International Journal of Environment and Climate Change https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC <p style="text-align: justify;">A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs and without harm to the environment and ecosystem function and service. Meeting this formidable challenge requires a substantial effort under climate change impact, economic development and population growth. <strong>International Journal of Environment and Climate Change (ISSN:&nbsp;2581-8627)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications. This is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. It has long been recognized that the long-term viability of natural capital is critical for many areas of human endeavour under climate change impact. The aims are to support engineering science research with the goal of promoting sustainable development with environmentally benign engineered systems that support human well-being and that are also compatible with sustaining natural (environmental) systems.</p> en-US contact@journalijecc.com (International Journal of Environment and Climate Change) contact@journalijecc.com (International Journal of Environment and Climate Change) Thu, 26 Nov 2020 08:21:14 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 As Climate Change Responds with Terrifying Brutalities https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30308 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The lip service in tackling the climate change issues five years after the famous Paris Agreement on climate change is quite unwholesome to individual countries' pledges and promises that were made on reducing global carbon emissions at Le Bourget, France. The attempt to limit the global mean temperature to 1.5<sup>0</sup> Celsius preindustrial level has even resulted in warming the climate more than anticipated [1]. The bulk of the climate change adaptation and mitigation effort(s) have, generally, ended up in a tragic fiasco. The rise in sea level and temperature overshoot carry substantial and enormous risks and uncertainties that have caused the entire humanity to head towards an irreversible crossing tipping point [2].&nbsp; For example, the year 2020 horrible flooding; animal and plant species extinction; coral reef death; permafrost melt; loss of sea and land ice; breaking of the two major glaciers in the coast of the Amundsen Sea in West Antarctica that has kept climatologists and meteorologists terrified in studying the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, are all cases in point that proved an irreversible condition of the climate change.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This paper used content analyses by reviewing the climate change brutal scenarios that occurred at random globally. The data on climate events was obtained from the existing literature on the magnitude of destruction of flood rains and storms’ damage due to sea level rise that is exacerbated by the breaking away of the two major glaciers in the coast of the Amundsen Sea in West Antarctica.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The paper examined critically the flood scenarios that occurred in Puerto Rico; Arecibo; Panzhihua; Gopalganj; Kara-Kache; Krasnoyarsk; Tlalpane; Talas; Taif; Valencia; Lagamenas; Khabarovsk; Hadejia; Dabi; Magarya; and Auyo etc. It revealed that massive flooding was witnessed globally within a span of a weeklong catastrophe. Sea level had risen by at least 0.05 percentile as a result of the breaking away and melting of the two glaciers at the coast of the West Antarctica.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The paper concluded that human beings are no longer near the target of achieving the 1.5<sup>0</sup>–2<sup>0</sup>C goal. What remains now is for everyone to understand the dangers of the climate change blind investment that has already thrown the entire world habitat into a déjàvu phenomenon.</p> Nura Jibo MRICS ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30308 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 How States Can Drive the Next Era of Climate Management in India: Perspectives in Mainstreaming Climate Actions from Gujarat https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30302 <p>At the September 2019 UN climate action summit, India vowed to upscale its climate action by focusing on a low carbon pathway through renewables and other forms of clean energy, adopting sustainable mobility, preserving water, and securing finances for this transition. Implementing and up scaling these actions form an influential agenda under India’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to the Paris Agreement. The emphasis on national determination and its success strongly hinges on the ambition of the states and the seriousness it has for driving climate actions. The initial step is to streamline such activities at sub-national levels to achieve climate change goals. Indian states, like countries, are too at different starting points with dissimilarities in their economic and developmental interests. Climate priorities took center stage for a few states, while many others have not been too aspirational due to misplaced prerogatives and differing capabilities. Thus, a pertinent question which arises is, could cross-pollination of ideas and innovations push states for concrete climate actions? This paper discusses a few prominent initiatives from the progressive state of Gujarat that could facilitate the exchange of climate measures in other states.</p> Shanal Pradhan, Shwetal Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30302 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Weather Parameters and Thermal Time Approach on Green Gram at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30278 <p>An investigation was carried out at the Agro Climate Research Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, on the effect of weather parameters on the green gram yield sown at various sowing dates during the rabi season of 2019. At various sowing dates, two green gram cultivars, VBN 4 and ADT 3, were sown. For both cultivars, the phonological crop length decreased with delays in sowing dates beyond October 23rd. The yield of green gram sown on 23<sup>rd</sup> October was significantly higher than the crops sown on 30<sup>th </sup>October and 6<sup>th</sup> November. The weather parameters Maximum Temperature (T<sub>max</sub>), Diurnal Range (T<sub>range</sub>), Bright Sunshine Hours (BSS), Relative Humidity (RH I), Wind Speed (WS) were found to be negatively correlated with seed yield whereas Minimum Temperature (T<sub>min</sub>), Relative Humidity (RH II), Vapour Pressure (VP) were found to be positively correlated with the yield of green gram. The accurate prediction of green gram yield could be done with the maximum temperature, bright sunshine hours, wind speed and with thermal indices especially hygrothermal unit II with 82 percent, accuracy level.</p> S. A. Naveen, S. Kokilavani, S. P. Ramanathan, G. A. Dheebakaran, S. Anitta Fanish ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30278 Thu, 26 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Genotype x Environmental Interaction for Growth and Yield Parameters of Tree Mulberry Genotypes in Different Seasons https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30279 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To identify the stable genotypes across the seasons for different yield and its contributing traits.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Field experimental design was used</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The experiment was conducted in different seasons during 2017-19 at Department of Sericulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The present study comprised of six mulberry genotypes <em>viz.,</em> MI-012, MI-79, MI-21, MI-139, MI-516, ME-05 and two popular check varieties V1 and M5.