Open Access Original Research Article

Reduction of Metal Ion Species in Contaminated Water by Utilizing Potassium Ferrate (K2FeO4) Treatment

Ronald Bartzatt

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 227-235
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2016/26273

Aims: To demonstrate that potassium ferrate will remove potentially toxic metal ions from contaminated water samples.

Study Design: A known amount of metal ions were solubilized in aqueous solution, then exposed to potassium ferrate in known amounts. Extent of removal was monitored by ion chromatography and visible spectroscopy.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Durham Science Center, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha Nebraska 68182 USA.

Methodology: Known amounts of iron (II), manganese (II), copper (II), and calcium were solubilized in aqueous solution to known molarity. These mixtures were treated by utilizing potassium ferrate in known amounts. The presence of metal ions was monitored by ion chromatography and/or visible spectroscopy before and after treatment with potassium ferrate. Potassium ferrate was present with metallic ions for 24 hours at 21ºC.

Results: Metal ions were placed in aqueous solution, iron (II) as Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2, copper (II) as CuCl2•2H2O, manganese (II) as MnCl2•4H2O, and magnesium (II) as magnesium chloride, calcium as calcium chloride. Potassium ferrate treatment did not remove chloride (Cl-), ammonium (NH4+), and sulfate (SO42-). The cation calcium was decreased by 84.0%, magnesium was decreased by 42.5%, copper (II) was removed by 100%, iron (II) by 48.7%.

Reduction of calcium, magnesium, copper, and iron (II) was monitored by ion chromatography.  Reduction of iron (II), manganese, and copper (II) was monitored by visible spectroscopy. Substantial reduction of metallic ions was found in all tests after a 24 hour period at 21ºC.

Conclusion: These metals have been associated with oxidative stress, damage to mental and central nervous system function. Potassium ferrate is shown to be efficient in removing many of these potentially harmful ions. Visible spectroscopy and ion chromatography is shown to be effective in monitoring the reduction of metallic ions during investigations or potassium ferrate treatment of contaminated water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mitigating Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Stored Slurry through the Addition of Brewing Sugar and a Biological Additive

Mohd Saufi B. Bastami, Davey L. Jones, David R. Chadwick

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 236-249
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2016/26904

Livestock slurry stores are a key source of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study evaluated the potential to reduce NH3, CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions by adding effective microorganisms (EM) and brewing sugar to beef cattle slurry in a replicated small-scale (1 litre slurry volume) experiment. The effect of EM and brewing sugar was explored at two concentrations (5 v/w and 10% w/w respectively) and in two environments (cold and warm) over a period of 30 days slurry storage. Greenhouse gas emissions were measured by taking headspace samples from the closed vessels over a 1 hour period, whilst relative NH3 loss was quantified at the same time by placing an acid trap within the closed headspace. Brewing sugar addition induced ‘self-acidification’ of the slurry, via lactic acid production and accumulation, resulting in a decrease in slurry pH from pH 7.8 to <4.5. This was effective in lowering average NH3 loss in the cold and warm environments by 40% and 70%, respectively. Methane emissions were also reduced following the addition of brewing sugar, by up to 75%, resulting in a reduction in the cumulative total GHG (N2O + CH4 + CO2) emission (expressed as CO2 equivalent; CO2e) of 34% and 85%, respectively. The total greenhouse gas emission (CO2e) during slurry storage was dominated by CH4, representing at least 59% of total CO2e emitted. Effective microorganisms had little impact on NH3 and GHG emission, and are not deemed a useful mitigation strategy for these gases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling Greenhouse Gas Emissions of a Hybrid Fixed-film Anammox Process Treating Sludge Dewatering Centrate in Wastewater Treatment

Daniel Bencsik, Tamas Karches

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 250-258
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2016/26725

