International Journal of Environment and Climate Change https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC <p style="text-align: justify;">A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs and without harm to the environment and ecosystem function and service. Meeting this formidable challenge requires a substantial effort under climate change impact, economic development and population growth. <strong>International Journal of Environment and Climate Change (ISSN:&nbsp;2581-8627)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications. This is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. It has long been recognized that the long-term viability of natural capital is critical for many areas of human endeavour under climate change impact. The aims are to support engineering science research with the goal of promoting sustainable development with environmentally benign engineered systems that support human well-being and that are also compatible with sustaining natural (environmental) systems.</p> en-US contact@journalijecc.com (International Journal of Environment and Climate Change) contact@journalijecc.com (International Journal of Environment and Climate Change) Wed, 02 Jun 2021 12:27:05 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 An Assessment of Integration of MSMEs and CSA into Livestock Red Meat Value Chain: A Case Study of Kajiado County, Kenya https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30387 <p>The livestock sector is a major contributor to food security, livelihoods, and is most affected by climate change, but is also a major contributor of GHGs. While climate-smart agriculture (CSA) has been adopted to mitigate the effects of climate change it has focused more on smallholder food crop producers with little attention to livestock production, and or entire food chains. MSMEs play a pivotal role in enhancing the ability of producers to engage with value chains, integrate women and marginalized groups, innovate, and are key drivers of community resilience, social adaptation, poverty reduction, and protection of livelihoods due to MSMEs’ greater adaptability and flexibility. Linking CSA to MSMEs within the livestock red meat value chains will strengthen the chains, improve incomes, reduce climate risks and increase resilience for pastoralists in ASALs. This study reveals that the red meat value chains in ASALs are still underdeveloped and fragmented, have little application of modern technologies and practices, unsustainable, and largely nomadic. Further, there is low integration of MSMEs and CSA due to actors’ low awareness of the concept of CSA, limited capacity building on CSA, incentives, and policy instruments to integrate MSMEs thus leaving the value chains weak, inefficient, vulnerable to climate risks, and unsustainable. Adaption of sustainable practices can only come after the integration of actors, therefore there is a need to invest in context-based integration approaches, such as awareness and knowledge, affordable relevant modern technologies and practices, relevant policy instruments, and incentives to realize the CSA triple wins, and develop climate-resilient red meat value chains.</p> Mary W. Thongoh, H. M. Mutembei, J. Mburu, B. E. Kathambi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30387 Wed, 02 Jun 2021 12:27:39 +0000 Assessment of the Relationship between Cerebrospinal Meningitis and Climate Variables in Kaduna State, Nigeria https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30389 <p><em></em>This study examines the relationship between Meningitis and weather parameters (air temperature, maximum temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) in Kaduna state, Nigeria on a weekly basis from 2007–2019. Meningitis data was acquired weekly from Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Bureau of Statistics and weather parameters were sourced from daily satellite data set National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI). The daily data were aggregated weekly to suit the study. The data were analysed using linear trend and Pearson correlation for relationship. The linear trend results revealed a weekly decline in Cerebro Spinal Meningitis (CSM), wind speed, maximum and air temperature and an increase in relative humidity and rainfall. Generally, results reveal that the most important explanatory weather variables influencing CSM amongst the five (5) are the weekly maximum temperature and air temperature with a positive correlation of 0.768 and 0.773. This study recommends that keen interest be placed on temperature as they play an essential role in the transmission of this disease and most times aggravate the patients' condition.</p> Joyce Imara Nchom, A. S. Abubakar, F. O. Arimoro, B. Y. Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30389 Fri, 04 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation and Identification of Rabi Castor Based Profitable Cropping Systems on Alfisols in Southern Telangana https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30391 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The experiment was aimed at identifying the <em>rabi</em> castor based profitable cropping systems for Alfisols of Southern Telangana Zone.</p> <p><strong>Study design:</strong> Split plot design with three replications</p> <p><strong>Place and duration of study:</strong> Regional Agricultural Research Station, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Palem, Telangana state, India during <em>rabi</em> season of 2010-11 and 2011-12.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with five preceding crops (mung bean, fodder jowar, corn, pearlmillet and sesame) in main plots and four nitrogen levels of rabi castor in sub plots (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>). The growth parameters, yield attributes, seed yield, water use efficiency and economics were studied.