buyers in present study owned wells. Depth of borewells has increased (overall 44%), resulting in increased drilling, deepening, and pumping costs. Very few farmers (8%) acknowledged over-extraction from their farms could also contribute to groundwater insecurity. While studying economics it was found that perennial crops had the highest economic rents (260, 610Rs/hr for sellers and buyers).Reason for participation in water market has shifted from no investment capacity to water scarcity compared to earlier study. So farmers could be motivated to participate in water markets instead of relying on new wells during water shortages to encourage optimal water use and reduce negative externalities like increasing wells.</p> Yamuna N, Mahantesh R Nayak, Rakesh N Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4176 Wed, 15 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Physicochemical Characteristics of Water in the Bontanga Irrigation Dam in the Guinea Savannah Agro-Ecological Zone of Ghana https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4178 <p>Fresh water resource is one of the most significant natural assets of a country. Irrigation dams are usually used for irrigation purposes and also often serve as a source of water for domestic use. Due to this, there is a need for proper maintenance, assessment, and sustainable use of irrigation dams. This study assessed the physicochemical properties of the water in the reservoir of Bontanga irrigation dam situated in the Guinea Savannah Agro-Ecological Zone of Ghana. The study assessed four (4) physical and fourteen (14) chemical water quality parameters of the water for irrigation to know whether they are within the acceptable threshold set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Sampling techniques used in this study were stratified and purposive samplings. The reservoir of the dam was divided into nine (9) strata and in each stratum, 5 samples were taken making a total of 45 samples. Samples taken in each strata were composited making it a total of 9 samples. The water samples were collected into well-labelled polythene bottles and kept in an ice chest with ice cubes. The samples were transported to the Ecological Laboratory of the University of Ghana for analysis. The parameters analyzed were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), temperature, total dissolved solutes (TDS), chloride (Cl-), sulphate (SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>), bicarbonate (HCO<sub>3</sub>-), carbonate, PO<sub>4</sub>-P, nitrites/nitrate (NO<sub>3</sub>-N), total dissolved solids (TDS), magnesium (Mg<sup>2+</sup>), calcium (Ca<sup>2+</sup>), sodium (Na<sup>+</sup>), boron, total alkalinity, ammonia (NH<sub>4</sub>-N) and potassium (K<sup>+</sup>). A greater percentage of the results obtained were within acceptable limits except potassium which was slightly higher. This could be the result of farming activities in the catchment of the dam. In general, the water in Bontanga irrigation dam can be considered suitable for irrigation purposes.</p> Aquinas Kofi Ayertey, Thomas Apusiga Adongo, Richard Kwame Dogbey Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4178 Wed, 15 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Reeling Effluent Irrigation on Growth and Yield of V1 Mulberry Variety https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4180 <p>A field experiment was conducted during 2022-2023 at Department of Sericulture, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru to study the growth and development of mulberry when irrigated with various proportions of reeling effluent and borewell water along with recommended doses of NPK and FYM. Five treatments were laid out in RCBD with four replications. Among all the treatments application of 100 per cent reeling effluent for irrigation to mulberry plant has recorded the highest growth parameters on 30, 45 and 60 DAP, <em>viz</em>., number of shoots (20.25, 23.65 and 28.05 No.), mean shoot length (49.74, 109.32 and 137.32 cm), plant height (138.23, 197.47 and 225.47 cm), internodal distance (5.01, 5.49 and 5.73 cm), number of leaves (185.80, 424.40 and 542.90 No.), leaf area (105.21, 204.33 and 219.33 cm<sup>2</sup>) and leaf yield (940.94 g/plant and 58.07 tonnes/ha/yr on 60 DAP, respectively) compare to control. An overview of the study revealed that 100 per cent reeling effluent has significantly improved the growth and yield parameters of mulberry.</p> Ashrith, S., Chandrashekhar, S, Manjunath Gowda, Chikkalingaiah, Naveen, D. V Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4180 Fri, 17 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Fertility Status of Soils under Different Cropping Patterns in Rainfed Semi-Arid Eastern Plain of Rajasthan, India https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4181 <p>Soil fertility assessment is essential for effective land management practices. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the physico -chemical characteristics of soil under different cropping systems (Pearl millet (S<sub>1</sub>), Sorghum (S<sub>2</sub>), Ground nut (S<sub>3</sub>), Mung-bean (S<sub>4</sub>), Maize (S<sub>5</sub>), Pasture (S<sub>6</sub>) and to test for significant differences in the nutrient in order to provide basis for recommending site specific land management practices in the study area. Soil samples under the aforementioned cropping systems were collected from 3 sites (Malpura Todaraisingh Piplu) in Tonk District. Collected soil samples were examined for various physico-chemical parameters which includes BD, PD, WHC, Porosity, pH, EC, OC, also macro nutrient like N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S by using standard analytical methods. Results showed that lowest pH (6.3 to 6.7) observes in sorghum cropping land while highest PH observed in pearl millet (7.4 to 6.7), while Highest organic matter observed in Mung bean cropping system (1.52 and 1.10%) after that ground nut (1.29 and 0.88%). Highest values (568 Kg/ha and 480 Kg/ha) of Nitrogen was obtained from mung bean soil, while lowest in pearl millet and maize (260 Kg/ha and 329 Kg/ha) crop land.