Open Access Original Research Article

Probabilistic and Economical Design of Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting Tank by Simulation Technique

J. Ramachandran, V. Ravikumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i127099

Introduction: Rainwater harvesting is the collection of rainwater directly from the surface(s) it falls on. Rainwater harvesting through collection tank is an effective method. Numerous methods are available for determining the size of the storage capacity required to satisfy a given demand. These methods vary in complexity and sophistication.

Methods: The tank design method includes general thumb rule (5% of annual runoff), sequential peak analysis (simulating twice the length of the record), optimization (best one that suits objective criteria), simulation, probabilistic and economical design. Simulation water balance model which works on daily basis, normal probability distribution and economics are used in designing the capacity of tanks and it is presented in a graphical form. The tanks are designed for two different purposes like domestic use and toilet flushing only.

Place and Data: Trichy city daily rainfall records from 1951-2011 is used. If a person living in Trichy city wants to construct a rainwater harvesting tank for toilet flushing purpose (6 Nos * 25l = 150l demand per day), the graphs can used.

Results: At a chosen exceedance probability (EP) of failure (how much time the tank fails to supply water), the engineer can decide the storage size under a preset deficit rate and also the cost of each tanks (per 1000 l) from the curves generated in this study. These relationships can be used by engineers in the design process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Cotton and Soybean Intercropping System to Integrated Nutrient Management

Amit M. Pujar, V. V. Angadi, J. A. Hosmath

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 18-26
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i127103

Aims: Field experiment was conducted to study the integrated nutrient management on yield, all yield components and resource use efficiency of cotton and soybean intercropping system.

Study Design: Randomized complete block design with three replications and twenty treatments.

Place and Duration of Study: Plot number ‘101’ of ‘D’ block, All India Coordinated Research Project, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka (India) during June 2016.

Methodology: As per the treatments, organic manure (FYM) and green leaf manures (gliricidia and pongamia) were applied 15 days before sowing of the crop. Vermicompost was applied on the spot to soil before dibbling of seeds in cotton and soybean intercropping system in 1:2 row proportions, soybean introduced as intercrop in cotton with row spacing of cotton 120 cm and soybean 30 cm.

Results: Results revealed that all the yield components like number of bolls per plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield and cotton stalk yield in cotton and number of pods per plant, seed weight per plant, seed yield and haulm yield were higher under sole crop. Application of 150 and 125% RDF for cotton and soybean intercropping system found higher yield and yield components of cotton and soybean. However, the land equivalent ratio (LER), area time equivalent ratio (ATER) and cotton equivalent yield (CEY) were higher in intercropping system than sole crops.

Conclusion: Application of 125% RDF for both crops was found to be agronomically feasible, economically viable, environment friendly and in sustainable approach. In addition to this it provides insurance against inter-climatic changes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) Assessment in Tree Species of Coimbatore Urban City, Tamil Nadu, India

A. Balasubramanian, C. N. Hari Prasath, K. Gobalakrishnan, S. Radhakrishnan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 27-38
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i127106

Aims: Forest restoration in urbanized and polluted cities is paving the way for mitigation of climate change by reducing the air pollutants level and carbon content level in atmosphere. So, the study was conducted at Coimbatore urban city, Tamil Nadu by using twenty five tree species to know their air pollution tolerance index (APTI) level.

Study Design: The sample procedure used for assessing the APTI was stratified random sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: The leaf sample was collected from different zones of Coimbatore urban city and the sample analysis was carried out in Department of Silviculture, Forest College and Research Institute, Mettupalayam, Tamil Nadu between August 2015-April 2017.

Methodology: Five zones namely residential, industrial, commercial, heavy traffic and control zone were identified from Coimbatore city for estimating the air pollution tolerance index (APTI). In order to assess the air pollution tolerance index of tree species, the biochemical parameters like ascorbic acid content, total chlorophyll content, leaf extract pH and relative water content (RWC) were estimated.

Results: Among the 25 tree species tested, Thespesia populnea recorded highest APTI of 16.07, 15.76, 14.63 and 14.37 in heavy traffic zone, industrial zone, control zone and residential zone respectively. In commercial zone, Pongamia pinnata accounted highest APTI value of 13.96. On contrary, the lowest level of APTI was registered by Michelia champaca in industrial zone (10.21), Peltophorum pterocarpum in heavy traffic zone (10.93), Spathodea campanulata in residential zone (11.11) and Albizia saman in commercial zone (11.46).

Conclusion: On an overall, Thespesia populnea and Pongamia pinnata were performed well with highest APTI and they can be used for controlling the air pollution level in urban cities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling Climate Change Projections for Ferozpur Sub-catchment of Jhelum Sub-basin of Kashmir Valley

Syed Rouhullah Ali, Junaid N. Khan, Mehraj U. Din Dar, Shakeel Ahmad Bhat, Syed Midhat Fazil, Mehlath Shah, Iqra Mehraj

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 39-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i127108

Aims: The study aimed at modeling the climate change projections for Ferozpur subcatchment of Jhelum sub-basin of Kashmir Valley using the SDSM model.

Study Design: The study was carried out in three different time slices viz Baseline (1985-2015), Mid-century (2030-2059) and End-century (2070-2099).

Place and Duration of Study: Division of Agricultural Engineering, SKUAST-K, Shalimar between August 2015 and July 2016.

Methodology: Statistical downscaling model (SDSM) was applied in downscaling weather files (Tmax, Tminand precipitation). The study includes the calibration of the SDSM model by using Observed daily climate data (Tmax, Tmin and precipitation) of thirty one years and large scale atmospheric variables encompassing National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data, the validation of the model, and the outputs of downscaled scenario A2 of the Global Climate Model (GCM) data of Hadley Centre Coupled Model, Version 3 (HadCM3) model for the future. Daily Climate (Tmax, Tmin and precipitation) scenarios were generated from 1961 to 2099 under A2 defined by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Results: The results showed that temperature and precipitation would increase by 0.29°C, 255.38 mm (30.97%) in MC (Mid-century) (2030-2059); and 0.67oC and 233.28 mm (28.29%) during EC (End-century) (2070-2099), respectively.

Conclusion: The climate projections for 21st century under A2 scenario indicated that both mean annual temperature and precipitation are showing an increasing trend.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trace-elements Behavior in the Sedimentary Transport Regime of the Blue Amazon, Brazil

Gilmar W. Siqueira, Fabio Aprile, Assad Darwich, Georg Irion

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 53-63
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i127131

Trace elements or trace metals are of great interest in environmental studies due to their toxic and cumulative properties in the biological and sedimentary compartments. The discharge area of the Amazon River mouth receives an immense volume of suspended material with adsorbed trace elements, which mostly ends up depositing in the shelf area influenced by the fluvial-marine currents and physical-chemical properties of the water and sediment. This research aims to quantify and to discuss the routes of trace elements (Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn and Hg), associated with sedimentary transport and deposition in the Amazon Continental Shelf (ACS). The results showed a sediment distribution by zone, with a non-continuous range of erosive processes and areas of deposition for mud and sand sediments. The trace elements contents in the sediments are strongly influenced by the pH, salinity, organic compounds, clay minerals and CaCO3content. Fluvial-marine currents were important drive forces for deposition and accumulation of fine sediments in the shelf, especially the North Brazilian Coastal Current (NBCC). Statistical analysis and hypothesis testing confirmed the trend of sediment accumulation by zone, influenced by the physical-chemical parameters.