Open Access Editorial Special Issue

Open Access Case study: Special Issue

Impact of Extreme Floods on Groundwater Quality (in Pakistan)

Tariq Usman Saeed, Haleema Attaullah

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 133-151
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2014/4105

Study of long and short-term impact of hydro-meteorologically induced extreme flood on groundwater from well is a baby science, yet to grow and groom. This article focuses on the environmental impacts of the worst Pakistani floods on water quality of affected areas, Charsadda and Nowshera districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province which experienced a disastrous flood in its record due to torrential monsoon rains in late July 2010. For this purpose, consuming water products from 10 main sources (tube wells), 10 intermediate points in water supply distribution system and 10 consumers’ ends in 30 selected sites of flood affected areas were collected and analyzed for 12 key factors. Most of the parameters with respect to the standard limits of WHO guidelines indicated contamination in all samples that are directly available from tube wells as well as the one supplied through damaged pipe distribution system. This result becomes more fatal in the presence of microbial contamination and makes water risky for domestic consumption. A concrete policy addressing post-flood environmental effects on life and human health should be devised and strictly followed. Individual cases must be assessed from a basin-wide perspective in order to make sure that environmental concerns are judiciously and properly represented in flood planning and risk management decisions.

Open Access Case study: Special Issue

Assessment of Municipal Effluent Reclamation Process Based on the Information of Cost Analysis and Environmental Impacts

Yu-De Huang, Hsin-Hsu Huang, Ching-Ping Chu, Yu-Jen Chung

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 152-165
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2014/8574

Water shortage has now become a global issue. Reclamation of the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant is feasible for supplying the quick growth of water requirement. The objective of this study was to conduct both the cost analysis and environmental impact evaluation of two reclamation processes: sand filter – ultrafiltration - reverse osmosis (SF-UF-RO) and sand filter - electrodialysis reversal (SF-EDR). The results will serve as a reference for selecting the process in the scale-up construction works. Two processes were installed in a reclamation pilot plant in Futian Water Resource Recycling Center (Taichung City, Taiwan) and operated in parallel to evaluate their stability and product quality. The cost analysis was conducted to estimate the capital requirement of building large-scale plant for reclaiming the effluent. The cost of land construction, mechanical with electronic equipment and operation with maintenance were all considered in the analysis. On the other hand, the environmental assessment of these processes has been realized by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The software Sima Pro 7.3 was used as the LCA analysis tool. Four different evaluation methods, including Eco-indicator 99, Ecopoints 97, Impact 2002+ and CML 2 baseline 2000, were applied. The results show that the water quality of SF-EDR has similar potential in reclaiming the effluent from municipal water resource recycling center as SF-UF-RO. The cost of SF-EDR is lower than that of SF-UF-RO. In the environmental analysis, the LCA demonstrates that SF-EDR may create more impacts on the environment due to more consumption on electricity and chemicals than SF-UF-RO. Using SF-UF-RO as the effluent reclamation process may be an option causing less impacts on climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article - Special Issue

Local Level Complexities in Governance of Climate Change Mitigation Practices and Adaptation Measures in U. S. Cities

Sanwar Azam Sunny

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 5-26
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2014/5970

While global negotiations regarding climate change between nations are underway around the world, locally scaled policies and measures for climate protection and resilience are drafted and implemented by municipalities across the globe. These political units, with their small contributions to the much larger issue at hand are unable to fully receive adequate gains of their policies for their local stakeholders, as theory states that local level administrators would find it difficult to reduce emissions for the benefit of the global citizenry. In other words, municipalities are concerned with the provision of locally-based public goods and services. For climate policies however, they are locally producing a global public good. On the other hand, local level leaders have an advantage as they control many of the factors related to emissions, such as land use decisions, residential and commercial regulations, transit options and solid waste disposal. This is perhaps fitting due to the nature of the place-based vulnerability where impacts are experienced in the forms of inundation, heat waves, bushfires or rising sea levels. Additionally, due to their structure, it is comparatively easier to implementing such policies successfully than many international policy makers who have struggled with such goals or milestones due to added complications. This essay will explore the rudimentary complexities at the city level and observe the paradox of participation and engagement in sustainable addressing global climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article - Special Issue

Carrying Capacity and Sustainability Appraisals on Regional Water Supply Systems under Climate Change

Ching-Pin Tung, Tzu-Ming Liu, Szu-Wei Chen, Kai-Yuan Ke, Ming-Hsu Li

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 27-44
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2014/8572