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean squares due to seasons was significant for total shoot length (cm), number of leaves per plant, leaf yield per plant (g), ten fresh leaf weight (g), leaf moisture content (%) at harvest, leaf moisture retention capacity (%) at 6 and 9 hrs after harvest. Analysis of variance indicated high significance of mean sum of squares due to season for number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, leaf yield per plant, single leaf area, moisture content and moisture retention capacity at 6 and 9 hrs after harvest of leaf. Further, it could be observed that variance due to seasons (linear) were highly significant for number of branches per plant, total shoot length, number of leaves per plant, ten fresh leaf weight, leaf yield per plant, single leaf area, moisture content and moisture retention capacity at 6 and 9 hrs after harvest of leaf. Whereas, variance due to G х S (linear) was non significant for shoot height, internodal distance, number of leaves per plant, ten fresh leaf weight, leaf yield per plant, moisture content and moisture retention capacity at 6 and 9 hrs after harvest of leaf. Variance due to pooled deviation was highly significant for shoot height, number of branches per plant, total shoot length, internodal distance, number of leaves per plant, ten fresh leaf weight, single leaf area, moisture content and moisture retention capacity at 6 and 9 hrs after harvest of leaf. Whereas, variance due to pooled deviation was non significant for leaf yield per plant.</p> B. N. Ahalya, . Chikkalingaiah, H. D. Jayaramu, S. Chandrashekar ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30279 Sat, 28 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Socio-Economic Status of Mango Growers in Bijnor District of Western Uttar Pradesh https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30280 <p>Mango is a tropical and subtropical fruit crop grown in India over an area of 2258.13 thousand hectares with production of 21822.32 metric tons. The total area under mango cultivation in Uttar Pradesh is 265.62 thousand hectares with 4551.83 metric tons production 2017-18. In Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh, mango grown 5.91 thousand hectares area with 118.09 metric tons production of mango in the same period. Mango grown in diverse agro climatic conditions faces differential biotic and abiotic stress limiting the production and productivity of mango that in influenced the economic condition of mango Growers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the socio-economic status of mango growers in Bijnor district of Western Uttar Pradesh. The result of the analysis shows that 39.09 percent of respondent fall within the age range of 46 to 60 years,&nbsp; general caste (53.64 percent), education level-literate (50.91 percent), family type-joint family (69.09 percent), family member-4 to 6 members (67.27), land holding size-above 5 hectare (50.91 percent), irrigation facilities-own (84.55 percent), 58.18 percent of respondents were engaged in farming activities only and 25.00 percent respondent were doing farming with business.&nbsp; 38.18 percent respondent got more than Rs 300000.00 annual income,&nbsp; 36.82 percent respondent have their own pumping set and electric motor and 53.64 respondent has not participated in any technical programme.</p> Desh Pal Singh, Satya Prakash, Vikas Malik, Krishna Kumar Singh, Narendra Singh, Shakuntala Gupta, Prerna Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30280 Sat, 28 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Potential Zones of Turmeric and Coriander Cultivation in Tamilnadu https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30281 <p>The research paper attempts to delineate district level efficient cropping zones of turmeric and coriander over Tamilnadu (2001-2015) after analysing the trend on cultivation of both the crops at state level (1985-2015). Trend analysis of area and production revealed that both were increasing for turmeric and decreasing for coriander; but productivity had a downscale with turmeric and an upscale with coriander. Delineation of Efficient Cropping Zones of Coriander resulted in Tiruchirappali, Perambalur, Virudhunagar, Cuddalore, Ramanathapuram and Thoothukudi districts as better performers, whereas, Erode, Namakkal, Coimbatore, Salem and Dharmapuri disricts were excelling in Turmeric cultivation.</p> N. Kowshika, T. Sankar ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30281 Sat, 28 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of F2 Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Segregants Derived from a Cross the BPT-5204 / IR-64Drt1 https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30282 <p>The present investigation was carried out with F<sub>2</sub> plants from a cross between two parents i.e., BPT-5204 and IR-64Drt1. The selection of parents for crosses was made based on genotypes that were tolerant and susceptible to drought condition. BPT-5204 was drought susceptible and IR-64Drt1 was also tolerant to drought. In this experiment adequate amount of variability was detected for grain yield per plant and its components among 324 segregants evaluated under augmented randomized block design II in normal field condition. The analysis of variance for grain yield and its attributing characters among blocks, treatments, entries, checks and checks vs entries revealed presence of significant variation in the segregants studied. However, with respect to checks, non-significant differences were recorded for only L/B ratio. The results indicated that among 324 rice genotypes including checks, only 9 rice genotypes expressed higher yield compared to seven checks varieties under normal field condition. The segregants S-51, S-122, S-135, S-195, S-199, S-210, S-219, S-222, S-251 were top ranking genotypes with respect to all checks.</p> Anjani Kumar, D. N. Singh, Krishna Prasad, Avinash Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30282 Sat, 05 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Changing Rainfall and Swinging Tea Production: The Correlates and Perception of Social Ecology of Tea Garden https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30283 <p>Tea is the second most commonly consumed beverages, after water, across the globe. However, the quality and aroma of the produce largely depends on different climatic factors like temperature, rainfall, altitude etc. Even a slight alteration in these climatic factors, affects the quality and production adversely. Climate change, a global challenge, is a big threat to the tea industry as well as its workers. With degraded quality and swinging production due to changing rainfall and temperature, hundreds of tea gardens have been closed down in the past few decades, putting livelihood of thousands of tea workers to question. This paper attempts to find how the changing rainfall and swinging tea production varies with the profile characteristics of the tea workers. The study was conducted in the Darjeeling, Kalimpong and Dooars districts of West Bengal with 90 randomly selected tea workers from nine randomly selected tea gardens, three each belonging to three different altitudes. All the results has been analyzed using statistical tools of correlation coefficient, multiple and stepwise regression and path analysis. The results shows that treatment and mobility are two important variable explaining the variation in perception on change in rainfall and perception on tea production respectively. It has also been found that variables like income, treatment and garments have been reliable predictors for estimating the change in rainfall whereas the variable mobility exhibits a positive and significant relationship with perceived change in tea production. The regression analysis showed that treatment has explained 19.4 per cent of total variation in case of perceived change in rainfall and mobility has explained 16 per cent of total variance in case of perceived change in tea production.