Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Harvesting and Non-Harvested Forest Management on Carbon Stocks

Bhagat Suberi, Krishna R. Tiwari, D. B. Gurung, Roshan M. Bajracharya, Bishal K. Sitaula

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 152-164
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i327153

Forest management is an important strategy which can significantly contribute to climate change mitigation through appropriate care of forest resources. This study was carried out to evaluate two systems of carbon stock accumulation; a harvested forest verses a non-harvested forest. Both the above-ground and below-ground cabon stocks were assessed. Biomass of standing trees, poles and ground vegetation was measured for carbon determination in defined areas using an allometric relationship. Soil (core and composite) samples were collected from 0 –20, 20 – 40 cm and below 40 cm depths, assessed for density, carbon concentration, and profiles C-stocks were estimated. ANOVA and t-tests were performed to compare the effects of forest management on total carbon stocks. The results showed that the total above ground timber carbon (AGTC) was higher in non-harvested forest (220±154 t/ha–1) than in harvested forest (128.6±86.1 t/ha-1). The overall mean carbon stock was higher in the non-harvested forest (357±179) than in the harvested forest (257.4±93.1), which was statistically significant (p=0.031, >0.05). However, the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool was observed to be higher in the harvested forest (101.5±36.1) than in non-harvested forest (89.6±26.5).

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Regional Influence of Fine Carbonaceous Particles at Gosan, Korea

K. J. Moon, B. J. Kong, J. S. Han, Y. S. Ghim

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 165-179
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i327157

Aims: This study aimed to study the long-range transport of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosol at Gosan, Korea

Study Design: Chemical composition of fine particles (aerodynamic diameter < 2.5㎛) and PAHs of TSP measured at Gosan during six intensive measurement periods covering four seasons. And the chemical characteristics of particulate matter were classified and compared each other according to the major source areas identified by using backward trajectory analysis in order to study the impact of distant source regions on the carbonaceous aerosol at Gosan, Korea.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Gosan, Jeju Island in Republic of Korea, from 13 to 25 Nov. 2001, from 29 Mar. to 11 Apr. 2002, from 27 Aug. to 11 Sep. 2002, from 14 to 26 Feb 2003, from 6 to 22 Jun. 2003, and from 18 Aug. to 1 Sep. 2003.

Methodology: In order to investigate the chemical composition of fine particles, 7 major ion components, 21 trace elements, organic and elemental carbon of PM2.5 were measured. In addition, particulate hazardous pollutants including 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The measured data were classified according to the dominant source area identified with the three-day backward trajectory analysis. Then several ratios of species combining EC, OC, SO42-, K+ and PAH compounds were used to identify potential sources of carbonaceous materials.

Results: Quite different characteristic in the chemical composition of fine particles was observed by regional groups of backward trajectories. Concentrations of ion components including secondary aerosol such as SO42- and NH4+ were relatively high when air masses were originated from north China. Concentrations of OC and gaseous PAHs were higher when they transported from Japan than from other source regions. High concentrations of secondary aerosols as well as particulate PAHs were observed in the air mass from north China with a higher correlation between them. Elemental carbon had a better correlation in this case not only with secondary aerosols, but also with OC and CO, implying that carbonaceous materials were originated from long-distance combustion sources. Especially positive correlation with benzo(ghi)perylene suggested that they also had a vehicular origin.

Conclusion: The results showed that biomass burning and vehicular emissions mainly influenced ambient fine particles when they derived from north China and the Korea peninsula while fossil fuel combustion chiefly affected them when they originated in south China during six intensive measurement periods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Change Impacts on Livelihood Vulnerability Assessment-Adaptation and Mitigation Options in Marine Hot Spots in Kerala, India

Shyam S. Salim, R. Narayanakumar, R. Remya, P. K. Safeena, M. Ramees Rahman, Harsha Elizabeth James

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 180-199
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i327164