The aim of this study is to estimate and optimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a process in wastewater treatment, which utilizes anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox). The single-stage nitritation-Anammox process applies fixed biofilm carriers and treats the centrate of sludge dewatering. GPS-X biokinetic modelling tool was used for quantifying the specific nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane emissions at various operational conditions. In general, the amount of biology related GHG production was estimated to be higher than that of indirect emissions, by three orders of magnitude. Of direct emissions, nitrous oxide gas production should be taken into account primarily. Based on the simulations, feasible options of minimising N2O emissions include applying an operational temperature of 30-35°C, and increasing airflow to reduce the effect of oxygen limitation. To release less N2O, the process should also preferably be operated as an IFAS application with a low concentration of suspended solids (1.5-2 g/L), or even without sludge recycle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydrobiological Assessment of the High Mountain Kolsay Lakes (Kungey Alatau, Southeastern Kazakhstan) Ecosystems in Climatic Gradient

E. G. Krupa, S. M. Barinova, S. M. Romanova, A. B. Malybekov

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 259-278
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2016/26496

Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the ecological status of the Kolsay high mountain lakes according to their hydrochemical parameters and structure of phytoplankton communities and reveal the altitude climatic condition impact.

Study Design: We implemented bio-indication and diverse statistical methods, which represent some new approaches in freshwater algal diversity analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Israel, Institute of Zoology, Ministry of Education and Science, Almaty, Kazakhstan, between August 2015 and April  2016.

Methodology: We collected 20 samples of phytoplankton in August 2015 from four ultrafresh high mountain Kolsay lakes, located at the altitude of 1829-3170 meters above sea level in the Kungey Alatau, Southeastern Kazakhstan in gradients of climatic and environmental variables that we analyzed. Bio-indication and statistical methods for the ABC Method, Shannon-Weaver index, and WESI index (Water Ecosystem State Index) that indicated some toxic effect on photosynthesis of algae were used together with Statistica 12.0 and CANOCO Programs for calculating of relationships between environmental and algal communities data among the altitude of the lakes.

Results: As a result, 28 species from five taxonomic divisions were identified in phytoplankton communities. According to hydrochemical indices, the lakes were classified as clean, with a slightly increased level of organic pollution in the Middle and Upper Kolsay. The ratio of species in the phytoplankton communities in all the lakes was corresponding to alkaline fresh non-flowing waters. Indication of the indicator species’ ratio, functional groups and size structure (the Abundance-Biomass-Comparison method, ABC) of phytoplankton showed that the level of organic pollution decreased in the high-altitude direction. The relationship between the graphic (ABC Method) and the calculation method (Shannon-Weaver index) used for the analysis of the phytoplankton structure is shown. Dynamics of saprobiological and dimensional parameters of phytoplankton links well with the distribution of the recreational load on the lake. The change of biomass of planktonic algae to a greater extent was determined by the dynamics of nitrogen compounds. In general, together with a low level of heavy metals in the water of lakes, the values of WESI index (Water Ecosystem State Index) indicated some toxic effect on photosynthesis of algae in the Lower, Middle Kolsay and the Lake Sary-Bulak. We revealed major variables that considered stimulating or stress factors with helps of statistical programs.

Conclusion: Analysis of hydrochemical and biological data demonstrated that Kolsay mountain lakes are in the early stages of eutrophication. The processes of eutrophication are most evident in the Lower Kolsay. The changes in ecosystems of Kolsay mountain lakes can be caused by the growth of recreational load alongside the altitude related climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measuring Climate Change Vulnerability and its Adaptive Capacity: Policies and Planning for Bangladesh

M. A. Awal, M. Harun-Ar Rashid, A. F. M. Tariqul Islam, M. Farouq Imam, M. A. Rouf Sarkar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 279-298
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2016/27382

Aims: The paper aims to quantify the spatial vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate change throughout the various regions i.e. divisions of Bangladesh. Another aim was to formulate befitted policies and planning to reduce the climate change vulnerability for the rural poor.

Study Design: A statistical methodology was implemented to quantify vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate change shocks among all seven divisions of Bangladesh using secondary data sets by the IPCC’s integrated vulnerability assessment approach which comprises sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity.

Place and Duration of Study: Desk study: Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh. Field study: Some extreme climate change shock hot spots throughout Bangladesh including flood, cyclone, drought, salinity, water logging etc; from December 2011 to April 2013.

Methodology: Both socioeconomic and biophysical parameters from Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES), and other secondary sources are integrated with a statistical tool named Principal Component Analysis. To formulate proper policy for reducing climate change related vulnerabilities, primary data were also collected through focus group discussion with climate poor, and stakeholder consultation with program staffs.