</p> Dristika Jairu, S. K. Acharya, Anwesha Mandal ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30283 Sat, 05 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Groundwater-river Interactions Using Hydrochemical Tracers in Fissured Rock: Case of the Lobo Watershed at Nibéhibé (Central-West, Côte d’Ivoire) https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30284 <p>Water is a vital resource for all populations. However, there are warning signs that the water from the Lobo River used by SODECI to supply drinking water to the population is declining in quantity during the dry season and its quality is becoming poor due to climate variability and anthropogenic activities. However, the river is able to maintain a certain flow, probably with the contribution of groundwater. It is therefore a question of whether there is really a connection between surface water and groundwater. The aim of this study is to characterize the groundwater-river interactions based on the physico-chemical parameters of the Lobo watershed in Nibéhibé. The approach adopted is a coupled statistical-geochemical approach applied on data from two sampling campaigns (dry and rainy season). This coupled approach consisted, on the one hand, in understanding the chemical specificities within the water classes using the piper diagram and, on the other hand, in classifying the waters according to their physico-chemical similarity and highlighting the phenomena at the origin of the water mineralization using the Kohonen self-organized map (SOM). The results obtained from the piper diagram show that in both the wet and dry seasons, the chemical signature of the waters remains controlled by two main hydrochemical facies: the chlorinated calcium-magnesium nitrate hydrofacies and the bicarbonate calcium-magnesium hydrofacies. Kohonen's self-organized map has established that the mineralization of groundwater, under natural conditions, comes from the nature of the rocks crossed during infiltration and from the contact time between water and minerals. This work provides managers with decision-support tools for planning and searching for groundwater in support of surface water to reinforce the drinking water supply of the populations in this watershed.&nbsp;</p> Gningnéri Souleymane Ouattara, Brou Dibi, Arthur Brice Konan- Waidhet, Jules Mangoua Oi Mangoua, Bamory Kamagate ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30284 Tue, 08 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Livelihood Dependence on Highland Pastoralism (Doksa) in Trans-Himalayan Region of Zanskar, Ladakh https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30285 <p>A unique system of short-distance vertical transhumance pastoralism has evolved in the Trans-Himalayan region of Zanskar, Ladakh in response to short summer cropping season and vast alpine pasturelands. Cattle are taken to highland pastures for three-and-a-half month in summer season and kept in temporary settlements locally called as <em>doksa</em>. The study investigated the herding practices, migration pattern, livestock production and livelihood dependence on highland pastoralism. Purposive sampling technique was administered to withdraw the sample of 6 <em>doksas</em> and the data were collected from both secondary and primary sources. Results revealed that 31 herders in the 6 <em>doksas</em> possessed a total of 794 milk producing <em>zhomos.</em> The <em>doksas</em> produced 3 lakh litres of milk, 18000 kg of butter and the same amount of dried protein cake (<em>chhurpey</em>). The herders earned incomes of ₹ 122500.00 and ₹ 59375.00 by trading 300-350 kg of butter and 450-500 kg of <em>chhurpey</em>, respectively with employment opportunities of 3100 woman-days/year. The poor living conditions at <em>doksa</em> and unavailability of alternative economic opportunities for women herders has threatened its continuation for cash generation, food and livelihood security and socioeconomic development. Therefore, livelihood diversification using alternative resources is imperative to keep pace with current development and future challenges.</p> Anup Raj, Dorjey Angchuk, M. A. Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30285 Wed, 09 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Weed Management Practices on Weed Dynamics and Productivity of Blackgram https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30286 <p>A field experiment was conducted during <em>kharif </em>2018 at the Agronomy Main Research Farm, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar to study the effect of Integrated weed management in blackgram. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with a total of eight treatments replicated thrice. Important predominant grass, sedge and broad-leaved weeds found in the experimental field were <em>Eleusine indica </em>(12.6%)<em>, Cyperus rotundus </em>(8.9%) and <em>Celosia argentea </em>(9.7%), respectively. Severe weed competition in <em>kharif </em>blackgram recorded a yield loss of 66.7% in this experiment. Post Emergence application of Imazethapyr @ 0.75 kg/ha at 120 Days after sowing followed by one Hand Weeding at 30 DAS recorded lowest weed density (25.33 no./m<sup>2</sup>), weed dry weight (38.98 g/m<sup>2</sup>); highest weed control efficiency (83.4%) and lowest weed index (7.0%) at harvest.</p> Lipi Meher, Satyananda Jena, Manoranjan Satapathy, Bishnupriya Patra ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30286 Wed, 09 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Development of a High Quality, Rapid, Efficient and Economical DNA Extraction Protocol from Climate Resilient Pearl Millet Crop Without Liquid Nitrogen https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30287 <p>Extraction of good quality genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from plants is a major prerequisite for molecular biology experiments. An efficient genomic DNA protocol must be simple, fast and cost effective with high yield and purity. Presence of polyphenols, polysaccharides and secondary metabolites in some plants hamper with DNA extraction making it a very laborious, difficult and time consuming procedure. Here, we portrayed a modified protocol based on the cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method to isolate DNA from climate resilient pearl millet leaf tissues having higher amount of polysaccharides. It also excludes the use of expensive chemicals and equipments like proteinase K, liquid nitrogen and tissue lyser. This method includes extraction of DNA using a buffer (pH 8.0) containing 200 mM Tris-HCl, 20 mM ethylenediamine tetracetic acid (EDTA),1.4 M NaCl, 2% CTAB, 2% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and 1.0 % β-mercaptoethanol followed by purification of DNA with phenol, chloroform, isoamyl alcohol and finally precipitation of DNA by sodium acetate and isopropanol. Good quality genomic DNA with sharp and clear bands was obtained from 48 pearl millet genotypes using this protocol. The yield of DNA varied from 105.2 to 328.3 ng/μl. The purity of DNA sample ranged from 1.74 to 1.95 based on the absorbance at A<sub>260/A280</sub> ratio indicating that it’s free from ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein contamination. PCR analysis using simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers exhibited consistent and reliable amplification products ranging from 150 to 650 bp.This study reveals a fast, simple, efficient, specific, reproducible, reliable and cost effective method for extraction of DNA from small to large number of plant samples amenable to PCR amplification and could be stored for longer duration.