Open Access Original Research Article

Remote Sensing Based Land Surface Temperature Analysis in Diverse Environment of Lalgudi Block

J. Ramachandran, R. Lalitha, K. Sivasubramanian

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 142-149
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i330103

Introduction: Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a significant climatic variable and defined as how hot the "surface" of the Earth would feel to the physical touch in a particular location. A spatial analysis of the land surface temperature with respect to different land use/cover changes is vital to evaluate the hydrological processes.

Methods: The objective of this paper is to assess the spatial variation of land surface temperature derived from thermal bands of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) by using split window algorithm.

Place and Data: The study was conducted in Lalgudi block of Trichy District, Tamil Nadu, India. The block has diverse environment like forest area, barren land, river sand bed, water bodies, dry vegetation, cultivated areas (paddy, sugarcane, banana etc.) and settlements. Landsat 8 satellite images for four selected scenes (December 2014 & January 2015 and December 2017 & January 2018) were used to estimate the LST.

Results: The spatial and temporal variation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and LST were estimated. The average NDVI values of cropped fields varied from 0.3 to 0.5 in all the scenes. The maximum value of LST ranging from 35 to 40°C was recorded in river sand bed. Subsequently, semi-urban settlements in the central part of Lalgudi block exhibited higher temperature ranging from 28 – 30°C. The LST of paddy crop and sugarcane was in the range of 23 to 25°C. The water bodies exhibited LST around 20°C. The coconut plantations, forest area and Prosopis juliflora showed LST value ranging from 24 – 29°C. This kind of block level monitoring studies helps in adopting suitable policies to overcome or minimize the problems triggered by increase in land surface temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of the Episodic Rainstorm Event of 18th April and 5th May, 2018 in Taraba State, Nigeria

Ojeh, N. Vincent, Oruonye, D. Emeka, Arisabor, Lucky, Jutum, Felix, Dovo John, Mubwi, Israel, Audu, Grace, Daniel Samuel, Bawa, Winnie, J. Joseph, Monday, Semaka, Shedrach

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 150-159
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i330104

The study assessed the two days episodic rainstorm event that destroyed buildings and led to loss of life in April and May 2018 in Taraba State, northeast Nigeria. Data were from primary and secondary sources. A total of 60 copies of research questionnaires and interviews were used, complimented by data from the meteorological observatory of the Department of Geography, Taraba State University and expert eye witness accounts. The results of the study show that the 2-day rainstorm extreme event with high wind speed of over 600 knots (327 m/s) caused devastating damages to building infrastructures in the state and the roofs of buildings and damage to Globacom Telecommunication mast was profound and five people lost their lives with several others sustaining diverse injuries in 17 communities in Jalingo and Wukari. It led to about 62% of the affected to take refuge outside their homes for over three days while other spent more than 10 days. The schools were more affected with an estimated cost of ₦30,000,000 to fix the damaged infrastructures, followed by government buildings which needs about 24,000, 000 and residential building with estimated cost of ₦ 6,275,000. The cost for fixing the infrastructures damaged in Wukari in comparison to Jalingo was ₦ 9,000,000 for residential buildings, ₦ 6,000,000 for government buildings and ₦ 9,275,000 for schools respectively. Prices of roofing sheets increased with about $6 during the period. It was suggested that wind breakers should be encouraged and the cutting down of trees should be discouraged while creating awareness and encouraging afforestation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determining Temperature Extreme in Warri City, Niger-Delta Region, Nigeria

Y. S. Onifade, V. B. Olaseni

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 160-166
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i330105

Climate change and global warming which is also known as a change in Earth’s overall climate or rising temperature have taken centre stage in international concerns, several fora and treaties have been observed with a view of stemming trend, in rising temperatures. This study evaluated ten years of maximum and minimum annual temperature of Warri  in Nigeria between (2005 and 2015) to determine trends and identified extreme fluctuation in temperature. Data used for this study were sourced from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency’s Zonal Office, Warri. An objective method for determining temperature extreme has been used. Least square linear regression equation has been used to estimate temperature that would be equalled or surpassed 1%, 5% and 10% of the hours at any given location during the warmest and coldest months of the year. These equations are based on an index calculated from the three readily available parameters; the mean monthly temperature, the mean daily maximum temperature for the month and the mean daily minimum temperature for the month. The warmest month in Warri was March with a mean monthly temperature of 33.9 while the coldest month was July with mean monthly of 25.8.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analytical River Routing with Alternative Methods to Estimate Seepage

Hubert J. Morel-Seytoux

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 167-192
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i330106

Knowledge of flow exchange between surface and groundwater is of great importance for use of water resources. The determination of seepage between a stream and an underlying aquifer requires an accurate estimation of the river stage and of the head in the aquifer. An approach is presented to estimate analytically river flow and stage while using the SAFE conductance to calculate the seepage.  A major contribution of this article lies in the methodology for river routing with its use of a modified Linear Reservoir model.  The parameter C is related to discharge based on Manning’s equation. That relation breathes into an empirical model a dynamic character. A second major contribution is to show that it is possible to simultaneously calculate river stage and aquifer head in the aquifer cell that contains the river.  As a result iteration is not necessary to estimate that river cell head as river stage changes, as opposed to what is usually done in most numerical groundwater models.  Iteration is still needed for the adjacent cells to the river cell.  Because the influence of a change in the adjacent cell head on the river cell head is much delayed and attenuated the iteration is not sensitive to that change. A goal of this document is to show how that method can be used within a simple physically based routing procedure [1] to estimate the river stage that has a definite influence on seepage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Appraisal of Water-Ecosystem in Jammu and Kashmir: India

M. H. Wani, S. H. Baba, Arshad Bhat

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 193-203
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i330107

Aims: The aims of the current paper is to provide a comparative analysis of the water ecosystem in the state of Jammu & Kashmir in India and to highlight economic potentiality of the two nerve tributaries; “Dal Lake” and “River Jhelum” to the farmers and other communities of the Kashmiri society.

Study Design: The temperate region of Kashmir valley is bestowed with many water bodies in the form of springs, lakes and rivers. Kashmir region is world famous for its lakes viz; “Dal Lake”, “Wulur Lake”, “Mansbal Lake”, “Anchar Lake”, “Nigeen Lake”; springs viz; Kokarnag, Verinag, Achabal and “River Jhelum” etc. “Dal Lake” and “River Jhelum” are known to be the nerve tributaries of the valley and various communities are dependent on these water bodies for their livelihood.

Methodology: Contingent valuation method and willingness to pay techniques were used to analyse the data and interpret the results.

Results: The results revealed that economic value associated with the selected water bodies was worth millions of US$. Most of the population in the valley depends on these water bodies for their livelihood. In addition, the results reveal that over the years, pollution and encroachment of these water bodies has increased manifold reducing the width, depth and recreational value of these water bodies. Though every stakeholder is willing to pay for the restoration of these water bodies, however, little or no attention is being paid by the local government towards their, management, sustenance and conservation.

Conclusion: The study concludes that over the years, due to growth of population in the valley along with the ever increasing influx of floating population in terms of tourist arrivals, the selected water bodies (Dal Lake & River Jhelum) came under heavy stress, culminating into the deterioration of their aesthetic and recreational value besides drastic reduction in their revenue generation for their poor water quality and mismanagement. The restoration of these water bodies, which in addition of providing employment to the stakeholders in huge numbers also generate revenue worth millions of US$, demands devising a pragmatic policy by the government towards their conservation and restoration of their lost glory through efficient management and monitoring system.