Aims and Place: The Doce River is one of the largest rivers of southeastern Brazil, and has been target of strong environmental impact in recent decades due to mining and farming activities. Influenced by lithological factors and human disturbance, the Doce River has brought changes on the vegetation of the deltaic plain and increased the local sediment load transported
Methodology: Limnological analysis, textural characteristic of soils and sediments and TOC, TON and TP (ppm) were determined at the Doce River mouth during the dry and rainy seasons between 1993 and 2008. Cluster analysis, analysis of the sediment dynamic and bed topography of the mouth were applied to the results.
Results and Conclusion: The river shows accelerated bank erosion, especially during the rainy season. Near the mouth, erosion processes are enhanced by sediment dynamics, obstructing the main channel and modifying the coastal landscape. This research aims to contribute to a better understanding of fluvial geomorphology near the mouth of the Doce River, from nutrients flow analyze and sediment dynamics, without discarding the anthropogenic influence in the region.
The flux of carbon within the coralline ecosystem has been a subject of great interest in the recent decades. So far several studies had been conducted to understand actual process of carbon transfer within this system and it is an elusive factor on science because of the complex process. An attempt had been made to delineate the source and sink of carbon within the coral ecosystem by establishing small experimental set up in the present study. For these study, four experimental tanks, each consisted of a different community of coral ecosystem was set up in Pondicherry University, Port Blair, Andaman Islands, India. The Tank A was set up with a most prevalent sponge species Stylissa massa, in this part of the study area, Tank B consisted of sponge Lamellodysidea spp., Tank C consisted of macroalgae community i.e. of Padina spp. of an area of 620 cm2 and Tank D had a soft coral Sarcophyton spp. All these species were collected from Burmanallha, a region characterized by rich species diversity. The results indicated that the algal and sponge community provided carbon to support the growth of coral reefs. Coral utilized this carbon for their growth. It was also observed that fluctuation of environmental and physical parameters induced biological stress within the life forms resulted in the release of excess inorganic carbon to the surrounding water. Whenever, the opportunity were available this carbon was utilized by the system itself and managed full extent without any excess carbon.
Several recent reports have presented evidence indicating a change in arvicolid rodent dynamics from high-amplitude density cycles to acyclic fluctuations at relatively low level. The data come mostly from Northern Europe (>60° N) and indicate that the change is caused by climate warming, most pronounced in the winter. In this report we present data showing similar changes in the dynamics of two vole species, Microtus oeconomus and M. arvalis, in open habitats of Poland (<54°N) over last 25 y. Fairly regular fluctuations observed until early 1990s, subsequently changed to become more erratic. We tested which winter weather factors were most important for successful overwintering of M. oeconomus in Białowieża over 12 years, and how those factors changed over the last half-century according to the data from the local meteorological station. Finally, we demonstrate that the fall in the abundance of small game over the last 20 years has been linked to the decline of vole abundance.
The experiment was conducted on sunflower (variety BARI Surjomukhi-2) crop during the month of mid-November, 2014 to mid-March, 2015, in a lysimeter (dimension:1 m X 1 m X 1 m size) to measure crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and determine crop coefficient (kc) values at Irrigation and Water Management Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur. The study was examined by applying four irrigation at an interval of 10, 15, 20, and 25 days allowing drainage within and adjacent the tank. Results reveals that irrigation at 15 days interval produced the highest yield and was considered suitable for estimating ETc and kc. Seasonal total ETc was found as 270.89 mm. The kc values of sunflower under different ET0 methods for initial, development, mid-season and late season ranged from 0.34 to 0.48, 0.80 to 1.10, 1.06 to 1.55, and 0.27 to 0.36, respectively. Among different methods, P-M method gave relatively higher value than those of other methods and also FAO recommended value. Therefore, this information would be a helpful tool for crop water requirement and irrigation scheduling for similar semi-arid climates.
Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal after receipt of written complains. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 30th November-2016. Related policy is available here: http://goo.gl/lI77Nn