</p> Supriya Ambawat, Subaran Singh, C. Tara Satyavathi, Rajbala Meena, R. C. Meena, Vikas Khandelwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30287 Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Planning Bus Transit Unit in Sprawling Townships; Khurdha Road Junction, Odisha; India https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30288 <p>The customized buses (CBs) is a novel approach of community transportations at present and have become popular mode of expanded municipal conveyance, modernized, gorgeous and traffic services. The CB is planned by combining long term demand and passenger’s comforts and necessities. Based on analysis of the passengers travel data from inland and abroad at a focused point, the development of the CB is to be planned and proposed in a small town like Khurdha Road Junction (Jatni) in Odisha.. Present study points out the glitches linked with the operation and maintenance, expansion of CBs depending upon increase in numbers of travelers and other factors like stop assortment, line plan, schedules, and the impact of the proposed new public bus transit system. Traffic excellence factors, like average speed, delays, traffic jamming, travel time, and cost were considered while planning for the new transit bus terminal. The small towns around the smart city Bhubaneswar is gazing at a grave commuting conundrum. The planning and construction of the bus transit at Khurdha Road junction (Jatni) is developed to cope with the sprawling township and save the roads from severe traffic jam. Economic analysis with environmental Impact assessment of the project is done.</p> Siba Prasad Mishra, Chandan Kumar, Kumar Ch. Sethi, Mohammad Siddique ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30288 Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Lockdown amid COVID-19 Pandemic on Temperature and Rainfall in Sub-Himalayan Ranges of Jammu & Kashmir Union Territory, India https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30289 <p>The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lockdown on temperature and rainfall in sub-Himalayan ranges i.e. Foothills of NW Shivaliks and Pir Panjal ranges of Jammu &amp; Kashmir Union Territory, India. The statistical analysis inferred that due to the implementation of complete lockdown in region amid COVID-19 pandemic has brought reductions in day temperature in foothills of NW Shivaliks by 10.29% and 2.20% compared to year 2018 and 2019 respectively. While under Pir Panjal range the reduction in day temperature was found to be significant by 6.08% and 4.13%. Also evaluation of night temperature values revealed the significant reductions by 10.29% and 2.20% as compared to year 2018 and 2019 in foothills of NW Shivaliks and 10.37%, 5.93% in Pir Panjal. The Rainfall also increased in both sub-Himalayan ranges during this period and it was &gt;100% and 70.25% under foothills of NW Shivaliks, 34.6% and 100% under Pir Panjal range. Hence the present study highlighted a plausible impact of lockdown on the weather parameters of the region, making it an efficient tool to mitigate the pace of regional changing climatic patterns for long term sustainability, productivity and for better soil, plant and animal health.</p> Mahender Singh, Vishaw Vikas, Sushmita M. Dadhich, Rohit Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30289 Fri, 11 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Vermicomposting and Composting of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) on Growth, Yield and Quality of Chickpea https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30290 <p>The present investigation was undertaken with an objective to understand the effect of municipal solid waste (MSW) vermicompost and compost on growth, yield and quality of chickpea. The experiment was laid in randomized block design with three replications and seven treatments&nbsp; <em>viz,</em> T<sub>1</sub> - RDF, T<sub>2</sub> - RDF + vermicompost of MSW @ 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, T<sub>3</sub> - RDF + vermicompost of MSW @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, T<sub>4</sub> - RDF + vermicompost of MSW @ 7.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, T<sub>5</sub> - RDF + compost of MSW @ 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, T<sub>6</sub> -compost of MSW @ 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, T<sub>7</sub> -compost of MSW @ 7.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>. The field experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Latur farm during the Rabi season 2016-2017. The recommended dose of fertilizer (25:50:00 N: P: K) and MSW vermicompost and compost was applied at the time of sowing. The results of field experiment revealed that the maximum availability of macro and micronutrients in soil, growth attributes viz. plant height and number of branches in all growth stages of chickpea were found at application of 7.5 tones of MSW vermicompost ha<sup>-1 </sup>along with 100% RDF (25:50:00 NPK) followed by application of 7.5 tones MSW compost ha<sup>-1 </sup>along with 100% RDF and which was significantly increased with increased levels of MSW vermicompost and compost. Similar trend was observed in case of yield and quality parameters <em>viz.,</em> protein content of chickpea.</p> C. Chetankumar, P. H. Vaidya, S. P. Zade ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30290 Mon, 14 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In vitro Screening of Iron Efficient Groundnut Cultivars for Calcareous Soil https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30291 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>In the present study twenty groundnut genotypes are evaluated for their resistance to IDC and to identify feasible indicators for screening iron (Fe) efficient groundnut genotypes in calcareous soils based on the morphophysiological parameters at 45 days after sowing (DAS).</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The experiment was replicated three times with two iron treatments (+Fe and – Fe) in a randomized block design</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Field screening of genotypes was carried during <em>Kharif </em>2019 at Thondamuthur block, Coimbatore district (10°59’31.9” N 76°47’15.4 E), Tamil Nadu, India.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The randomized field experiment was comprised of two major factors, i) Fe status (with Fe, without Fe), and ii) genotypes (twenty) with differential IDC response. Seven morpho-physiological parameters associated with IDC resistance were evaluated in groundnut genotypes.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Under Fe deficit conditions, IDC efficient genotypes recorded significantly higher shoot dry weight, root dry weight, root volume, SPAD values, active Fe, catalase activity, peroxidase activity, and higher yield compared to susceptible ones because of better Fe utilization efficiency. The various morpho-physiological parameters studied showed a significant correlation with pod yield. The four genotypes <em>viz</em>., TAG 24, CO 7, VRI 8, and VRI-16086 were efficient under both sufficient and deficit conditions under calcareousness. The stepwise multiple regression shows the peroxidase (POD) accounts for 71 % under +Fe condition and SPAD accounted for 66 percent in -Fe in predicting the pod yield. Hence, POD and SPAD can be used as indicators for selecting Fe efficient groundnut cultivars for calcareous soil.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings indicate that SPAD values are most optimal for the initial large-scale screening of groundnut genotypes for tolerance to IDC, whereas peroxidase may be used to validate established genotypes.</p> V. S. Reddy Kiran Kalyan, S. Meena, D. Jawahar, S. Karthikeyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30291 Mon, 14 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Perceived Climate Resilience and Adoption of Cocoa Agroforestry in the Forest-Savannah Transition Zone of Ghana https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30292 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Agroforestry is globally acknowledged as an essential component of climate-smart agriculture. Nevertheless, agroforestry adoption is low, and research is lacking on how farmers perceive the climate-related benefits of agroforestry and the implications of such perceptions on adoption. This paper assessed farmer perspectives on the effectiveness of agroforestry in enhancing the climate resilience of cocoa, and the extent to which such perceptions (in conjunction with socioeconomic factors) influence farmers’ decision to adopt cocoa agroforestry or otherwise.