</p> Rameshwar Choudhary , Anand Kumar Diwakar, Anil Kumar Meena, Shwetank Shukla, Chandra Prakash Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4181 Sat, 18 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Soil Particle Distribution, Primary Nutrient Status and Their Response to Environmental Factors Across the Bengal Gram Productive Regions of Sangareddy, Telangana https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4182 <p>The present study was carried out to know the fertility status of rabi grown bengal gram soils of Sanga Reddy district, Telangana state by thorough field survey during the year 2022-2023. Total of 150 soil samples (50 samples from each productivity regions) from soil surface (0 - 15 cm depth) across three productivity regions high (592-613 kg acre-1), medium (571-592 kg/acre) and low (&lt;571 kg acre-1) were collected from the study area before sowing of the crop and analyzed for the soil particle size distribution, available Nitrogen(N), Phosphorous(P) and Potassium(K). Their status was quantified and analytical data was interpreted and statistical parameters like range, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were calculated. The sand, silt and clay content in high, medium and low productivity regions averaged 32.1 %, 26.7%, 41.1 %; 33.7 %, 26.1 %, 40.1 % and 37.4 %, 25.1 %, 37.2 % respectively. The soil available N, P and K showed mean values of 224.3 kg ha-1, 209.4 kg ha-1 and 204.0 kg ha-1; 32.0 kg ha-1, 28.4 kg ha-1, 24.8 kg ha-1 and 316.4 kg ha-1, 311.0 kg ha-1, 306.1 kg ha-1 in high, medium and low productivity regions. Low productivity areas had the largest mean sand concentration, which influenced soil particle aggregation. Silt content varied greatly, particularly in medium and low productivity zones, whereas clay content varied the most in high productivity regions. Available N decreased from high to medium and medium to low production areas. Fluctuations in available P and K showed a wide distribution within each category, as evidenced by large standard deviation and coefficient of variation values across productivity regions, particularly for potassium, emphasising the importance of considering diverse soil conditions and factors influencing potassium availability when developing fertilisation strategies.</p> Venkatesh. B, Pavan Chandra Reddy. K, Kiran Reddy. G, Satish. P Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4182 Sat, 18 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Climate Perceptions of Small Ruminant Farmers in the Mouhoun Province of Burkina Faso https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4184 <p>Perception is all about taking in, taking for oneself, taking hold of. Thus, a false perception of climate change can lead to a lack of adaptation or to maladaptation. Climate change represents a threat to the livestock farmers of the MP, whose main source of income is the exploitation of natural and animal resources. The problematic of this study is based on the good perception of the stockbreeders which were necessary to them to adapt to the climatic crises already occurred. The aim of this study is to analyze the perception of climate change by small ruminant breeders in the Mouhoun Province of Burkina Faso. To this end, 286 breeders, including agro-pastoralists and agro-pastoralists, i.e. 22 breeders per village, were surveyed. In addition, a focus group was held in each village, for a total of thirteen (13). Phinks software was used to process the individual survey data. The results indicate a drop in rainfall intensity (78.7%), a rise in temperatures (90.7%), a withdrawal from grazing areas (86%), a drop in milk production (81.3%) and lactation duration (86%). In summary, it appears that the population has a good perception of the climate in their locality. In addition, although it is difficult to integrate research evidence into development policy and practice, the results of this research could guide policy in making decisions about the climate perception of small ruminant farmers in the Mouhoun Province. This study leads to the conclusion that the changes perceived by farmers are relevant to the development of climate change adaptation strategies.</p> Amadou Zan, Boureima Sawadogo, Joachim Bonkoungou, Yélézouomin Stéphane Corentin Some Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4184 Sat, 18 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Physicochemical Properties of Mandawar Block, Soil Dausa, Rajasthan, India https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4185 <p>Analysed at the division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences. The soil texture of the experimental area varied from sandy loam to . In general, the top soil had higher sand fraction then the lower layers. The study revealed that the range of bulk density was varied from 1.32-1.47 Mg m-<sup>3</sup>, the bulk density was increased with increasing the depth as the compaction increases. The range of particle density was from 2.36 to 2.49 Mg m<sup>-3</sup> and the pore space 37.77 to 44.17 %, respectively. The water retention capacity (WRC) of soil was ranged between 43.56 to 57.28. The pH of soils was in the range between pH 6.67 - 7.75. The electrical conductivity of soil of entire studied area were less than 1.00 dSm<sup>-1</sup>. The soil organic matter, ranges from 0.13 to 0.38 %. The available nitrogen content of entire studied area was low (162 to 310 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The available phosphorus and potassium content varied in between 15 to 52 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 125 to 255 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. The available zinc, copper, manganese and iron of experimental soil ranged between 0.30 to 0.82 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, 0.36 to 1.32 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>, 1.50 to 6.04 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> and 2.36 to 9.62 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>. The fertility data base would be very useful for extension functionaries, agricultural officers, scientist and above all the farmers for a sustainable crop production.