Open Access Original Research Article

Adaptation Strategies of Farmers in a Drought-Prone Area of Rajshahi District

M. H. Uddin, M. A. Baten, M. Y. Uddin, M. J. Alam, M. M. Haque, M. G. Mostafa

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 269-282
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i427176

The study was conducted to determine the nature of adaptation strategies of the farmers in a drought-prone area of Rajshahi district. The locale of the study was drought-prone area of Tanore Upazila under Rajshahi district of Bangladesh. Data were collected from 200 households selected through a proportionate stratified random sampling technique from four villages namely Talopara and Jumerpara of Bhadair union and Kandopur and Dhebostoly of Kalma union under Tanore Upazila and analyzed with help of Microsoft Excel, SPPSS and Brasica program. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the adaptation strategies practiced by the farmers in drought period, to find out the relationship between some characteristics of the farmers and their adaptation strategies in drought prone area, to ascertain the contribution of selected characteristics of the farmers to their adaptation strategies in drought period, to explore factors that influences the farmer’s characteristics in applying adaptation strategies and to explore problems faced by farmers in a drought prone area. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used in the study. Questionnaire and checklists were used in conducting survey and Key Informants Interviews. The selected 19 characteristics of the farmers were considered as the independent variables and their adapted adaptation strategies constituted the dependent variable. Adaptation strategies of the farmers in drought prone area ranged from 20 to 50 against a possible range 16 to 64, with an average of 38.65 and standard deviation 4.391. The highest proportion of the respondents (74 percent) had adapted strategies moderately, 17 percent had adapted strategies strongly, 7 percent had adapted strategies slightly and only 2 percent had not adapted strategies. Education, farm size, drought affected area, household asset, annual family income, savings, water and sanitation, communication exposure, agricultural training received, cosmopoliteness, aspiration, planning orientation, environmental awareness were positive and significant relationship with their adaptation strategies in drought period. Path analysis indicates that the variation on farmers’ adaptation strategies was mainly due to the contributions of five predictors viz. that age, household asset, credit received, agricultural training received, and environmental awareness. Adaptation strategies of the farmers’ model indicate that 38.99 percent of total variation in farmers’ adaptation strategies status has been explained by these predictors. The five relevant characteristics having significant effects improvise their contribution to adaptation status and among those, household assets activities alone contribution explaining 25.1 percent of the variation in practice adaptation strategies during in drought period followed by environmental awareness 3.9 percent, agricultural training received 2.8 percent, credit received 3.7 percent and age 1.6 percent. The major root causes of low adaptation strategies of the farmers in drought prone area were lack of rainfall, rising temperature, lack of moisture, lack of awareness and lack of soil management. Hence, provision of necessary measures by the concerned authority and progressive change in socio-economic-environmental structure of the society are desirable for improvement of the farmers’ adaptation strategies in drought prone area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterizing and Monitoring Drought over Upper Blue Nile of Ethiopia with the Aid of Copula Analysis

Abebe Kebede, U. Jaya Prakash Raju, Diriba Koricha, Melessew Nigussie

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 283-294
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i427181

The main aim of this study is to characterize and monitor drought distribution and expansion over Upper Blue Nile of Ethiopia by using univariate standard precipitation index (SPI) and standardized soil moisture index (SMI) whose joint distribution leads to multi standardized drought index (MSDI). The soil moisture and CHIRPS precipitation data from first January 1980 to 2016 are modeled. The indices of SPI, SMI and the joint MSDI value over the Upper Blue Nile are analyzed. The SPI for different time scales is implemented. The correlation between severity, duration and intensity including wetness and drought strengths is computed and analyzed. It is found that the correlation between duration and severity is 0.96 and normal conditions for SPI 3, 6, 12 month time scales are frequently observed rather than moderate, severe and extreme severe drought or wetness. Building on soil moisture and precipitation data of the summer season, the Clayton copula model is selected based on goodness of fit parameters. After setting the best copula family for the Upper Blue Nile then we applied the joint distribution method is applied for characterizing and monitoring drought. It is found that the MSDI more clearly showed that the severity of drought across the time series of each time scales, than SPI and SMI. As the time scale increases there is decline of fluctuation or frequency of drought and the rising of drought duration is shown by SPI, SMI and MSDI. By using SPI6, SMI6 and MSDI6 the spatial distribution of drought is determined from June to August in the years 1984 and 2015 indicate the drought expansions in the eastern and western parts of Upper Blue Nile during the respective years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Climate Variation on Growth of Tropical Tree Species in Western Kenya

Eric T. David, Sophan Chhin, David Skole

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 295-307
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i427186

Aims: Growth-climate relationships were examined in 7 tropical tree species growing in the Yala river basin of western Kenya: Acacia mearnsii, Cupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalytus saligna, Mangifera indica, and Markhamia lutea.