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A cross-sectional survey design involving households practicing different cocoa landuse systems (agroforestry vs. full-sun monoculture) was used.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Data were collected using structured questionnaire administered to 240 randomly selected cocoa-farming household heads.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study took place in 12 rural communities in the Forest-Savannah Transition Zone of Ghana from March to September 2017.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Findings indicated that while farmers unanimously acknowledged the effectiveness of cocoa agroforestry in enhancing resilience to excessive dry season temperatures, their perceptions in terms of resilience to drought differed, and were largely shaped by the kind of shade trees integrated. Overall, the majority of household heads perceived agroforestry to be the most beneficial strategy for enhancing the climate resilience of farmers. This perception significantly influenced households’ decision to adopt cocoa agroforestry, in conjunction with socioeconomic factors such as social network, sex of the household head, sex distribution of the household, and off-farm income.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Social network and farmers’ perception of the effectiveness of agroforestry in enhancing climate resilience are the key determinants of cocoa agroforestry adoption in the FSTZ of Ghana. Farmers who perceive agroforestry to be the most beneficial climate-resilient strategy in agriculture are more likely to adopt cocoa agroforestry. Social network can be used to enhance cocoa agroforestry adoption by serving as an effective communication channel for spreading information about the climate-related benefits of shade trees among farmers.</p> Ishmael Hashmiu ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30292 Sat, 19 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pre Harvest Forecasting of Kharif Rice Yield Using Weather Parameters for Strategic Decision Making in Agriculture https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30293 <p>In the recent year, pre harvest crop yield forecasting has been a topic of interest for producers, policy makers, government and agricultural related organizations. Pre harvest crop forecasting is important for national food security. Construction of appropriate yield forecast promotes the output of scenario analyses of crop production at a farm level, which enables suitable tactical and strategic decision making by the farmer. Indeed, considerable benefits apply when seasonal forecasting of crop performance is applied across the whole value chain in crop production. Timely and accurate yield forecast is essential for crop production, marketing, storage and transportation decisions as well as for managing the risk associated with these activities. In present manuscript efforts were made for development of pre harvest forecast models by using different statistical approaches viz. multiple linear regression (MLR), discriminant function analysis and ordinal logistic regression. The study utilized the crop yield data and corresponding weekly weather data of last 30 years (1985-2014). The model development was carried out at 35th and 36th SMW (Standard Meteorological Week) for getting forecast well in advance of actual harvesting of the field crop. The study revealed that method of discriminant function analysis gave best pre harvest forecast as compare to remaining developed models. It was observed high value of Adj. R2= 0.94, low value of RMSE= 164.24 and MAPE= 5.30. The model can be used in different crop for reliable and dependable forecast and these forecasts have significant value in agricultural planning and policy making.</p> Y. A. Garde, V. S. Thorat, R. R. Pisal, V. T. Shinde ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30293 Mon, 21 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Institutional and Farmer Based Climate Change Adaptation Measures on Crop Production in Mavuria Ward, Mbeere South Sub-county, Embu County, Kenya https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30294 <p>Africa is under pressure from climate stresses and is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In Kenya, agriculture is the backbone of the economy making it an important contributor to food security of rural households. Currently crop productivity is being affected by continued climate variations and decline in soil fertility. Adaptation to climate change requires to be given high and urgent priority for sustainable crop production. A study was conducted in Mavuria ward, Mbeere South Sub-County, Embu County to evaluate the effects of climate change adaptation on crop production. The study used both descriptive and experimental research designs. The primary data on adaptation measures was collected from farmers and institutions using questionnaires. In the data analysis, descriptive statistics were used to organize the climate data and that of the respondents into frequencies. Further, a Pearson correlation test was done to determine the relationship between farmer and institutional based mechanisms on adaptation to climate change at α=0.05. The main adaptation mechanisms identified were soil fertility improvement, soil and water conservation, early planting, pest and disease control, provision of certified seeds, and awareness creation. In view of these findings, the study recommends continuous implementation of these measures that can help strengthen farmers and institutional adaptation mechanisms towards climate change for improved crop production.</p> Samuel K. Nyaga, Geofrey K. Gathungu, Justin Nyaga, Jafford R. Njeru ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30294 Mon, 21 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Comparable Crops to Maize in Rain Fed Alfisols of Telangana State https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30295 <p>Tornala village of Siddipet District (Previously part of Medak district) in Telangana State comes under low rainfall area with an average annual rainfall of 787.6 mm and experiences extreme seasonal variation in rainfall. A new Agricultural Research Station was established in 2014 to meet the agricultural needs of adjoining areas of Siddipet District. Maize is one of the principal crops of the Siddipet District grown in light soils under rain fed situation. Erratic behaviour of rainfall results in moisture stress of both kinds (excess and deficit) during maize growing season which is leading to frequent crop failures. Millets and pulses are gaining importance which can be grown very well under rainfed situation. To create awareness among the farmers about the importance of other drought tolerant crops suitable for the situation and also to promote drought resistant and short duration, nutritional rich pulse crops in place of maize was the primary objective in conducting this trial. Keeping the above in view, a field experiment was conducted to identify a suitable crop comparable/ alternative to maize with a view to reduce the risk of crop failure under rain fed conditions and to realize the nutritive value of millets. Nine crops viz. Bajra, Ragi, Korra, Maize, Green gram, Pigeon pea, Cotton, Castor Hybrid (PCH 111) and Castor variety (Kranthi) were evaluated for three years. Yields of all the crops were converted into maize equivalent yields and economics was worked out. Pooled means were worked out for yield as well as for economic returns. Results showed that higher maize equivalent yield was recorded in Pigeon pea (4354 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by Bajra (2804 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), ragi (2604 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), cotton (2344 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and green gram (2075 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>).