</p> Pradeep Yadav, Tarence Thomas, Narendra Swaroop, Vivek Sehra, Ashima Thomas Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4185 Sun, 19 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Fertilizer Optimization through Machine Learning-driven Models: An Empirical Investigation on Smart Farming of Amaranth https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4186 <p>Amaranth is a highly nutritious leafy vegetable cum pseudo-cereal crop known for its adaptability to various climatic conditions, making it a promising crop for addressing the food security and nutritional needs of a growing population. To enhance its quality and boost yields, farmers mainly depend on synthetic fertilizers. However, the excessive use of inorganic fertilizers to maximize crop yields poses significant ecological risks. This study aimed to investigate the impact of excessive inorganic fertilizer on the growth, yield, and physiological attributes of Amaranthus with the aid of advanced machine learning paradigm. An experimental pot trial was conducted using different NPK fertilizer dosage regimes, and agronomic parameters such as moisture level, crop yield, plant height, leaf length, leaf width etc. were measured and analyzed using statistical methods. The results demonstrated that the application of excessive inorganic fertilizer initially promoted plant growth but surpassed optimal levels resulting in negative effects, including stunted growth and reduced vigor. By identifying the Amaranthus's productivity and adaptability in different chemically treated soil conditions and automatically phenotyping its traits using image-based machine learning models, this study aims to determine the overuse of synthetic fertilizers. A comparative evaluation of different learning algorithms was carried out and the experimental result proves that SVM classifier could be a more appropriate learning algorithm for the proposed system with 80% accuracy. These findings highlight the importance of adopting sustainable fertilizer practices for the cultivation of Amaranthus and emphasize the need for ecological balance in crop production systems.</p> J. Dhakshayani, Jyothsna J., B. Surendiran Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4186 Sun, 19 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Synergistic Effect of Abiotic Environment on Growth of Macrophomina phaseolina Causing Charcoal Rot Disease of Sesame [(Sesamum indicum L.) cv. Prachi] https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4187 <p>Temperature plays major role in growth of fungus. Climate change response of the current biotic stresses, particularly fungi-related diseases in oilseeds is a major global issue.<em> Macrophomina phaseolina </em>is the causal agent of charcoal rot (stem and root rot/MSR) disease of sesame, resulting in large yield losses globally. Evaluation of physiological characteristics are very important to know the behaviour of the pathogen, which is helpful for it’s’ management.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The purpose of the current investigation was to evaluate the impact of temperature, pH and different culture media on the growth of <em>Macrophomina phaseolina </em>the disease causing pathogen of sesame</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> <em>In-vitro</em> experiments conducted to investigate the physiological characteristics of the devastating pathogen of sesame <em>M. phaseolina</em>. Onefield survey was conducted and diseased samples collected from the predominant areas of Odisha. The fungus was isolated by using PDA medium and incubated at different range of temperatures to show the effect. The mycelial growth was also tested in different pH levels. The cultural characteristics were studied using three culture media i.e. potato dextrose agar, oat meal agar and host leaf extract agar.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that there is no growth of pathogen or it is very negligible in 10–25<sup>0</sup>C temperature in 24 and 48 hours. 25 - 35<sup>0</sup>C temperature is the optimum temperature for the pathogen to grow and above 35<sup>0</sup>C temperature the growth ceased. Similarly, in case of pH, 6.5 is the suitable pH for the <em>M. phaseolina</em> to grow the highest. Among the culture media the pathogen attains its highest growth rate within five days of isolation in potato dextrose agar and the oat meal agar showed better result for the morphological characters.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Physiological studies showed that, sesame stem and root rot pathogen <em>Macrophomina phaseolina </em>prefers high temperature i.e. 30-35<sup>o</sup>C and pH 6.5 grow significantly as well as for disease development. Also, the <em>in-vitro</em> study on different culture media showed the growth rate is high in PDA medium but the morphological characters showed better result in OMA medium.