Climate change, a global challenge facing mankind necessitates governments to develop mitigation and adaptation plans. The climate change has multidimensional impacts on environment, fishery, social, economic and development drivers.  Climate change hot spots –can be defined as the ‘live labs’ where the manifestation of the climate change impacts is observed “first”. The South west India has been recognised as one among the twenty four hot spot regions identified globally. The present paper assessed the climate change vulnerability of over 800 fisher households in two major fishing villages of Kerala from the south west hotspot regions of India. Exposure (E), Sensitivity (S) and Adaptive Capacity (AC) are the pertinent factors that determine the vulnerability of households which were captured using a structured household questionnaire. One ninety eight  indicators were identified in the construction of vulnerability indices of which 37 related to sensitivity, 36 related to exposure and the other 125 indicators dealt with adaptive capacity. The overall vulnerability of the regions was assessed and the analysis revealed that the Poonthura village of Kerala was more vulnerable when compared to Elamkunnapuzha. The coastal population on their vulnerability scores were categorised into low, moderate, high and very high based on score values and geo-spatial analysis was attempted.  The results revealed that majority of fisher households in both villages were highly vulnerable to climate change, which is a major cause of concern. The study advocates the need for a bottom up approach with the proactive participation of the fishers in developing location specific adaptation and mitigation plans to ensure the livelihood of the fishers and the sustainable development of the fisheries sector in the climate change regime.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysing the Role of Environmental Stresses on Species Richness and the Process of Hierarchical Structuring of Species Abundances in Marine Gastropods communities at Suva (Fiji Islands)

Jean Béguinot

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 200-233
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i327169

Anthropogenic environmental stresses, especially physio-chemical pollution, are causing steadily increasing threat to many ecosystems, among which coastal marine communities in tropical shallow waters are especially sensitive. In particular, species-rich marine gastropod assemblages are doomed to bear sharp drops in species diversity when exposed to pollutants released offshore. Yet, the details of the process of decline in species diversity remain to be addressed and analysed more deeply. By addressing a series of previously reported inventories of marine gastropod communities along a sharp gradient of pollution along southern coast at Suva (Fiji Archipelago), I first confirm the already recognised trend towards both a severe decrease in species richness and a strong increase of the unevenness in species abundance distribution, as a response to incremental pollution. Yet, the last trend – increased unevenness – reveals being essentially the purely mathematical consequence of the concomitant decline in species richness. In fact, the genuine intensity of the process of hierarchical structuring of species abundances proves remaining virtually unaffected by environmental degradation, contrary to what has been generally thought so far. Also, another unexpected aspect of the decline in species richness with growing pollution is that this decline is far from being primarily restricted to the set of rarest species; in fact, the originally abundant species are also largely implied in this decline.

Moreover, considering separately the two co-occurring feeding guilds, it is shown that herbivores and carnivores are substantially involved the same in the drop in species diversity; as a result, their relative contributions in the community do not seem markedly contrasted by growing pollution. In another respect, a recently proposed paradigmatic hypothesis is supported, according to which the herbivore-guild has quite less numerous species with more unevenly distributed abundances, as compared to the carnivore-guild. Yet, once again, this increased unevenness is essentially the purely mathematical consequence of the concomitant decline in species richness; the genuine intensity of the process of hierarchical structuring of species abundances does remain substantially unchanged. At last, a comparatively extremely high sensitivity to pollution is highlighted for the emblematic genus Conus, which suffers, here, a dramatic drop in species diversity.

Open Access Review Article

Human Interaction with the Natural Environment: The POETICAS Model as a Framework for Understanding and Praxis in Late Modernity

Thomas J. Burns, Peyman Hekmatpour, Kristen C. Speer

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 234-268
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i327171

Using the acronym POETICAS, we explore eight major facets of humankind’s relationship with the natural environment. We make the case that, while they are not mutually exclusive, they are nonetheless analytically distinct. We explore the roles of: 1) Population & demography; 2) Organizations & institutions; 3) Ecology; 4) Technology; 5) Illness & health; 6) Culture; 7) Affluence & inequality; and 8) Scale & time. We examine each of these facets in turn, looking not only at their main effects, but also considering many of the interactions among these factors in a broader ecological context. Building on earlier models, we make a case that this broader and more robust model can offer a framework for civic discourse about the human-environment interface that is useable to a wide array of audiences, including students and researchers as well as policy makers, members of social movement organizations, and engaged citizens seeking an overarching framework that can help make sense of a variety of otherwise disparate findings.