&nbsp; In terms of net returns pigeon pea recorded highest mean net returns (39080 Rs ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by bajra (25553 Rs ha<sup>-1</sup>) and ragi (20614 Rs ha<sup>-1</sup>) whereas highest mean benefit cost ratio was with bajra (2.44) followed by pigeon pea (2.41) and ragi (2.05) compared to maize (2297 Rs ha<sup>-1 </sup>and 1.08 respectively). Hence, from the study it can be recommended that Bajra, Pigeon pea and Ragi can be grown in place of maize in low rain fall areas of Siddipet (Dt) under rain fed situation.</p> Y. Siva Lakshmi, D. Sravanthi, R. Susheela, A. V. Ramanjaneyulu, P. Raghu Rami Reddy ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30295 Sat, 26 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Eco-Friendly Management Practices on Quality Characteristics of Transplanted Rice (Oryza sativa L.) as Influenced by Organic Manures https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30296 <p>A field experiment was conducted at the farm of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during <em>kharif</em> season (Spring) to study the effect of eco-friendly management practices on quality characteristics of transplanted lowland rice. Rice CO(R) 48 was used as a test variety. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with three replications and nine treatments which are T<sub>1 </sub>–100 % N through dhaincha + balance P and K through inorganic fertilizers, T<sub>2 </sub>– 50 % N through dhaincha + balance N, P and K through inorganic fertilizers, T<sub>3 </sub>–100 % N through vermicompost + balance P &amp; K through inorganic fertilizers, T<sub>4 </sub>–50 % N through vermicompost + balance N, P and K through inorganic fertilizers, T<sub>5 </sub>–100 % NPK (150 : 50 : 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) through inorganic fertilizers, T<sub>6 </sub>–100 % NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 12.5 t farmyard manure, T<sub>7 </sub>– 100 % NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 6.25 t dhaincha, T<sub>8 </sub>– 100 % NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 5 t vermicompost, T<sub>9 </sub>– Control. The results revealed that higher quality characteristics of rice including physical parameters (grain length, grain breadth and L/B ratio), chemical parameters (moisture, protein, carbohydrate, amylose, fat and fibre) and cooking quality were obtained with application of 100 % N through dhaincha + balance P &amp; K through inorganic fertilizers followed by application of 100 % NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 6.25 t dhaincha and it was par with application of 100 per cent NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 5 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>vermicompost and 100 per cent NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 12.5 t farmyard manure. Lower quality characteristics of rice were registered in absolute control.</p> R. Ajaykumar, K. Sivasabari ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30296 Tue, 29 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Development of Solar Operated Walking Type Power Weeder https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30298 <p>Power weeders are most commonly used machines for removing weeds, to prevent them from competing with main crops. However, these power weeders are power by either petrol or diesel engine. With the shortage of fossil fuel, its unavailability in rural areas and for reducing emission due to burning of fossil fuel, an alternative energy powered weeder is very much required. As solar energy was very available and weeding usually carried out during daytime, hence an attempt made to develop a solar energy operated weeder for dryland. It comprised of a powering system and a blade assembly. The power source included solar photovoltaic panel, solar charge controller, battery, motor charge controller and BLDC motor. The sweep type blade was used, which is mounted behind the main frame and power was given to the rear wheels by 750 watt 48 volt BLDC motor using a chain and sprocket drive. The performance of weeder was evaluated at three different forward speed of S1, S2 and S3 is 1.0 - 1.5, 1.5 - 2.0 and 2.0 – 2.5 km/h respectively. Total weight of weeder is 88 kg and total force required to push the weeder at 2.5 km/h was 107 kg (730 watt).&nbsp; Four batteries, each of size 12 V, 12 amp, powered the motor. Two solar panels were use to charge the battery, each with a power of 150 watts, and it takes 2 h to completely charge the battery while weeder is in steady state. The battery was discharge in 1.3 h in field when solar panel disconnected. With simultaneous charging and discharging of battery, this solar power system could run the weeder for 7.3 h. The developed weeder was teste in groundnut crop having 600 mm row-to-row spacing up to 30 to 40 mm depth with a field capacity of S1, S2 and S3 was 0.042, 0.059 and 0.075 ha/h. The weeding and field efficiency for S1, S2 and S3 were found to be 90.94, 84.69, 83.50% and 79.21, 83.97, 85.68% respectively. The effect of forward speed S1, S2 and S3 on Energy expenditure rate and heart rate was found to be 8.23, 9.27 and 10.34 kJ/min or 94, 98 and 50 bpm respectively. The plant damage increased with increasing forward speed of operation, Hence the developed solar operated walking type power weeder could be used successfully by the a small scale farmer for carrying out weeding operations.</p> A. R. Kachhot, M. S. Dulawat, J. M. Makavana, U. D. Dobariya, A. L. Vadher ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30298 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Optimum Allocation of Water and Land Resource for Maximizing Farm Income of Jabalpur District, Madhya Pradesh https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30299 <p>The continuous decrease and irrational use of water resources is the key issue for the proper application of water resources in tribal areas of Jabalpur district. This study attempts to propose a new aspect of optimum allocation of land &amp; water resources in Jabalpur District. The minimum cultivated area that ensures food requirement and land constraint have a direct impact on water resources allocation. To conduct an accurate program for land and water resource allocation for water deficit area a multi- constraint linear programming model (LPM) was developed by implanting land resource as a constraint on water resources allocation which has to be considered by the demand of water resources in the agriculture sector. The result shows that increase in major crops area like rice, wheat, gram, maize and oilseeds crop areas against the reduction in sorghum, lentil, and sugarcane. Existing cropping intensity of the district was 150 %. To achieve the maximum profit per unit of land i.e. cropping intensity more than 200% for district, therefore an extensive measures was made for district to fix out the water demand supply gap for agriculture. In this study a user friendly Linear programming software was used to develop a model for optimum allocation of resources under seasonal and multi-crop condition for Jabalpur district. The net annual profit is increased by 9.1% under optimal allocation conditions. The sensitivity analysis of model parameter shows that the superior price of crop is the most sensitive parameter followed by the crop area. The results obtained from this study will definitely help policy makers to decide how to properly utilize and promote the water and land resources for the available area.</p> Vinay Kumar Gautam, M. K. Awasthi, Ayushi Trivedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30299 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Infestation of Ostracoda Vargula tsujii (Myodocopa: Cypridinidae) in Lethrinus ornatus and Carangoides gymnostethus from Pamban, Southeast Coast India and Its Variation in Prevalence and Abundance with Respect to Seasonality https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30300 <p>Ostracoda is a diverse group of aquatic crustacean and often infest the fishes and cause huge economic losses. In the present study, the infestation of Ostracoda <em>Vargula tsuji</em> in major food fishes <em>Lethrinus ornatus </em>and <em>Carangoides gymnostethus</em> was studied. A detailed investigation by using biotechnological and molecular tools, it was identified that Ostracoda present in these fishes was <em>Vargula tsujii</em> and the sample was deposited with GeneBank (NCBI MN889442).