</p> Ashutosh Nanda, Elssa Pandit, Nirakar Ranasingh, Araya Kumar Biswamohan Mohapatra, Amarendra Prasad Acharya, Curie Parhi, Pramila Naik, Mahasweta Das, Rajiv Kumar Srivastava Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4187 Sun, 19 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Design and Development of Ardiuno Based Seed Sowing Machine https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4189 <p>Pulses is one of the important crops. Pulses has a high dietary value due to their high protein content. The pulse crop is primarily farmed for its grains, which are consumed whole or split (dal). Proper and timely planting has a significant impact on seed germination, plant growth, plant population in the field, and, eventually, overall production.&nbsp; In general, pulses are sown by animal/tractor drawn seed drill or manually. Tractor-drawn seed drills are best suited for medium to large farms with a high seed rate. Draft animals are not only growing more expensive, but they are also becoming scarce.&nbsp; More than 75% of Indian farmers are small and marginal farmers who perform all of their operations manually.&nbsp; Manual sowing is a highly labour intensive, tedious, time consuming and not technically suitable. Therefore, a double row ardiuno based battery operated seed sowing machine for pulses seed was developed and tested. During the study, the required physical property of chickpea seed was determined. The developed seed drill was tested for laboratory and field test. The overall size of developed seed sowing machine was 930×600×740 mm. It was operated through 24V (type Lead acid / li-ion) battery. A DC motor of 250 watt 24V was used as power source. Ground wheels have 15 lugs. It sowed seeds in two rows at a time. The overall weight of developed seed drill was 37 kg. In the laboratory test, seed rate, and mechanical damage of the developed seed sowing machine were 63.20 kg/ha, and 1.20% respectively. The overall performance of the developed seed sowing machine was found satisfactory. While in the field, draft of implement 37.19 kgf, missing index 2.46%, depth of seed placement 6.10cm, and draft of implement 14.51 kgf, missing index 3.63%, depth of seed placement 6.20 cm, The field efficiency of the developed seed sowing machine 83% respectively.</p> Vikki Prasad Sahu, Kamlesh Lal, Amol Prakash, Shivesh Chandra Pandey, Rahul Choudhary , Suraj Pushkar, Ambrish Vidyadhar Pandey Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4189 Wed, 22 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Fertilizer and Mulch on Growth, Yield and Quality of Carrot in Arecanut Cropping System Under Conservation Agriculture Practices https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4190 <p>This study aims to comprehensively assess the influence of conservation agriculture techniques, encompassing reduced tillage, cover cropping (live mulch) and nutrient levels on a range of growth parameters and the ultimate yield of crop. As per the principles of conservation agriculture <em>i.e., </em>soil was disturbed minimally, berseem mulch was incorporated in the experiment and carrot was raised under arecanut plantation during <em>rabi</em> and it was succeeded by mint crop in <em>pre-kharif</em> season. Experiment was laid out in Randomized block design with seven treatments of different nutrient doses and mulch replicated thrice. Field experiments were conducted across two growing seasons<em> i.e.,</em> 2019-20 and 2020-21 during <em>Rabi </em>(Winter) at Balindi research farm, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur. Precise measurements and meticulous analyses were conducted on key parameters; Vegetative growth i.e., plant height and number of leaves, yield attributing parameters like root length, diameter, weight and total yield of crop. TSS and beta carotene was also estimated. These parameters unequivocally indicate that conservation agriculture practices exert a substantial influence on both the growth and yield. Among various nutrient levels, higher dose of fertilizer (T<sub>4 </sub>- 120:90:120 NPK kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) with berseem (<em>Trifolium alexandrinum</em> L.) as a cover crop in the interspaces showed maximum vegetative growth <em>i.e.,</em> plant height and number of leaves plant<sup>-1</sup> at all growth stages (30, 60 and 90 DAS) while decreasing trend was observed in yield parameters with higher levels of nutrient doses, medium level of fertilizer dose (T<sub>5 </sub>- 90:60:90 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> + berseem (<em>Trifolium alexandrinum</em>) recorded highest root length, diameter, weight and projected yield of 18.5cm, 3.58 cm, 118.37 g plant<sup>-1</sup> and 26.63 t ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively. These findings underscore the considerable potential of conservation agriculture practices as a sustainable approach to optimize carrot crop production. This research contributes valuable scientific insights that hold significant implications for agricultural stakeholders, including farmers and practitioners, seeking to fine-tune carrot cultivation methodologies while concurrently fostering soil health and environmental sustainability.