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that among different proceeding crops evaluated that significantly higher castor seed yield and castor equivalent yield were obtained when rabi castor was preceded by corn (1973 and 2931 and kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and mung bean (1868 and 2696 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) as compared to that of sesame (1672 and 2207 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), pearl millet (1823 and 2199 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and fodder jowar (1783 and 2154 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). However, higher total system gross returns (Rs. 1,04,118 ha-1) and net returns (Rs. 52,462 ha<sup>-1</sup>) were accrued when rabi castor was grown after corn only, but, a higher B:C ratio was realized due to mung bean as a preceding crop (2.12). Though castor during rabi season responded similarly to 80 and 120 kg N ha<sup>-1 </sup>in terms of castor seed yield (2275 and 2381 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and castor equivalent yield (2887 and 3013 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), application of 120 kg N ha-1to castor resulted in accruing of higher system net returns (Rs. 60,638 ha<sup>-1</sup>) and B:C ratio (2.27). However, the results of interaction further showed that rabi castor preceded by mung bean with the application of 80 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> was found profitable (Rs. 75,573 ha<sup>-1</sup>). It was closely followed by corn-castor system (Rs. 73,289 ha<sup>-1</sup>).</p> A. V. Ramanjaneyulu, A. Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, M. V. Nagesh Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30391 Wed, 09 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation Studies of Soil Properties with Yield of Rice in a Calciorthents https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30393 <p>Imbalanced use of nutrients through fertilizer have a deleterious effects on soil health, leading to unsustainable productivity. The present investigation was carried out to study the comparative effectiveness of compost and crop residue either alone or in combination of chemical fertilizer on physico chemical properties of soil, soil microbial biomass and crop yield in rice-wheat cropping system in Calciorthents at experimental farm of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar in light texture and medium fertile soil. There were sixteen treatments which were replicated thrice in split plot design. Four level of NPK <em>viz</em>., no NPK, 50% NPK, 100% NPK and 150% NPK were kept as main plot treatments whereas four levels of organics viz., no manure, compost @ 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, crop residue and compost + crop residue were treated as sub-plot treatments. The correlation between rice yield and some physico-chemical and microbial attributes of soil were evaluated. Most of soil physical, chemical and microbiological parameters were positively correlated with grain and straw yield of rice. Thus the results suggest that integrated use of balanced inorganic fertilizers in combination with organic manure sustains a soil physico-chemical and microbiological environment of soil that is better for enhancing higher crop productivity.</p> Amit Kumar Pandey, Ashutosh Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30393 Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Chemical to Herb Control on Performance of Sesame (Sesamum indicum) under Irrigated Conditions https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30394 <p>Weed management greatly influences on weed infestation and yield of sesame under irrigated condition. An experiment was conducted at Bagusala farm, M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, CUTM, Paralakhemundi, Odisha to find out the effectiveness of pre and post emergence herbicides on performance of summer sesame under irrigated conditions. The soil of experimental site was sandy clay loam in texture, slightly acidic in reaction with pH of 6.4. The experiment was laid out in randomize block design with three replications, assigning twelve treatments combinations of chemical application irrigated sesamum cultivation. The yield with hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS was comparable with Pendimethalin @ 500 g a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> 3 DAS + Imazethapyr @ 60g a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> at 20 DAS, Imazethapyr @ 60g a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> at 20 DAS, Oxadiargyl 80wp @ 60g a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> 3 DAS and Oxadiagyl @ 40 g a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> 3 DAS + Imazethapyr @ 60 g a.i ha<sup>-1</sup> 20 DAS and significantly superior over all other treatments. The weed number observed in all chemical weed control treatments was significantly lower than un-weeded control. Application of herbicides was found to be effective in reduction of weed population in summer sesamum under irrigated conditions. The weeds can be effectively controlled through application herbicides in sesame grown under irrigated conditions during summer season.