&nbsp; An attempt was also made to study the abundance and degree of infestation for different seasonality <em>viz</em> post-monsoon, monsoon, presmonson and summer during 2019.&nbsp; Weekly samples were made from Pamban (9.27°N, 79.22°E), Gulf of Mannar, fish landing center and reported the monthly average values.&nbsp; Total 1405 ± 296.5 of <em>L. ornatus</em> were examined during Jan-Dec 2019, of which 285.5 ±70.2 (20.31%) were found infested with Ostracoda&nbsp; and in the case of <em>Carangoides gymnostethus, </em>out of total 1235.9 ± 205.2 fishes examined, 201.4 ± 47.2 fishes were found with infestation i.e. 16.30% but varying with seasonality.&nbsp; Both <em>L. ornatus </em>and <em>C.&nbsp; gymnostethus</em>e fishes had <em>V. tsujii</em> attacked to their gills at a significant level (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05),&nbsp; was an incidence of occurrence of infestation of <em>V. tsujii</em> in their buccal cavity of the intestinal track but not to the significant level.&nbsp; The infestation of <em>V. tsujii</em> in fishes from Indian water is reported for the first time and its prevalence and abundance level for seasonality are presented in this study.</p> S. Jayapraba, A. Gopalakrishnan, M. Yosuva ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30300 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Air Pollution Tolerance Index for Selected Species of Plants in Roadside Highways at Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30301 <p>In recent years air pollution is one of the biggest problems in the world. Owing to the transboundary dispersion of contaminants around the world, air pollution has its own peculiarities. In a much planned urban setup industrial pollution takes a backseat and cooler admission takes the president's as the major cause of urban air pollution in the present investigation your pollution torrents index was calculated for various plant species growing around the Allahabad Highway. Five plants available commonly in all locations were selected for the present research namely <em>Azadirachta indica</em> (Neem), <em>Delonix regia </em>(Gulmohar), <em>Saraca asoca </em>(Ashok), <em>Ficus benghalensis </em>(Bargad), <em>Ficus religiosa </em>(Pepal). Using normal procedures, ascorbic acid, leaf extract pH, overall chlorophyll, relative water content and air quality tolerance index were analysed. Both plants tested in both areas have been shown to be pollution-sensitive, varying from 02.29 to 12.53. No pollution tolerant organisms studied were found. The maximum value of pH was 7.8 found in Neem tree spp. (<em>Azadirachta indica</em>) in Rewa Road (NH-35) and the minimum value of pH was 5.9 found in Gulmohar tree spp. (<em>Delonix regia</em>) in Varanasi Road (NH-19), The maximum value of RWC (89.99 %) found in Ashok tree spp. (<em>Saraca asoca</em>) and the minimum value of RWC (58.64 %) found in Neem tree spp. (<em>Azadirachta indica</em>) in Mirzapur Road site (NH-76). The maximum value of Total Chlorophyll Content was 1.55 mg/g found in Ashok tree spp. (<em>Saraca asoca</em>) in Mirzapur Road (NH-76) and the minimum value of Total Chlorophyll Content was 0.71 mg/g found in Bargad tree spp. (<em>Ficus benghalensis</em>) in Control Site and Rewa Road (NH-35). The maximum value of Ascorbic Acid (1.07 mg/g) found in Ashok tree spp. (<em>Saraca asoca</em>) in Rewa Road site (NH-35) and the minimum value of Ascorbic Acid (0.39 mg/g) found in Pepal tree spp. (<em>Ficus religiosa</em>) in Mirzapur Road site (NH-76) The variance may be due to alternative biochemical parameters being reflected. Plant can filter the air through aerial elements especially through their twigs stem leaves air pollution management is the better manage by the afforestation program. Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) is an intrinsic quality of tree to control air pollution problem which is currently of major concern of local urban locality. The trees having higher tolerance index rate or tolerant towards air pollution and can be used as a major component to reduce air pollution whereas the tree having less tolerance index can be an indicator to know the rate of air pollution. Hence, it is essential to protect the plants.</p> Rahul Nishad, Harsh Bodh Paliwal, Makhan Singh Karada, Dheer Agnihotri ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30301 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Yield and Economics of Brinjal (Solanum melongena) as Affected by Different Mulching Types and Its Effect on Soil Moisture Content and Weed Dynamics in Post Flood Situation of Coastal Odisha, India https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30303 <p>A field experiment was conducted at the farmer’s field at Ratanpur village of Marshaghai block of Kendrapara, Odisha, India to evaluate effect of different mulching practices on weed population, moisture content in soil and yield of brinjal. The village is an adopted village by Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kendrapara, in which various activities in agriculture are going on under National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) programme to combat the flood-affected area of the locality. The experiment consists of five mulching treatments like Black polythene mulch, Black and silver polythene mulch, Transparent mulch, Organic mulch (rice straw) and No mulch. Results revealed that black with silver colour polythene mulch was recorded with significantly higher yield per plant (2.59 kg) and yield per ha (62.1 t/ha) which was at par with black colour polythene mulch. Organic mulch was found to be next best treatment with respect to yield per plant (2.40 kg) and yield per ha (53.5 t/ha). The same treatment also resulted in the higher gross return (Rs. 434700/ha), net return (Rs. 274150/ha) and B:C ratio (2.71) which was followed by black polythene mulching and organic mulching practices. Weed suppression and moisture retention was higher with black polythene mulch.</p> P. Mishra, T. R. Sahoo, F. H. Rahman, L. M. Garnayak, A. Phonglosa, N. Mohapatra, R. Bhattacharya, S. N. Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30303 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Smallholder Farmers’ Vulnerability to Impact of Climate Change in Central Bhutan https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30305 <p>Climate change carries immense threat to the livelihood and food security of smallholder farmers in Bhutan and it is therefore crucial to enhance their adaptive capacity.&nbsp; However, building resiliency to climate impact require information on vulnerability of the system of interest. Therefore, this study assessed smallholder farmers’ vulnerability to impacts of climate change and variability in central regions (Bumthang and Trongsa) of Bhutan. Data was collected from 247 randomly selected households by administering a pre-tested survey questionnaire. Data was analyzed using composite index approach (LVI) and IPCC framework approach (LVI-IPCC). The LVI analysis revealed that Bumthang was more vulnerable in terms of Socio-demographic profile (0.55), social networks (0.45), health (0.31) and natural disasters and climate variability (0.47) compared to Trongsa. Whereas, Trongsa was more vulnerable in terms of livelihood strategies (0.31) and water (0.13). Vulnerability score on the food component was same for both the districts (0.27). Overall, Bumthang was more vulnerable compared to Trongsa on both LVI (Bumthang: 0.36, Trongsa: 0.34) and LVI-IPCC (Bumthang: 0.24, Trongsa: 0.13) analysis. The findings could be used for designing micro-level context specific interventions to enhance smallholder farmers’ adaptive capacity to impacts of climate change in central Bhutan.