</p> Peddaveeri Pravalika Reddy, Apurba Bandyopadhyay, Dipak Kumar Ghosh, Biswapati Mandal Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4190 Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Response of Species to the Impact of Climate Change in the Gum Arabic Belt, Sudan: A Case Study in Acacia senegal https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4191 <p>Sustainable management strategies of trees are important for indigenous agroforestry plant species, such as <em>Acacia. Senegal</em> <em>(A. Senegal</em>), due to the impacts of&nbsp; rapid population growth, land use and climate change. The objective of this investigation was to predict the spatio-temporal distribution of <em>A.senegal</em> in the Gum Arabic belt in Sudan in current (1985–2000) and future climate scenarios (2021–2100). Bioclimatic data was used for modeling purposes utilizing Maxent, with the assessment of model precision conducted through the utilization of the Area Under the Curve (AUC) and shown a high goodness-of-it (AUC=0.905±0.003 ). Significant differences were shown in species distribution between current and future periods under selected Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) of SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5, climate scenario.&nbsp; Our findings indicated that the main predictors influence the distribution of the species were precipitation of wettest quarter and maximum temperature of warmest month. Under the current potential distribution (25.4%), it is projected that Acacia Senegal would expand 36.2%-87.7% (SSP2-4.5) and 38.9-42.5% (SSP5-8.5). It is expected that <em>A.cacia</em> Senegal will create new environments suitable for it due to expected climate changes. Hence, the research necessitates the formulation of a strategic plan aimed to rehabilitation plantations of <em>Acacia senegal</em> and cultivation these species within existing and prospective habitats conducive to their existence.&nbsp;</p> Fatima Awadalla Abass Elhassan, Edouard Konan Kouassi, Haftu Abrha, Ahmed Laamarni, Ahmed Ali Hassabelkareem Siddig Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4191 Thu, 23 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Characteristics of Insulating Panels Realised from Coconut Palm Fibres for Low-Temperature Thermal Insulation https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4192 <p>In recent years, there has been growing interest in issues relating to pollution and energy consumption, and the resulting regulations have led the construction sector to focus on thermal insulation. The application of bio-based insulation materials can help to minimise the environmental impact of buildings by reducing energy demand both during construction and over the lifetime of the building. Agroforestry biomass plays an interesting role, as its use can reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this work is to produce insulating panels from agroforestry by-products for low-temperature thermal insulation applications.&nbsp; The insulating panels in this study are produced from coconut palm fibres and their thermophysical properties are determined. They were produced using a human-motricity press and the temperature rise was controlled using the hot-tape method. Characteristics such as calorific value and modelling of temperature rise as a function of time to calculate thermal conductivity, thermal effusivity and diffusivity were determined. The calorific value varies from 3668.0 to 4135.0 and from 3742.0 to 4186.0 cal.g<sup>-1</sup> when the moisture content is 11.28 and 10.61%, respectively. The thermal conductivity, effusivity and thermal diffusivity are 0.4 W.m<sup>-1</sup>.K<sup>-1</sup>, 760.30 J.m<sup>-2</sup>.°C<sup>-1</sup>.s<sup>-1/2</sup> and 2.73.10<sup>-7</sup> m.s<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. In view of these results, coconut fibre represents a potential precursor to produce insulating panels.</p> Daniel Segla Mededji, Elie Sogbochi, Ayihaou Armand Djossou, Omar Cherkaoui, Latif Adeniyi Fagbemi, Dominique Codjo Koko Sohounhloue Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4192 Fri, 24 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Seasonal Incidence of Major Insect Pests of Chilli and Their Correlation with Weather Parameters https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4193 <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Randomised Block Design (RBD) with three (3) replications.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Biswanath College of Agriculture, Assam Agricultural University, Assam,India. The experiment was conducted during <em>Rabi 2022-23</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Suryamukhi variety of chilli from packages of practices for Organic crops of Assam was used for this investigation. Three sucking pests <em>viz</em>, <em>Aphis gossypii, Scirtothrips dorsalis,</em> <em>Amrasca biguttula biguttula</em> and one fruit borer <em>Helicoverpa armigera</em> was found infesting the chilli plants. Weather parameters such as maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average relative humidity, rainfall and bright sunshine hours were correlated with the insect populations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Aphids were positively correlated with sunshine hours (r=0.503*), thrips showed negative correlation with average relative humidity (r= -0.620*), jassids had a negative correlation with minimum temperature (r=-0.701*) and fruit borer showed negative correlation with sunshine hours (r= -0625**). Rainfall had no significant effect on incidence of pest population in chilli.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Insect pest populations are highly influenced by weather parameters. Through this research we can develop new pest management strategies according to their appearance and peak activity period.