Open Access Original Research Article

Time Series and Empirical Orthogonal Transformation Using Meteorological Parameters across the Climatic Zones in Nigeria

D. O. Akpootu, B. I. Tijjani, U. M. Gana

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 257-272
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i530113

Time series and empirical orthogonal transformation analysis was carried out for four (4) selected tropical sites, which are situated across the four different climatic zones, viz. Sahelian, Midland, Guinea savannah and Coastal region in Nigeria using measured monthly average daily global solar radiation, maximum and minimum temperatures, sunshine hours, rainfall, wind speed, cloud cover and relative humidity meteorological data during the period of thirty one years (1980-2010). Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models were developed along with their respective statistical indicators of coefficient of determination (R2), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE). The results indicated that the models were found suitable for one step ahead global solar radiation forecast for the studied locations. Furthermore, the results of the time series analysis revealed that the model type for all the meteorological parameters show a combination of simple seasonal with one or more of either ARIMA, winter’s additive and winter’s multiplicative with the level been more significant as compared to the trend and seasonal variations for the exponential smoothing model parameters in all the locations. The results of the correlation matrix revealed that the global solar radiation is more correlated to the mean temperature except for Akure where it is more correlated to the sunshine hours; the mean temperature is more correlated to the global solar radiation; the rainfall is more correlated to the relative humidity and the relative humidity is more correlated to the rainfall in all the locations. The results of the component matrix revealed that three seasons are identified in Nguru located in the Sahelian region namely, the rainy, the cool dry (harmattan) and the hot dry seasons while in Zaria, Makurdi and Akure located in the Midland, Guinea savannah and Coastal zones two distinct seasons are identified namely, the rainy and dry seasons.

Open Access Original Research Article

Undergraduate Students Willingness to Pay for Social Services of Trees at the Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

P. U. Ancha, E. T. Ikyaagba, T. T. Nongov

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 273-286
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i530114

The study was conducted to provide information on students Willingness to Pay (WTP) for social services provided by tree species on the campus of the Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi (FUAM), Benue State, Nigeria. Random sampling technique was used to select 200 students from 10 Departments of the University. The semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from the students. Vegetation survey was conducted to indentified tree species present in the selected colleges. The result of the study shows that Albizia zygia was the dominant tree species on the campus. Majority of the students (86.5%) were willing to pay (WTP) for social services of the tree species while (23.5%) were not WTP. Provision of shade (WMS= 4.19>3.00) and beautification (WMS=3.64>3.00) were the most social services provided by tree species. The mean amount the students were WTP for social tree services was N46 per month. Sex of the students differed significantly (P<0.05) from their WTP for the trees social services. Also, there was a significant difference (P<0.10) between the students level of study and their willingness to pay for the trees social services. The major reasons responsible for the insufficiency of trees on the campus as stated by the students were clearance for construction purposes (WMS4.15>3.00) and bush burning (WMS=3.62>3.00). It was recommended that harnessing of human, financial and material resources to address issues of sustainability of forest goods and services on the campus of FUAM should be prioritized. School administration, Departmental Staff and students should promote tree planting on campus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adaptive Responses to Climate Change: Evaluating the Implementation and Effectiveness of Water Resource Management Strategies in Selected Hotels within the Environs of Lake Naivasha

D. N. Kinyanjui

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 287-296
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i530115

Aims: This study sought to evaluate the adoption of water resource management strategies in hotels in an attempt to attain water sustainability. Specifically, the research sought to assess the current structural and non-structural water resource management strategies adopted by selected hotels in the environs of Lake Naivasha; establish the perceived effectiveness of both the structural and non-structural water resource management strategies adopted to enhance water sustainability; and compare the structural and non-structural water management strategies in terms of their effectiveness in promoting water sustainability in hotels within environs of Lake Naivasha.

Study Design: The study adopted a case study design.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in hotels within the environs of Lake Naivasha between May and December 2010.

Methodology: A census of 30 Class (A) registered hotels was conducted, and purposive sampling was used to select 120 respondents from the management staff within the selected hotels. Convenience sampling was used to select 8 managers of water management bodies who acted as key informants during personal interviews. Primary data was collected from the hotel management staff using questionnaires and from managers of water management through personal interviews. Data from questionnaires were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) to derive descriptive statistics on the implementation of WRM strategies.

Results: Findings revealed that a majority of the sampled hotels had embraced water resource management strategies through the development of alternative water resources, use of water saving technology, treatment of recycled water and use of water saving manuals. Further, the structural water resource management strategies were perceived to be more effective as they impacted more on reducing the operating costs, promoted environmental conservation and were more preferred than the non- structural strategies despite being more expensive to implement. 