This study aims to appraise the carrying capacity and sustainability of four water supply systems which are in the same watershed under climate change. An integrated assessment tool, TaiWAP, which integrates the common procedures of impact assessment of climate change, i.e., downscaling, weather generation, hydrological model, and interface for linking system dynamics model, is used to evaluate the sustainability of regional water resources systems. The GWLF physical model is used to simulate surface water processes and Vensim (a specialized software tool) is used in a system dynamics approach to simulate Taiwan’s Danshuei river watershed supply system to analyze climate impact on sustainable water resource utilization, which are both included in TaiWAP. To understand the sustainability of water supply systems, definition of a sustainable index are necessary to reveal the effects of response strategy and climate change. The results of this study could support making governmental strategies to enhance adaptive capacity, mitigate the impact of climate changes on water supplies and achieve sustainable and resilient water supply systems for the future.

Open Access Original Research Article - Special Issue

A Preliminary Estimation on Carbon Footprint of Raw Water from the Reservoirs for Domestic Use in Taiwan

Y. H. Wang, C. Y. Su, W. C. Huang, Y. C. Kuang, Y. D. Huang, W. L. Wu, C. P. Chu, Y. J. Chung

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 45-65
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2014/8573

This study aims to evaluate the carbon footprint of raw water from reservoirs for domestic use in Taiwan. It also provides a preliminary measure and reference database for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission of reservoir systems in Taiwan. Four reservoirs, Feitsui (F.T.) and Liyutan (L.Y.T.) in subtropical zone and Nanhua (N.H.) and Tsengwen (T.W.) in tropical zone, were selected as the cases to be examined for carbon footprint inventory, including the GHG emission from the water body and from human activities. Carbon footprint inventory followed PAS 2050 (2011 Specification for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services). GHG emission from water body followed the instruction of UNESCO guidelines. The boundary of this inventory covers the water intake works, impoundment region, the dam, the affiliated hydroelectricity power plant, the administration center and other facilities. In this study, the floating chambers with gas chromatography (GC) were chosen to measure the GHG flux from the water body. For the emission of CH4 and N2O from the water body, there are no significantly difference between the fluxes during the daytime and nighttime. For carbon dioxide, the instantaneous flux during the nighttime is higher than the daytime flux. The two reservoirs in tropical zone emit more CO2e from the water body than those in subtropical zone. Summarizing the direct and indirect GHG emission, for the four reservoirs, the annual emission quantities ranged from 653 ton of CO2e to 23,146 ton of CO2e. The carbon footprint of water supply for domestic use ranged from 0.002 kg CO2e/m3 to 0.028 kg CO2e/m3. Roughly speaking, the total GHG emission quantity of the 24 main reservoirs in Taiwan was estimated to be around 121,800 ton of CO2e with the total yield of 4.35 billion m3 of water annually using the highest carbon footprint 0.028 kg CO2e/m3.

Open Access Original Research Article - Special Issue

Effects of Climate Change, Poverty and Macroeconomic Policies on Agricultural Trade Performance in Nigeria

Anthony O. Onoja, A. I. Achike

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 66-82
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2014/8575

Aims: This study ascertained the joint influences of climate factors, poverty and macroeconomic environment on agricultural export performance in Nigeria.
Study Design: The study is a survey based on time series data.
Place and Duration of Study: Secondary data covering 32 years (1978-2009) obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria’s Annual Report and Statistical Bulletin and National Bureau of Statistics were used for the survey.
Methodology: The sample size was 32 (years) based on data availability. Data analysis was conducted using bound testing approach of co-integration advanced by Pesaran et al. [25] otherwise known as Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL).model. Test for unit roots in the series were done at their levels and first differences using Augmented Dickey Fuller and Philips Perron tests before applying the ARDL model.
Results: Preliminary results from the ARDL model indicated that climate variability (variations in mean annual rainfall), gross fixed capital formation (proxy for wealth accumulated in the economy) and macroeconomic variables including interest rate and volume of domestic credit advanced to the private sector significantly influenced the performance level of agricultural export. However, on the long-run, macroeconomic factors (interest rate and credit to the private sector) and gross fixed capital of the economy (with p values of 0.01, 0.07 and 0.03 respectively were the most significant determinants of agricultural export trade performance in the country within the review period. On the short run, it was confirmed that gross fixed capital formation (wealth) Granger caused the level of agricultural export performance while agricultural export performance level Granger caused volume of domestic credit advanced to the private sector of the economy both with p values of 0.07.
Conclusion: It was recommended that macroeconomic policies aimed at increasing farm credit and reduction of interest rate should be strengthened; while programmes to build resilience to climate variability such as irrigation facilities and capacity building in climate change adaptation should be put in place by the Nigerian government.