</p> Arundhati Borgohain , Prarthna Rajkumari , Nirmali Borah , Birinchi Kumar Borah Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4193 Fri, 24 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Knowledge of Climate Change among the Paddy Farmers of Kahama District, Shinyanga Region Versus Meteorological Data https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4195 <p>The study investigated the knowledge of the paddy farmers of Kahama District on climate versus three decades meteorological data in the District. Cross sectional research design was employed on which a randomly selected sample of 312 farm households were interviewed. The study employed a triangulation approach on which primary data were collected through household surveys, field observation and key informants’ interviews. Secondary data on the other hand were obtained from the Tanzania Meteorological Station (TMA) and were subjected to excel sheet on which linear series of rainfall and temperature were reported. The findings from primary and secondary data revealed changes in both rainfall and temperature in around three decades. The knowledge among the farmers on climate change was reported to be acquired in diverse ways including from the meteorological stations, information sharing among the farmers, NGOs and own experience. Farmers perceived a decreased in the onset and cessation of rainfall, increased pests and diseases and increased drought incidences. Secondary data obtained from the meteorological station confirmed the decreased rainfall and rising temperature in 30 years. These challenges negatively impact paddy productivity in the study area. The study recommends on upscaling of information dissemination among the farmers and across the other parties involved in paddy productivity. Further investigation on contextual-level adaptation responses is recommended as well.</p> Samwel P. Lunyelele, Adili Y. Zellah Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4195 Sat, 25 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Development and Standardisation of Scale to Measure Attitude of the Farmers towards Natural Farming: A Sustainable Environmental Approach https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4196 <p>Attitude is defined as the degree of favourable or unfavourable feeling of the farmers towards natural farming. Natural farming, a sustainable agricultural practice that eschews synthetic inputs, has garnered significant interest globally for its potential to enhance soil health, biodiversity and crop resilience. Understanding farmer’s attitude towards natural farming is crucial for its widespread adoption. It is the accepted fact that attitude of an individual plays an important role in determining ones behaviour. Keeping this in view a standardized scale has been developed to assess the attitude of the farmers towards natural farming. The Likert’s summated rating method was used to construct the scale. The process started with collection of items followed by relevancy testing and item analysis and checking the reliability and validity for precision and consistency. A total of twenty four statements were finally retained for measuring attitude of the farmers towards natural farming, out of which fourteen statements were positive and ten statements were negative. The reliability was checked using split-half method and validity was examined through content validity. The scale developed was found highly reliable and valid.</p> Mupparapu Deepika, P.V.Sathya Gopal, K. Gurava Reddy, V. Sailaja, G. Krishna Reddy, P. Lavanya Kumari Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4196 Sat, 25 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Temperature Variations on Rice Production https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4166 <p>The mean temperature might rise up to range of 2.0–4.5°C worldwide by the end of this century. Climatic variables affect the growth and development of the crop differently at different growth stages. The rate of development of a crop depends on the climate. Temperature is the primary factor that influences the growth and productivity of crops. Higher or lower temperatures than the optimum lead to improper crop development and affect rice's phenological stages. Extreme temperature may lead to early maturity of the crop and lower temperature lead to prolonged maturity of the crop which in both cases leads to a decrease in yield. A moderate increase in temperature will not have severe implications, but an increase in average temperature by 2<sup>0</sup> C will likely have strong negative effects on rice crop production. In several studies, it has been reported that high night temperature decreases the yield potential of rice. Whereas, respiratory losses have been shown to increase due to higher day temperature, leaf conductance and net assimilation rates during the day were reported to be higher.</p> Koyi Jyothsna , Aakash, Paluchani Meghana Reddy , Jyotsna Setty Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4166 Wed, 08 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Solar Energy's Role in Achieving Sustainable Development Goals in Agriculture https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4167 <p>The adoption of solar energy in agriculture has the potential to significantly contribute to achieving multiple Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly those related to clean energy access (SDG 7), sustainable economic growth (SDG 8), responsible consumption and production (SDG 12), and climate action (SDG 13). This review article examines the various applications of solar energy in agricultural practices, including irrigation, crop drying, greenhouse heating, and powering farm machinery. It analyzes the economic, environmental, and social benefits of transitioning to solar-powered agriculture, such as reduced reliance on fossil fuels, lower greenhouse gas emissions, improved energy security, and increased income for farmers. The article also discusses the challenges and barriers to widespread adoption, including high upfront costs, lack of awareness and technical expertise among farmers, and inadequate policy support. Through a comprehensive review of existing literature and case studies, this article highlights the immense potential of solar energy in transforming the agricultural sector and contributing to sustainable development. It concludes by emphasizing the need for concerted efforts from governments, international organizations, and the private sector to promote and facilitate the integration of solar energy in agriculture, particularly in developing countries where access to clean energy and sustainable farming practices are most crucial for achieving the SDGs.