</p> Pema Rinzin, Thubten Sonam, Sangay Tshering, Purna Prasad Chapagai ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30305 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Experimental Investigation on Energy Recovery System for Continuous Biochar Production System https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30306 <p>Fossilfuel requirement is the necessity for fulfilling the global energy needs, which is increasing day by day due to this it will drain in future. Bio-energy became as one of the vital alternatives to replace fossil fuel. Thermochemical conversion of biomass for obtaining the bioenergy is getting more popular in the recent time. In the present study, slow pyrolysis is used for bio-energy production from the waste biomass available in the form of crop residues of Groundnut Shell (GS), Chana Straw (CS) and Wheat Straw (WS) using the developed continuous biochar production system (Pratap Kiln) to produce biochar. An energy recovery system consisting of cooling chamber was developed to recover the bio-oil from the waste flue gas (syngas). The pyrolysis of selected biomass was carried out at 450°C and residence time of about 4 min. The yield of biochar and bio-oil and syngas properties were determined. The maximum biochar yield was found in CS feedstock as 35% followed by WS and GS, i.e. 33% and 29%, respectively. The bio-oil recovery in GS, CS and WS was 31%, 26% and 30% respectively, whereas the syngas production was 40%, 39% and 37% respectively.</p> Laleet Jawale, N. L. Panwar, B. L. Salvi, Sudhir Jain, Deepak Sharma, N. K. Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30306 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Yield and Yield Attributing Parameters of Toria (Brassica campestries) under Real Time Rainfall Situation in an Inceptisols of Assam, India https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30307 <p>A field experiment was conducted during <em>rabi</em> season of 2018-19 and 2019-20 in Dryland experimental field belong to soil order <em>Inceptisols</em>, Biswanath college of Agriculture, Assam Agricultural University, Biswanath chariali, Assam to study the ‘‘Yield and yield attributing parameters of toria (<em>Brassica campestries) </em>under real time rainfall situation in an <em>Inceptisols</em> of Assam, India’’ under AICRPDA, NICRA. The treatments consisting of 4 different dates of sowing <em>i.e.</em> S<sub>1</sub>-41<sup>th</sup> SMW, S<sub>2</sub>-44<sup>th</sup> SMW, S<sub>3</sub>-46<sup>th</sup> SMW, and S<sub>4</sub>- 48<sup>th</sup> SMW, &amp; three variety <em>i.e</em>. V<sub>1</sub>-JT-90-1(Jeuti), V<sub>2</sub>-Yellow sarson (Benoy) and V<sub>3</sub>- TS-38. Growth, yield and yield attributing characters of toria varieties were influenced by different dates of sowing. S<sub>1</sub> registered higher plant height (43.2 cm, 92.9 cm and 106.6 cm &amp; 40.2 cm, 89.8 cm and 101.5 cm) and number of branch (3.8, 5.3 and 7.2 &amp; 3.4, 5.1 and 6.9) at 30 DAS, 45 DAS and 60 DAS, respectively, during 2018-19 and 2019-20. Yield attributing characters like number of siliqua, number of seed per siliqua, 1000 seed weight (g) were gradually decreased with advancement of sowing dates. Among the three varieties V<sub>1 </sub>(Jeuti) recorded highest seed yield (8.9 q ha<sup>-1</sup> and 8.1 q ha<sup>-1</sup>) and stover yield (23.4 q ha<sup>-1</sup> and 22.2 q ha<sup>-1</sup>) in 2018-19 and 2019-20, respectively. Highest HI (28.5% and 25.8%) was recorded in S<sub>1 </sub>and lowest was recorded in S<sub>4 </sub>(20.7% and 14.6%).</p> R. Borah, N. Baruah, P. K. Sarma, R. Borah, A. Sonowal, P. Borah, R. Kalita, B. Borkotoki, P. Neog ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30307 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on River Revival https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30297 <p>The noticeable decline of flow and drying of rivers in non-monsoon period is observed by smaller hydrologic units (sub-catchments and watersheds). The flow depletion or drying of rivers is generally observed initially near the origin and then progressively in the larger hydrologic units. Rivers are losing water because of variety of possible reasons, including the installation of dams and the use of water for agriculture. But in many cases the decrease in flow is because of climate change, which is altering rainfall patterns and increasing evaporation because of higher temperatures. Reduced run-off is increasing the pressure on freshwater resources in world as well as in India, especially with more demand for water as population increases. Inspite of the fact that large sums of money have been spent on river rehabilitation across the globe, the understanding of the science of restoration is incoherent. A scientific and global intervention and approach to tackle such challenges to river management in India requires a highly effective approach, which must be process-based, predictive and must be capable of yielding the desired outcome. River restoration is one of the most prominent areas of applied water-resources science, supporting a multibillion dollar industry across many countries and helping to drive fundamental river research to address knowledge gaps that limit successful restoration. A revival strategy should identify a future prospect and long run for the river basin, the desired outcome of the strategy over the planning horizon (goals), and specific, measurable targets to be achieved over the short to medium term (objectives). River restoration can be supported by a combination of policies, strategies and project-level and global-level plans. Keeping this in view this paper presents some of the revival works carried out in India as well as in abroad.</p> Ayushi Trivedi, Manoj Kumar Awasthi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30297 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Breeding for Early Flowering in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) – A Key Strategy to Accelerate Chickpea Productivity: A Review https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30304 <p>Chickpea is one of the most important pulse crop cultivated across the globe which is conventionally a low-input crop that is being cultivated mostly in moisture deficient rainfed environments during post-rainy season. The crop is being severely affected with various biotic and abiotic stresses among which, drought and heat stress are considered as serious constraints limiting chickpea productivity in sub-tropical regions. Several strategies were adopted to enhance the productivity under drought and heat stress environments among which, the development of early flowering varieties is one of the key strategies gaining importance in recent past. Some of the early / super early varieties like ICCV 2, JG 11, JG 14, KAK 2, JAKI 9218, ICCV 96029 and ICCV 96030 were developed during the last three decades. One of the most significant milestones in breeding for early varieties is the identification of four genes <em>efl-1, efl-2, efl-3 </em>and<em> efl-4</em> governing early flowering by using various lines <em>viz</em>., ICCV 2, ICCV 96029, ICC 5810, BGD 132 and ICC 16641. Several QTLs controlling time of flowering were also mapped on linkage groups LG1, LG2, LG3, LG4, LG5, LG6 and LG8. The information on inheritance of time of flowering, correlation between early flowering with other yield attributing traits like number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, seed size, 100-seed weight, identified QTLs for early flowering and abiotic and biotic stresses tolerance may be useful for developing early maturing varieties that posses tolerance to various abiotic stresses by using different conventional and biotechnological approaches.</p> Aswini Nunavath, K. Gopala Krishna Murthy, Venkatraman Hegde, S. Madhusudan Reddy ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30304 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000