Conclusion: It is concluded that water sustainability is however achievable through a combination of a variety of WRM strategies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Aerosol Impact on the Solar Potential Available in Burkina Faso, West Africa

Bado Nébon, Mamadou Simina Dramé, Korgo Bruno, Guengane Hassime, Demba Ndao Niang, Saidou Moustapha Sall, Kieno P. Florent, Bathiebo Dieudonné Joseph

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 297-310
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i530116

This paper is an assessment of aerosols impact on solar potential available in Burkina Faso in 2017. Three measurement stations were selected from the North to the South according to the climatic zones, with sites at Dori (14.035°N, 0.034°W) in the North, Ouagadougou (12.20°N, 1.40°W) in the Center and Gaoua (10.29°N, 3.25°W) in the Southwest, respectively. This study is based on in-situ measurements, satellite observations and a tropospheric standard model of the Streamer radiative transfer code of atmospheric particles. The results show a high availability of solar irradiation with average monthly values ranging between 4.46 kWh/m²/d and 6.82 kWh/m²/d. The most favorable periods with maximum radiation are observed in Spring in March and in Fall in October. Yet, the qualitative comparison between the evolution of aerosols and that of solar potential clearly shows aerosols capacity to influence the radiation at the crossing of the atmosphere. Thus, the aerosols maxima correspond to the solar potential minima. Moreover, a comparison between the day cycles of solar radiation and those of the simulation model shows a good accuracy of the Streamer code to estimate the solar flows at the surface in a standard atmosphere without clouds in Burkina Faso.However, a quantification of the aerosol impact by the Streamer code reveals a reduction in the normal direct flow compared to clear days defined by aerosol optical depth (AOD) less than 0.2 (AOD<0.2) of nearly 75.04% at the Dori site in the North, 57.33% at the Ouagadougou site in the Center and 40.89 % at the Gaoua site in the Southwest during polluted days corresponding to AOD higher than 0.8.This corresponds to an increase in the diffuse flow of 279.69 W/m², 246.05 W/m² and 226.09 W/m², respectively calculated on the same sites. In case of a mixed day (0.2 <AOD <0.8), this decrease in direct solar flow is estimated at 41.25%, 22.11% and 37.13% with an increasein the diffuse solar flux of 115.04 W/m², 150.43 W/m² and 79.58 W/m² at the sites of Dori, Ouagadougou and Gaoua, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Regional Climate Models for Updating Intensity-duration-frequency Curves under Climate Change

Andre Schardong, Slobodan P. Simonovic

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 311-330
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i530117

Global Climate Models (GCMs) are currently the most powerful tools for accessing changes in the hydrological regime at the watershed scale due to climate change and variability. GCMs, however, have limitations due to their coarse spatial and temporal resolutions.  Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are often referred to as suitable alternatives due to their higher resolution of the long-term climate projections. It is expected that RCMs are better for simulating extreme conditions than the GCMs. This  present work, investigate the difference in updated IDF (Intensity-Duration-Frequency) relationships developed using GCMs and RCMs. The IDF updating method implemented with the IDF_CC tool for Canada has been used for comparison. The analyses are conducted using 369 selected Environment and Climate Change Canada hydro-meteorological stations from the IDF_CC tool database with record length longer than 20 years. Results for the future period (2020-2100), are based on multi-model ensembles of (i) the RCMs from the NA-CORDEX (North-American Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) project (ensemble 1) (ii) a sub-set of six GCMs from the GCMs available in the IDF_CC tool used as drivers for the RCMs (ensemble 2) and (iii) all 24 GCMs from the IDF_CC tool database (ensemble 3). One representative concentration pathway (RCP), RCP 8.5, is used in the analysis. The RCMs from the NA-CORDEX project selected for this study use six GCMs as drivers to produce the future predictions for the North American continent, including Canada. Two metrics are applied for the comparison of results: (i) the difference in projected precipitation using the multi-model ensemble median; and (ii) the difference in uncertainty range. The uncertainty range is defined in this study as the percentage projected change in future, 25 to 75 quantiles obtained using the RCMs a GCMs ensembles. The regional models from the NA-CORDEX project generated lower extreme precipitation projections than the GCMs for the stations located in the Canadian prairies (provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba). Stations located at the East and West coasts of Canada show a smaller difference in the projected extremes obtained using GCMs and RCMs. The use of RCMs shows increase in uncertainty when compared to GCMs. This result indicates that even when using regional climate models, it’s advisable to extend the analyses and include as many as possible models from different climate centers.