Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Alternative Livelihood Options for Climate Change Vulnerable Coastal Fishing Villages in Kerala, India

Shyam S. Salim, Lina Joseph, Harsha Elizabeth James, A. M. Shinu, N. R. Athira, R. X. Smitha

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 204-216
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i430108

Fisheries and allied sectors provide means of livelihood to millions of people around the world. In India more than 14.5 million individuals depend on fisheries for their livelihood, with Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Kerala being the main three marine fish producing states of the country. The social and economic contribution of fisheries as a sector cannot be ignored or go unnoticed. Similarly the impact of climate change on fisheries and its resultant impact on the livelihood of fisheries dependent communities cannot be ignored. To address these pertinent issues, we first need to understand the impact of climate change on fisheries and the need of alternative livelihood options from the perspective of the direct stakeholders i.e. fishermen. This study is an endeavour to look at the need of Alternative livelihood options (ALOs) because of climate change among the coastal communities in Poonthura and Elamkunnapuzha villages of Thiruvananthapuram and Ernakulum respectively. Among the 222 marine fishing villages of Kerala, Poonthura and Elamkunnapuzha are the major fishing villages from the South West hotspot locales of India. The examination investigated different socioeconomic aspects, for example, fishing  activity,  basic  household  data,  economic  as  well  as  historic  and  cultural dependence on fishing, employment and occupational structure, income  distribution  and  assets,  physical  capital,  financial  capital,  social capital, and exposure and awareness  of the fishermen families to climate change by interviewing 1259 fishermen from Poonthura and Elamkunnapuzha. The study conducted in the most climate change vulnerable marine hotspots of Kerala (Elamkunnapuzha and Poonthura) explains the problems and prospects of the inhabitants in the sector and the importance of Alternative Livelihood Options (ALOs) in climate change adaptation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydrological Modeling of the Paligad Watershed (India) Using HSPF Model

Aamir Ishaq Shah

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 217-228
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i430109

For hydrological studies, it is well known that each hydrological system behaves differently and in order to effectively manage those systems, it is necessary to understand their behavior. The hydrological component of Hydrological Simulation Program – FORTRAN (HSPF) model was set up and calibrated for Paligad watershed which is a sub-basin of Aglar watershed in the Uttarakhand state of India. The calibration of the model was done manually and an expert advice system called as HSPEXP+ was used to aid calibration. The values of evaluation indicators such as coefficient of determination (R2) Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, PBIAS and the mean error (RE) were found to be within acceptable range which also indicated good calibration and validation results. The validation results showed that the model nearly simulated the mean monthly runoff with the coefficient of determination (R2) as 0.83 for the year 2015-2016. The total observed annual runoff volume was 32.26 inches, where the value of annual simulated runoff volume was found to be 30.37 inches indicating an error of -5.84% in the estimation of total annual runoff volume. The effect of change in land use/ land cover of the catchment can be evaluated using this model.  This study offers more scope on the management of watershed output in the form of runoff and the impact changes in land use/ land cover on the streamflow from the basin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Variations in Imabolo Stream Water Quality in Ankpa Urban Area of Kogi State, Nigeria

Johnmark Friday Ocheje, Michael Chukwuma Obeta, Eze, Eberechukwu Jennifer, Nwankwoala, Hycienth Ogunka, Wali, Elekwachi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 229-241
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i430110

Changes in season is one of the important drivers responsible for pollutants transported into surface waters. This study examined the seasonal variations in the quality of Imabolo stream water within Ankpa urban, Kogi State, Nigeria. To achieve the aim of the study, water samples were collected at the peak of the two seasons from seven points along the stream reach corresponding to the different land-use activities in the study area in March and June, 2018. In-situ and laboratory analysis of eighteen physico-chemical and two microbiological parameters were carried out according to standard procedures. Descriptive statistics and t-test were employed to analyze the data obtained for both dry and rainy seasons. The results were compared with WHO and NSDWQ standards for drinking water quality for characterization. The analysis revealed that water samples from six points had elevated values of parameters above the recommended limits for human consumption. The observed seasonal variation indicated that wet season values were higher for all the parameters except DO and Ca2+, while t-test showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in the level of temperature, EC, TDS, turbidity, BOD, COD, nitrate, sulphate, iron, calcium, lead, cadmium, alkalinity, total hardness, total coliforms and E. coli betweendry and rainy season. The study advances innovative recommendations to remediate and improve the quality of the stream water in order to meet the water needs of the users.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Physico-chemical and Hydraulic Characteristics of Soil in Forest Area of Southwestern, Nigeria

T. A. Ademiju, R. J. Oseyanbu, L. N. Momah

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 242-247
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i430111

In this area of agricultural transformation by the government of Nigeria, every opportunity in order to achieve food security should not be ignored. Most studies on soil characteristics had centered on the suitability of the soil for agricultural   production and it is observed that any soil that does not support crop production refers to as poor and unproductive. Achieving efficient production and high yield requires adequate knowledge of the soil and climatic conditions that are favorable to the crops. The study was conducted to investigates physico-chemical and hydraulic properties of forest soils in southwestern, Nigeria in latitude 7o5’3’’N and 7o 21’57.6’N and longitude 5o 10’31’’E and 5o56’6.3’’E. The soil samples were randomly taken from four (4) forest locations in Ondo State, Nigeria. The soils were taken at different depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-45 cm) and the samples were taken to the laboratory in order to determine their pH, electrical conductivity, exchangeable cations, and texture. The results of the soil test were then subjected to appropriate statistical analyses. Results show that sandy soil had the highest percentage in the forest at kajola oju-irin (70%). The bulk density is high in Ijare with 1.6 g/cm3 which could allow easy penetration of water and nutrient. Also, the soil pH, electrical conductivity and exchangeable cations range from 4.65 to 6.99,78.28 to 89.20 mS/cm and 0.40 cmol/kg to  2.60 cmol/kg respectively. The soils are described as light and falls under sandy loam soil. This study provides information on the suitability of the soils in the forest areas in south west Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Vulnerability Assessment of Afikpo South Local Government Area, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Okonufua Endurance, Olajire O. Olabanji, Ojeh N. Vincent, Christiana Ovie Akpoduado, Joshua Maaku Mark

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 248-256
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i430112

Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) integrated with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was adopted to estimate the rate of annual soil loss in Afikpo South Local Government. This is important due to the fact that agriculture is the main source of livelihood in the area. The RUSLE factors were computed using data such as rainfall from NIMET, Soil from FAO, elevation from SRTM and Landsat 8 OLI from USGS. The data were used as input in a GIS environment and the annual soil loss was generated using the RUSLE equation. The result shows that the average annual soil loss ranges from 0 to 155, 858 ha/ton/yr. It was also observed that soil erosion was predominant in the southern part of Afikpo South LGA due to the presence of steep slopes in the area. The study serves as preliminary documentation for planning, conservation and management of soil resources in the Local Government.