Indiscriminate disposal of solid waste in unauthorized places has become an increasing problem for most cities in Nigeria, especially Benin-City, Edo state. Benin-City one of the largest city in Nigerian is experiencing the problem of solid waste management despite the best attempt of waste avoidance, reduction, reuse and recovery. Use of dumpsites is still the ultimate disposal method of domestic and industrial wastes in Benin-City. Three dumpsites in Benin-City and environs were selected randomly to evaluate their leachates characteristics. Leachate samples were collected from the dumpsites at three months interval and were assessed for their quality through physico-chemical and elemental examination using standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. Physico-chemical analysis result showed pH range of 6.76±0.08 –7.49±0.02, EC (55212.0±2028.43 – 64344.33±1131.22 μS/cm), Temperature (26.03±0.25 – 26.60±0.35OC), Cyanide (0.08±0.04 – 0.46±0.01 mg/L), Sulphide (12.30±1.21 – 14.90±2.26 mg/L), BOD5 (61.23±1.39 – 98.60±3.41mg/L), COD (92.11±2.14 – 140.00±4.19 mg/L), NO3-N 0.41±0.03 – 0.75±0.09 mg/L), NO2-N (0.09±0.01– 0.30±0.03mg/L), TOC (506.67±230.94 – 573.33±370.05 mg/L). Metals with consequential environmental significance determined in the leachate samples recorded concentration in mg/L as: Cd(0.02±0.01 – 0.240.31), Cr(0.04±0.00 – 0.06±0.01), Cu(0.49±0.07 - 0.61±0.05), Hg(0.03±0.01 – 0.06±0.01), Mn(0.27±0.07 - 0.38±0.03), Ni(0.05 ± 0.01- 0.07 ± 0.01), Pb(0.05±0.01 – 0.12±0.010) and Zn(0.37±0.04 - 0.65±0.03). The physiologic and metabolic roles of the elements detected in the leachate are discussed. The concentrations of the elements detected were below the toxicity limits recommended by Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) limits. On the overall, the physico-chemical and elemental characteristics of leachates obtained in this study revealed that the three waste dumpsites generated leachates that were not as contaminated as those reported in some other parts of the world.
This paper evaluates the effect of three climate parameters on forest cover in Ghana and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at Digya National Park derived from Landsat image data. Climate data (temperature, humidity, dewpoint, rainfall) are assembled from statistics provided by Ghana's Meteorological Agency. The study introduces a weighted averaging method by computing weather information from neighbouring stations. Also, this research introduces a model of dewpoints, enabling the direct calculation of dewpoints from temperature and humidity data. The major finding is that while temperature significantly affects forest cover and Park vegetation, dew-points and rainfall do not. The paper suggests where future research may be more fruitful in analyzing the effects of climate on vegetation.
The coastal zone of Benin is the interface between the marine environment and the straightforward continental environment. It is constituted of sandy cords, lagoon system, lakes and flood plains. This zone shelters a population of about 3 million inhabitants that is more than 30% of the Beninese population. As all coastal regions of the world, this zone remains very sensitive to climatic changes (global elevation of the sea level, perpetual variations of the weather marines conditions) and to human activities (large inland dams, harbour infrastructures, urbanization) that drive to the rupture of the equilibrium in this coastal environment with enhanced risks of beach erosion as the main consequences. This study monitors the evolution of the Beninese shorelines around Cotonou and underlines the causes mainly human that negatively affect this naturally fragile environment. Natural factors (tempests and erosive processes) and human actions (building of the port of Cotonou (1962) then Lome (1967) and hydroelectric dams on Volta (1966) and on Mono (1987) rivers) aim the coastal evolution of the Benin. They procreate, on the sandy cords at East of ports and rivers mouths, an erosion about 10 m linked to the reduction of provisions in sand and the fragilisation of cords by farms, steps and of anarchic occupations.
Aims: The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment, and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. It is concluded that green energies like wind, solar, ground-source heat pumps, and biomass must be promoted, implemented, and demonstrated from the economic and/or environmental point view. Study design: Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impacts (acid precipitation, ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect or global warming) are comprehensively discussed in this article. Place and Duration of Study: National Centre for Research, Energy Research Institute (ERI), between January 2011 and July 2011. Methodology: An approach is needed to integrate renewable energies in a way to meet high building performance. However, because renewable energy sources are stochastic and geographically diffuse, their ability to match demand is determined by adoption of one of the following two approaches: the utilisation of a capture area greater than that occupied by the community to be supplied, or the reduction of the community’s energy demands to a level commensurate with the locally available renewable resources. Results: The adoption of green or sustainable approaches to the way in which society is run is seen as an important strategy in finding a solution to the energy problem. The key factors to reducing and controlling CO2, which is the major contributor to global warming, are the use of alternative approaches to energy generation and the exploration of how these alternatives are used today and may be used in the future as green energy sources. Conclusion: This global warming will eventually lead to substantial changes in the world’s climate, which will, in turn, have a major impact on human life and the built environment. Therefore, effort has to be made to reduce fossil energy use and to promote green energies, particularly in the building sector. Energy use reductions can be achieved by minimising the energy demand, by rational energy use, by recovering heat and the use of more green energies.
Regardless of the regional variability in the causes and effects of Climate Change, it poses a major threat to both global human and ecological survival. Therefore, adapting and mitigating its consequences require an integrated approach which is not mutually exclusive of any specialization as enshrined in the Kyoto protocol. This paper reviews the concept, cause, impacts of climate change vis-a-vis the cultivation and viability of Jatropha curcas plant as a pro-active adaptation and mitigation method to Climate Change phenomenon. The paper underscores the potential contributions of the plant and its mitigating potentials against global warming to the Economy. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need for sustained population enlightenment on the benefits of Jatropha curcas cultivation for climate change mitigation.
Termites (Order: Isoptera) constitute an integral component of various ecosystems in Africa. Termites are also amongst the most difficult insects to study because of their cryptic behaviour and natural nesting habitat. There are around 2600 species of termites in 280 genera which have been described worldwide and about 39% of the total termite species are found in Africa. Termite identification is crucial to understanding termite distribution and their relationship to climate change. Some termite species are well known pests of agricultural crops, forest trees, wood products and timber-in-service causing considerable damage in Africa. This review paper attempts to collate information on African termite distribution and climate change and highlights some knowledge gaps. Africa is the origin of the termite family of Macrotermitinae. The paper focuses more on economically important termite species in Africa. The use of traditional identification methods coupled with molecular techniques in resolving some of the challenges in termite distribution with particular reference to climate change in Africa are discussed. There is scant information on published literature on the impact of climate change on termites with particular reference to termite distribution in Africa. However there is anectodal evidence to suggest that African termite species will be affected by changes in the local and global climate.