Open Access Original Research Article - Special Issue

Greenhouse Gas Emission Determinants in Nigeria: Implications for Trade, Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Policies

A. I. Achike, Anthony O. Onoja

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 83-94
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2014/8576

This study investigated and analyzed the determinants of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emission in Nigeria. The study relied on secondary data from World Bank and Central Bank of Nigeria covering 40 years (1970-2009). The data were analyzed using Zellner’s Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SURE) model. The results of the analysis show that fossil energy demand or consumption, rents from forestry trade, agricultural land area expansion and farm technology were significant determinants of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in the study area. On the other hand, the second equation indicated that fossil fuel energy demand was exogenously determined by economic growth rate (proxied by GDP growth rate) and farm technology applied in the country. It was recommended that Nigeria should put in place policies that will tax companies or firms emitting GHGs and utilize such tax proceeds for research and building the capacities of farmers to adapt to deleterious effect of climate change in the country and continent. The development of existing and new technologies for adapting to climate change and variability, building of environmental consciousness of Nigerians through curriculum restructuring and provision of weather information services by the Nigerian governments and their agencies to enable farmers plan against weather uncertainty and risks were also recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article - Special Issue

Are Diatom-based Indices from Europe Suitable for River Health assessment in China? A Case Study from Taizi River, Northeastern China

Xiaodong Qu, Ying Zhou, Rui Zhao, Catherine Bentsen, Xuwang Yin, Yuan Zhang

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 95-114
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2014/8577

Aims: Diatom-based indices are widely used for river health assessment. Many such indices were originally developed in European countries based on a specific taxa list of benthic diatoms. Thus, the transferability of these indices to other rivers and geographic locations has been questioned.
Design, Place and Duration of Study: In this study, we sampled benthic diatoms in the Taizi River, a temperate river in northeastern China during May 2009 to evaluate the applicability of eight commonly used diatom-based indices for assessing the principal water quality gradient and relationship with different water chemical parameters.
Methodology: Sensitivities of the eight indices were evaluated by applying the principle component analysis (PCA), the box-plot map and multiple comparisons of the Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric test (K-W test).
Results: The results showed that all eight of the tested indices showed significant correlations with the principal contamination gradient of both nutrient enrichment and organic pollution. The contamination gradient was extracted through principal component analysis and the first three axes explained 40.19%, 18.72%, and 9.77% of the total variation, respectively.
Conclusion: Our results confirmed that the diatom-based indices did not properly reflect the current Chinese surface water quality classes. However, these indices showed consistent trends with chemical parameters that reflected general water quality condition, such as electric conductivity (EC); organic pollution, as reflected by dissolved oxygen (DO) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrient enrichment, as reflected by total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The results indicated that both BDI and SHE were the most suitable diatom-based indices among the eight tested indices, although SPI, DES and ROTT were also suitable for river health assessment in the Taizi River.

Open Access Original Research Article - Special Issue

Climate Change Diplomacy- Apparatus for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: A Reflection in the Context of Bangladesh

Mohammad Tarikul Islam

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 115-132
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2014/9174

The objective of this analysis is mainly to examine the current trend of climate change diplomacy carry forward by the Government of Bangladesh. This focus on effectiveness of Climate Change (CC) Diplomacy for the climate change victim nation like Bangladesh. Some interrelated issues addressed here are: (i) essence of climate change diplomacy for the developing nations mostly affected by climate induced disasters; (ii) performance of Bangladesh in the bilateral and multilateral negotiations. The findings of the analysis suggest that, climate change diplomacy of the government of Bangladesh is not formally fashioned yet to influence foreign governments and/or multilateral institutions towards extending highest support in mitigating and adapting the climate change impact. It is apparent that, climate change diplomacy does not seem to have emerged as an integral component of its international relations to complement the national efforts through tie up with international affiliations. The paper is concluded with a roadmap to make the climate change diplomacy more effective so that Bangladesh could avail optimum assistance from the international community/alliance to mitigate and adopt climate change for reduction of vulnerability of the community recurrently affected by climate change induced disasters. With the prominence of climate change diplomacy on the top, Bangladesh should have a strategy of playing a pro-active role at the international level in coming years. Such strategy would help Bangladesh to draw on the global assistance in favor of climate change mitigation and adaptation.