</p> Samarendra Nath Panda , Ranjita Saikia , Sagar, G Narayana swamy, Narinder Panotra , Kamalkant Yadav , Bal Veer Singh , Shivam Rathi , Rajan singh , Shivam Kumar Pandey Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4167 Wed, 08 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Reviewing Soil Contaminant Remediation Techniques https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4175 <p>Harmful contaminants generating from industry, agricultural and human activity are causing the degradation of soil health, along with detrimental effects on human and the environment. It is imperative to safeguard the soil from these dangerous pollutants by using soil remediation techniques that may be effective breakdown these dangerous toxins. A sustainable approach to remediate the soil from different contaminants is bioremediation. Bioremediation is a method where microbes are used to alleviate soil pollution effectively. Natural microorganisms like fungus, bacteria, and algae are employed in the bioremediation process to break down heavy metal (lead, arsenic, chromium etc.) or organic based. chemical contaminants. This study examines the use of microorganisms and various bioremediation methods, including genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and electro bioremediation, for recovering polluted soil. This investigation clarified the challenges associated with applying these bioremediation technologies and microorganisms, as well as their effects on the ecosystem and inherent soil microbial population. The goal of this current study is to illustrate the various technologies which are more effective in this remediation process.</p> Samriti Verma , Pankaj Verma, Animesh Ghosh Bag, Nitin Madan Changade Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4175 Mon, 13 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Green Manure for Sustainable Crop Production: A Review https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4177 <p>Green manuring is an economical and eco-friendly scientific approach to achieve more resilient and sustainable food production for agricultural systems. Incorporation of green manure improves soil condition by increasing soil physical, chemical and biological properties such as organic matter, availability of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and also improves soil structure by preventing soil erosion, increasing water holding capacity etc. Green manure acts as a natural fertilizer, releasing nutrients into the soil as it decomposes and increases the nutrient content in the soil and shows positive effect on plant growth and development. Addition of green manure crops contribute to greater fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, and when decomposed, makes the nitrogen availability in the soil, reducing the need for synthetic nitrogen fertilizers in crops. Furthermore, it has a significant impact on several plant growth and yield parameters, resulting in increased agricultural productivity and ecosystem health.</p> Anambattu Joshna, Kangujam Bokado, Barkha Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4177 Wed, 15 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Application of Panchagavya, a Cow-based Liquid Formulation, as a Lever for Sustainable and Enhanced Vegetable Crop Production: A Review https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4183 <p><em>Panchagavya</em>, a fermented liquid bio-formulation derived from cow-based products such as dung, urine, milk, curd and ghee, has recently gained importance in agricultural practices due to its reported effectiveness in enhancing vegetable crop production. Its formulation involves a fermentation process that harnesses the diverse microbial communities present in cow-derived substances, resulting in a potent nutrient-rich solution that is believed to possess plant growth-promoting properties. One of the primary mechanisms underlying its efficacy lies in the diverse array of microorganisms present in the formulation. These microorganisms, including beneficial bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, play crucial roles in nutrient cycling, disease suppression and soil conditioning. Additionally, <em>Panchagavya</em> contains plant growth-promoting substances such as hormones, enzymes, vitamins and amino acids, which contribute to enhanced nutrient uptake, root development and overall plant vigour. Furthermore, application of <em>Panchagavya</em> has been shown to improve soil health by enhancing microbial activity, increasing organic matter content and improving soil properties. These soil improvements not only benefit the current crop but also have long-term positive implications for soil fertility and sustainability. This multifaceted approach to crop management offers a holistic solution to enhance crop productivity while reducing reliance on synthetic inputs. This review aims to comprehensively analyse the literature on the effects of <em>Panchagavya</em> on vegetable crops, highlighting its mechanisms of action and potential benefits for increased vegetable crop production.