Methodology: Standardized basal area increments were correlated with monthly and seasonal (3 month periods) climate variables (precipitation, mean temperature, Climate Moisture Index) obtained from nearby meteorological stations.

Results: A majority of the tree species (M. indica, C. lusitanica, E. camaldulensis, and E. saligna) showed positive correlations with monthly and seasonal precipitation and moisture index during periods of the long and short rainy seasons.  This study also revealed significant correlations between monthly and seasonal temperature data and radial growth of M. indica, M. lutea and E. grandis.  Growth of M. lutea was negatively affected by cool growing season conditions while M. indica and E. grandis experienced high temperature stress. 

Conclusion: Associations between radial growth of tropical tree species and temperature are generally rare in warm tropical regions, and for some of the species examined in this study that are non-native (i.e., M. indica and E. grandis), strongly suggests that they may be growing outside the optimal temperature conditions of their native geographical range.

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Resources Dynamics and Vulnerability in Rusizi National Park (Burundi) from 1984 to 2015, in the Context of Climate Change and Global Warming

Ntiranyibagira Elysée, Sambou Bienvenu, Abou Thiam, Naramabuye François Xavier, Uwiringiyimana Thacienne, Umuziranenge Gloriose, Muhirwa Fabien

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 308-331
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i427192

The study of water resources’ dynamics and vulnerability in Rusizi national Park aimed to achieve the following objectives: (1) to identify, characterize and map water bodies, (2) to analyze and explain their periodical evolutions and (3) to analyze the spatial transformation processes affecting them. It is a contribution to the knowledge of the Park’s water resources for the development of monitoring systems and the sustainability of their functions as strategic ecosystems. It is based on the diachronic analysis of land cover from multi-date Landsat images of years 1984, 1990 and 2011 (TM), 2000 (ETM+) and 2015 (OLI-TIRS), landscape ecology tools and socio-economic and climate data. Supervised classification of images allowed the identification of 9 to 10 land cover classes including water bodies, according to years. A total number of 17 water bodies were detected from 1984 to 2015. During this period, regularly detected and dried up water bodies represent 18.2% and 54.6% respectively. The rates of water bodies’ drying up were 69.2% in 2000 and 64.2% in 2015. Water bodies are experiencing a great deterioration in number, size and stability. The Park's water coverage has decreased from 3.56% in 1984 to 2.43% in 2015. This corresponds to a decline of 31.2%. The water bodies’ stability, which was 75.70% between 1984 and 1990, represents only 42.78% between 1984 and 2015. The stability of individual water bodies is decreasing as well while low spatial connectivities are being observed between some close water bodies. The spatial transformation processes carrying these dynamics are patch enlargement, patch creation, patch attrition and patch dissection, depending on the period. Global warming, rainfall variability and farming activities like land drainage and irrigation are the most important threats to water resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drip Irrigation Scheduling for Higher Growth, Productivity and Input Use Efficiency of Direct Seeded Basmati Rice in Indo-Gangetic Plains for Climate Resilient

A. K. Bhardwaj, T. Pandiaraj, P. Soman, R. K. Bhardwaj, T. C. Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 332-340
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2018/v8i430092

The Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) is an environmentally susceptible, communally momentous and economically tactical sphere of India where landscape, ground water and soil fertility are threatened by climate change. An increasing water scarcity for rice in the irrigated IGP is urging farmers to espouse water saving technologies such micro irrigation. Rice growing with drip irrigation may substantially reduce irrigation water requirement of rice. In order to make assessment of drip irrigation in rice, a field experiment was carried out at Pantnagar, Uttarakhand in 2017. Rice was established by Direct Seeding in conventional and drip irrigation treatments. The treatments were laid with drip irrigation at 50, 75 and 100% CPE on each 2 and 4 days interval. Two conventional irrigation practices (i.e. absolute control and farmers’ practice) were also included in the study. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with four replications. Compared with farmers practice, (transplanted and flooded) drip irrigation at 100% CPE on two days interval produced taller shoots and higher yield attributes of rice crop. Rice grown in drip irrigation was found more grain yield than farmers’ practice. Among drip irrigation, 100% CPE on 2 days gap (T5) recorded 45% higher grain yield (5800 kg ha-1) than farmers practice. Similarly, T5 treatment was higher content and uptake of nutrient. However, treatments T3 (50% CPE on 2 days gap) followed by T7 (75% CPE on 4 days interval) had higher water use efficiency. Result, further revealed that fertilizer use efficiency of T5 treatment was found to be higher (23.2 kg grain per kg fertilizer applied). Hence, rice is scheduled with drip irrigation at a tune of 100% CPE on 2 days interval can benefit over sustaining the direct seeded basmati rice productivity. However, there is a demand to examine these benefits of drip irrigation in rice in relation to the viability of adoption by farmers.