</p> Lipsa Patnaik, Rahul Adhikary, M. Devender Reddy ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30394 Sat, 12 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Microbial Pesticides for Insect Pest Management: Success and Risk Analysis https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30388 <p>Biotic stress is a major cause for pre and postharvest losses in agriculture. Food crops of the world are damaged by more than of 10,000 species of insects 30,000 species of weeds, 1,00, 000 types of diseases (due to fungi, viruses, bacteria and various microbes) and a 1,000 species of nematodes. Modern day management practices for the above specified stress factors largely depends&nbsp;on the&nbsp;utilization&nbsp;of synthetic pesticides. Pesticide misuse in numerous sectors of agriculture frequently has often linked to health issues and environmental pollution around the world. Thus, there is a growing interest in replacing or possibly supplementing the prevailing control strategies with new and safer techniques. One of the promising management tools in this new state of affairs for crop protection is microbial pesticides. At present, only 3% of plant protectants used globally are covered by bio pesticides, but their growth rate indicates an increasing trend in the past two decades. The discovery of insecticidal property of <em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em> (<em>Bt</em>) indicated a more extensive part of organism based natural control. Microbial pesticides comprise of a microorganisms (bacterium, fungus, virus or protozoan) or toxins produced by them as the active ingredient. The most commonly used microbial pesticides are entomopathogenic fungi (<em>Metarhizium, Beauveria </em>and <em>Verticillium</em>), entomopathogenic bacteria (<em>Bt</em>), entomopathogenic nematode (<em>Steinernema</em> and <em>Heterorhabditis</em>) and baculoviruses (NPV and GV) which able to cause disease in insects. Microbial insecticides are promising alternative to ecologically disruptive pest control measures as they are no longer harmful to the environment and non target organisms. If deployed appropriately, microbial insecticides have capability to bring sustainability to global agriculture for food and food safety.</p> Mandla Rajashekhar, Banda Rajashekar, Eetela Sathyanarayana, M. C. Keerthi, Padala Vinod Kumar, K. Ramakrishna, Kalisetti Vanisree, Guptha Neelima, G. Madhuri, Ongole Shaila ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30388 Thu, 03 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Residue Incorporation on Soil Carbon Storage, Soil Organic Fractions, Microbial Community Composition and Carbon Mineralization in Rice-wheat Rotation – A Review https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30390 <p>In agroecosystems, straw return is a useful management strategy for increasing soil fertility and crop productivity. The total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic C (DOC), and microbial biomass C (MBC) contents all increased significantly when compared to the no straw return (N) and straw return (S) treatments, while the easily oxidizable C content remained same. The S treatment resulted in a 28–52 percent increase in soil light fraction, light fraction organic C, and particle organic C over the N treatment. When compared to the N treatment, crop straw return increased total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), bacterial biomass, and actinomycete biomass by 52, 75, and 56 percent, respectively. Under short-term crop straw return, MBC and TOC were the two key determinants determining microbial populations. In comparison to residue removal, residue retention (RR) enhanced SOC storage by 11.3 percent. SOC content and contribution of macro-aggregates in the 0-20 cm depth and micro-aggregates in the 20-40 cm depth rose significantly when no-tillage and straw returns were used together. When no-tillage with straw returning (NTS) was used instead of CT, SOC content, mean weight diameter (MWD), geometric mean diameter (GMD), and fractal dimensions (FD) rose by 25%, 21%, 19%, and 12%, respectively, in the 0-20 cm depth. Soil micro-aggregates were greater in the 20-40 cm depth after CTS treatment. In the 0-20 cm depth, the percentages of macro- and micro-aggregates increased by 60% and 40%, respectively, under NTS. MWD, GMD, &gt; 5, 2-5, 1-2, and 0.25-0.5 mm aggregates all had a positive linear relationship with the SOC. Microbial biomass C (MBC) was considerably enhanced by 20.0 percent when compared to conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT), but total organic C (TOC), dissolved organic C (DOC), readily oxidizable C (EOC), and SOC of aggregates were not affected. MBC increased by 18.3% and SOC content of 2–1-mm aggregate increased by 9.4% when residue was returned. Total PLFAs grew by 9.8%, while fungal biomass increased by 40.8 percent, thanks to NT. Total PLFAs, bacterial biomass, fungal biomass, F/B, and MUFA/STFA were all increased by 31.1, 36.0, 95.9, 42.5, and 58.8 percent, respectively, while microbial stress was reduced by 45.9%. Wheat straw return had a considerable impact on the bacterial community in the soil, but not on the fungus community. It increased the relative abundance of the bacteria phylum Proteobacteria and the fungal phylum Zygomycota, while decreasing the relative richness of the bacterial phylum Acidobacteria and the fungal phylum Ascomycota. It increased the relative abundance of nitrogen-cycling bacterial taxa including Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium, among others. This diversity includes bacteria, cyanobacteria, archaea, planctomycetes, and -proteobacteria, as well as endophytes. The system's intricacy and dynamic nature necessitate in-depth research on the three-part interactions between plants, microorganisms, and the soil-water environment.</p> R. K. Naresh, M. Sharath Chandra, Aryan Baliyan, Shakti Om Pathak, Pradeep Kumar Kanaujiya, B. Naveen Kumar, O. V. S. Thenua, Pradeep Kumar Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30390 Mon, 07 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000