</p> Swagat Ranjan Behera, Riya Pandey , Krisanu Golui, Swapnashree Sahoo, Riya Jakhwal, Riti Pal Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4183 Sat, 18 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Nutrient Strategies for Pest Resilience in Plants: A Review https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4188 <p>Sustainable agriculture plays a vital role in modern farming, addressing concerns of traditional pesticides, which raise issues related to safety, environmental impact, and resistance. Consequently, alternative insect pest management methods, including nutrient-based approaches, have gained prominence. However, understanding the relationship between nutrients and plant diseases remains a complex challenge. This review synthesizes recent insights on the impact of specific nutrients (N, P, K, Mn, Zn, B, Cl and Si) on insect pest resistance in sustainable agriculture. Nitrogen supply has a major impact on insect pest intensity as compared to low nitrogen doses and control, pest populations were high at high levels. Phosphorus (P) has an inconsistent role in resistance. Comprehensive nutrient management in sustainable agriculture offers cost-effective, eco-friendly disease control, reducing pesticide reliance. Potassium (K) enhances resistance to an optimal point, beyond which there is no further improvement. Proper nutrient management can make subsequent control measures more efficient and economical. Understanding the interplay of plant nutrition, insect herbivores, and community dynamics is essential. Balanced nutrient levels, especially potassium and phosphorus, indirectly strengthen plant resistance to various insect pests through biochemical, physical, and mechanical mechanisms. Strategies to enhance plant defense against phytophagous insects align with the demand for food and nutritional security. This review emphasizes the significance of comprehensive nutrient management in sustainable agriculture for disease and pest control while prioritizing food safety and environmental quality.</p> Gundreddy Rajareddy, Gunturi Alekhya, Kirankumar Reddy Kasa, Gopal Dasari, Kalwala Srikanth Reddy, Kadapa Sreenivasa Reddy Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4188 Wed, 22 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Climate Change on Global Health: A Comprehensive Review https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4194 <p>Climate change poses significant challenges to global health, with far-reaching implications for human health and well-being. This comprehensive review synthesizes evidence from diverse disciplines to elucidate the complex relationship between climate change and health. Key areas of focus include the direct impacts of extreme weather events, alterations in infectious disease transmission, air quality changes, food security issues, and mental health effects. Vulnerable populations, including low-income communities and indigenous peoples, are disproportionately affected, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions and equitable adaptation strategies. Methodologically, a search of peer-reviewed literature was conducted, covering studies published up to 2024. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included, and thematic analysis was employed to identify patterns and trends. The review highlights gaps in current policy frameworks and international cooperation efforts, calling for enhanced collaboration and knowledge sharing to address the multifaceted challenges posed by climate change on health. Furthermore, proactive adaptation measures, robust public health infrastructure, and inclusive strategies are essential to mitigate adverse health impacts and foster resilience. By prioritizing collective action and interdisciplinary collaboration, we can work towards a healthier and more resilient future in the face of climate change.</p> Oche Joseph Otorkpa, Stephen Emmanuel, Faith Obuye, Chinenye Oche Otorkpa Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4194 Fri, 24 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Growth Performance of Low Chilling Varieties of Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) under the Influence of Different Nutrient Levels in Assam, India https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4179 <p>The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the growth characters and leaf nutrient content of low-chilling apple <em>(Malus x domestica </em>Borkh.) under the effect of different nutrient levels in Assam. Three low-chilling varieties viz. HRMN-99, Dorsett Golden and Anna were grown for this purpose subjected to different nutrients levels comprising of FYM applied alone or in combination with NPK doses. Obtained results revealed that HRMN-99 registered the highest significant plant height (179.76 cm), stem girth (9.91 cm), leaf area (63.34 cm<sup>2</sup>) and leaf area index (2.42) at the end of season. Amongst various nutrient levels, the application of 5 kg FYM+ 150 g urea+ 210g SSP+ 120 g MOP/plants showed superior performance in terms of plant height (192.03 cm), stem girth (11.30 cm), number of branches (17.25), leaf area (69.38 cm<sup>2</sup>) and leaf area index (2.61). Analysis of leaf nutritional status revealed that the variety HRMN-99 and nutrient application of 5 kg FYM+ 150 g urea+ 210g SSP+ 120 g MOP/plants showed impressive results in terms of leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Thus, the variety HRMN-99 at nutrient level of 5 kg FYM+ 150 g urea+ 210g SSP+ 120 g MOP/plant proved to be promising for apple cultivation under Assam condition.</p> Antara Sharma, Utpal Kotoky, Bhabesh Deka, Bhabesh Gogoi, Kaushik Das Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/4179 Thu, 16 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000