Results: Vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate change are found different over the divisions of Bangladesh. Households of Barisal division show extreme climate change vulnerability followed by Rangpur and Khulna divisions whereas Rajshahi division shows minimum vulnerability followed by Sylhet or Dhaka division. On the other hand, the households of Khulna region have higher degree of adaptive capacity to climate change followed by Rangpur and Rajshahi divisions whereas the adaptive capacity was found minimum for the households from Sylhet division followed by Chittagong and Dhaka divisions.

Research Limitations/Implications: The biophysical properties of climate and socioeconomic conditions of households are not constant rather changes occur over time. Consequently measured indices would not constant for a longer time. Further analysis may be needed based on the availability of new data sets in future.

Practical Implications: Policy makers often confuse to think too many interacting factors on course of a disaster management plan, however such a single figure as vulnerability index can straightforward the policy intervention towards a direction.

Originality/Value: Although Bangladesh is a worst victim due to the various types of climate change shocks and stresses, its spatial vulnerability and adaptive capacity throughout the various regions of Bangladesh were not previously quantified.

Social Implications: The results are useful to evaluate potential complications for disaster preparedness and planning of the government.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microalgae Assisted Bioremediation of Landfill Leachate Using a Biocoil Reactor: Evaluation of Operational Conditions Using Taguchi Experimental Design

Cristiano E. Rodrigues Reis, Carla C. A. Loures, Heizir F. de Castro, Patrícia C. M. Da Rós, Júlio C. Santos, Helcio J. Izário Filho, Messias B. Silva

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 299-308
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2016/29831

The utilization of organic matter present in low-value effluents, such as landfill leachate, for cultivation of microorganisms exhibit an opportunity for low-cost cell growth while reducing the pollutants in the residue. The feasibility of reducing the organic load and toxic leachate through microalgal cultivation, using Chlorella sp., was investigated using a biocoil reactor. Operating conditions, as temperature, residence time, and illumination cycle were evaluated as control factors, and the responses in reduction of organic matter, turbidity, and metals present in the leachate were assessed. Statistical experimental design and analysis were performed using a Taguchi L4 array, and results show removal rates of TOC in 60%, COD in 68%, turbidity and boron contents in 98%, and a complete removal of iron.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the Functional and Structural Adaptation Changes of Biofilm Communities Toward Better Azo-dye Wastewater Treatment

Mihaela Belouhova, Yana Topalova

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 309-318
DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2016/27466

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the functional and structural adaptation changes in three biofilm communities purifying azo-dye contaminated wastewater.

Study Design: Three lab-scale sand biofilters were constructed for treating wastewater with azo-dye. The dye amaranth was chosen as model toxicant and its concentration was gradually increased in the wastewater from 10 mg/L up to 55 mg/L. The biofilters functioned for 26 days.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Environmental biotechnology, Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, 2011-2013 year.

Methodology: The residual amaranth concentration, efficiency and rate of its removal were monitored. The diagnostics of the functional structure of the biofilms is based on a cross analysis of data from culturable, culture-independent (fluorescent in-situ hybridization - FISH) and digital (digital image processing) techniques.

Results: The efficiency of the biofilters varied from 88.35% up to 95.97%. Three phases of the azo-detoxification process were distinguished.

In the early phase of functioning (0-191 h) culturable Pseudomonas sp. had key role in azo-degradation as their part of the community was about 70% for the three biofilters.

In the late phase of functioning (191-455 h) the biofilters eliminated 2 times higher concentration of amaranth. The mean value for the part of the microorganisms from g. Pseudomonas, calculated on the base of FISH, remained unchanged (42%). Simultaneously the cultivation techniques showed significantly decreased part of Pseudomonas sp. (4-10%). This suggest an important role of the unculturable Pseudomonas sp.

In the ending period (455-623 h) the rate of amaranth removal was increased with 20%. Well-formed zones with high concentration of bacteria from g. Pseudomonas were found in the biofilms which indicated formation of cooperative relationships.

Conclusion: This study shows three-stage mechanism of development of amaranth degradation potential. It includes successive importance of culurable, unculturable bacteria and cooperation in the g. Pseudomonas.