Open Access Short Research Article

Source Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water at Point of Effluent Discharge into the New Calabar River, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

O. S. Edori, W. A. Iyama

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 343-349
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i630119

Water samples from effluents discharge points were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration using chromatographic techniques. The result obtained showed the presence of all the PAHs categories in the water samples. The total concentrations of PAHs in the different location showed that Minipiti station was the highest (44.99 mg/L), which was followed by the values obtained at the Police Post station (36.89 mg/L) and finally, the lowest value was obtained at the Iwofe Jetty station (11.923 mg/L). Diagnostic analysis of the concentrations of the different PAHS concentrations based on the ratio of low molecular weight PAHs to high molecular weight PAHs (LMW/HMW), anthracene / anthracene + phenanthrene {An/(An + Phe)} fluoranthene/ fluoranthene + pyrene {Fl /(Fl + Pyr} and benzo[a] anthracene/ benzo[a]anthracene + chrysene {BaA/ (BaA + Chr)} showed the predominance of pyrogenic PAHs over petrogenic PAHs. Thus indicating more of human input sources than natural. Ring size analysis indicated the predominance of the higher molecular weights (4-6) rings over the lower molecular weights (2-3) rings. The implications of the high level of PAHs within the sampled environment should give warning signals to the user of the water environment’.

Open Access Short Research Article

How Political Events Can Motivate Some Risk Mitigation Activities for Climate Change

Maliha Farrooz, Robin Dillon, Chris Hydock

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 364-375
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i630122

Aim: To stem the risks of future climate change, more people need to be motivated to take actions that will mitigate the release of greenhouse gases into the environment. Important to this discussion was that these actions include both public and private sphere behaviors.

Duration of Study: April 2016 to March 2017.

Methodology: We surveyed individual’s beliefs about climate change and their stated willingness to take different actions to mitigate the risks of climate change.

Results: Public sphere behaviors affect the environment only indirectly by influencing either public policies or other private sphere behaviors. Private sphere behaviors have direct environmental consequences but the consequences are small. Individual private sphere behaviors have environmentally significant impacts only in the aggregate when many people independently do similar things.

Conclusion: Our study replicated many of the results from the literature, in particular, that individuals are most willing to engage in small private actions to mitigate climate change, and that at least for large private acts and public acts, individuals who describe themselves as Democrats are also more willing to engage in more costly acts. Our survey also showed an important effect from the 2016 election of President of USA. Following the election, Democrats stated an increased willingness to engage in public sphere acts over time. If more individuals engaging in more public acts can influence public policy and can convert other individuals to engage in more private acts over time, then electing leadership who is negative toward climate change can ultimately result in motivating more individual mitigation activity for climate change.

Summary: This work shows that electing leaders who are negative toward climate change could provide a strong motivation for some individuals to be more willing to engage in public sphere acts over time to mitigate climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Flood Vulnerability Assessment of Afikpo South Local Government Area, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Endurance Okonufua, Olabanji O. Olajire, Vincent N. Ojeh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 331-342
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i630118

The study was conducted in Afikpo South Local Government covering a total area of 331.5km2. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) were integrated with multicriteria analysis to delineate the flood vulnerable areas. Seven criteria were considered; rainfall, runoff, slope, distance to drainage, drainage density, landuse and landcover, and soil. The various criteria were fit into fuzzy membership classes based on their effect in causing flood. The fuzzy members of all criteria were then overlaid to generate the flood vulnerability map. The result of the flood vulnerability map shows that very low vulnerable zones cover 86.7% of the total area, low vulnerable zones cover 1.6% of the total area, moderate vulnerable zones cover 2.17% of the total area, highly vulnerable zones cover 2.3% of the total area while very highly vulnerable zones cover 7.3% of the total area. Built up was used as a measure of the effect of flooding on human lives and properties in Afikpo South Local Government. Built up covers a total area of 38.6km2. Over sixty eight (69.8%) of built up lies in very low vulnerable zone, 3% lies in low vulnerable zone, 3.7% lies in moderate vulnerable zone, 0.6% lies in highly vulnerable zone and 17.9% lies in very highly vulnerable zone. The study provides information on target areas that may be affected by flood in Afikpo South Local Government. This information is useful for decision making on flood early warning and preparedness as well as in mitigation preparedness within Afikpo LGA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Principal Component Analysis in Biometric, Pulp Quality and Anatomical Properties of Thronless Bamboo (Bambusa balcooa)

N. Krishnakumar, S. Umesh Kanna, K. T. Parthiban

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 350-355
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i630120

Aims: To estimate the impact, connection and association among the biometric attributes, pulping qualities and anatomical characters in Bambusa balcooa.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted across the agro climatic regions viz., North Eastern Zone, Northern Zone, Western Zone, Cauvery Delta Zone and Southern Zone of Tamil Nadu, India during 2017-2018.

Methodology: The Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was examined to establish the numbers of clusters using Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS) version 16.0.1 software in order to identify the patterns of variation (PCA). The principal component analysis was computed using the equation PCA = Σa jXj.

Results: The PCA separated into three cluster principal components among the nineteen parameters studied. Out of nineteen principal components generated, twelve principal components had contributed positively on pulp yield. Among these twelve traits, maximum contribution to the pulp yield was observed by the traits viz., numbers of culms, hollocellulose, kappa number, tear index, burst index, fibre wall thickness and vessel diameter with respect to Bambusa balcooa.

Conclusion: The results showed some relationships between the biometric attributes, pulping qualities and anatomical characters in Bambusa balcooa. PCA was shown to be a useful tool for assessing the impact and connection for further research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Energy Utilization and Green House Gas Emission by Hybrid Rice Grown under Two Different Cultivation Systems in Red Lateritic Zone of West Bengal

Ananya Ghosh, Snehangsu Das, MD. Hasim Reja, Swapan Kumar Maity

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 356-363
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i630121

A field experiment was carried out at Agriculture Farm, Palli Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, West Bengal, India during kharif season of 2015 to compare rice cultivation in conventional transplanting (CT) and system of rice intensification (SRI) in terms of energy use, energy input output relationship and green house gas emission. Results showed that regardless of cultivars, conventional transplanting consumed 62.39% higher energy over SRI. Maximum energy input was associated with non renewable and indirect sources. Higher dose of nitrogenous fertilizer had contributed to 32.35% and 26.26% to the total input energy in CT and SRI respectively. Energy use efficiency (13.22), energy productivity (6.94 kg MJ-1), energy profitability (12.22) and energy intensity (4.60 MJ Rs-1) of hybrid rice varieties were noted higher in SRI. Maximum green house gas emission from rice field was also attributed to fertilizer nitrogen followed by diesel in both the system. Total green house gas emission in CT was estimated to 834.85 (kg CO2ha-1) i.e. 1.8 times of SRI. Engirdling different energy indices, total input energy and green house gas emission, the system of rice intensification was emerged as the most energy efficient and sustainable rice production system in resource stricken areas (Red Lateritic Zone).