Open Access Minireview Article

“Green Building”: A Step towards Environmental and Economic Construction

Raj Vikram Singh, Krishnaraj Singh, Rahul Vyas

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 391-401
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i730124

The purpose of this article is to provide planners with an introduction to the concept of green buildings and building assessment systems and to identify and explore the major themes in the literature as they relate to planning. Green building is one of the measures that has been put forward to alleviate the remarkable impacts of the building stock on the environment, society and economy. GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assesment) is a rating instrument that helps individuals evaluate their building's efficiency against certain benchmarks that are acceptable nationwide, it evaluates a building's environmental efficiency over its entire life cycle holistically. This paper reports a critical review of the GRIHA rating system and incentives provided by GRIHA in India, techniques, and methods for construction of the green building, financial aspects of the green building. The efficiency of different environment-friendly models is broadly discussed in this study. The purpose of this paper is to explore the benefits of green building in order to proceed towards sustainable construction in the future. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Global Solar Radiation at Selected Points in Nigeria Using Artificial Neural Network Model (ANNM)

Ibeh Gabriel Friday, Bernadette Chidomnso Udochukwu, Tertsea Igbawua, Tyovenda Alaxander, Ofoma John Ndubuisi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 376-390
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i730123

In this study, spatial distribution, temporal variations, annual distribution, estimation and prediction of solar radiation in Nigeria was carried out using ANNs. Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithms was used for the training of the network using solar radiation data along the years (1979-2014). The data records were divided into three portions (training, testing and validation). The network processed the available data by dividing it into three portions randomly: 70% for the training, 15% for validation and the remaining 15% for testing. Input parameters were chosen as latitude, longitude, day of the year, year while observed solar radiation was chosen as targeted data (from a processed file). The output parameter was the estimated solar radiation. The network designs were tested with root mean square error and then the most successful network (taken to be best network) which is network with less error was used to carry out the study. The hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer function was also used between the input and the hidden layers as activation function, while the linear transfer function was used from hidden layers to the output layer as the activation function. The performance of ANNs was validated by; estimating the difference between the annual measured and estimated values were determined using coefficient of determination (R2). Results revealed that the R2 result was 0.82 (82%). The result of spatial variations indicated that both wet and dry seasons have their highest concentration in North-East of Nigeria. It is pertinent to also note that the lowest concentration occurred in North-West during wet season, while the lowest occurred at the South-South and South-West of Nigeria in dry season. In addition, the lowest in dry season is about 25W/m2, while that of wet season is about 15W/m2. The agreement between the temporal and annual variation of observed and estimated solar radiation reveals that the model exhibits good performance in studying solar radiation. The model was further used to predict two years ahead of the years of study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Boundary Layer Stability Regime at DACCIWA Site Using Gradient Richardson Number

O. O. Ajileye, M. A. Ayoola

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 402-415
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i730125

Meteorological data including air temperature and wind speed which were collected from DACCIWA measurement site at a tropical agricultural field site in Ile-Ife (7.55oE, 4.56oE), south-western Nigeria have been used to classify boundary layer stability regimes using gradient Richardson number. Three categories were considered to deduce the pattern of stability conditions namely stable, unstable and neutral conditions for 3-hourly intervals at 0.00, 03.00, 06.00, 09.00, 12.00, 15.00, 18.00 and 21.00 hours from 15th June to 31st July 2016. The data were sampled every 1sec and stored subsequently as 10 minutes averages for all the measured parameters. The data was further reduced to 30 minutes averages for easy analysis and manipulation in the calculation of gradient Richardson number used for boundary layer stability regime characterization. The results showed that the month of June 2016 had prevalence of stable regime from 0:00 – 6:00 am and 6:00 pm; 9:00 am was predominantly neutral and shared similar pattern with 9:00 pm. Unstable regime was slightly observed at 12:00 pm and majorly observed at 3:00 pm. The month of July had a little shift from what was observed in the month of June. Predominance of neutral conditions was observed from 9:00 pm to 9:00 am; Hours of 12:00 – 3:00 pm were dominated by unstable regime while 6:00 pm was dominated by stable regime.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Divergence Studies in Ailanthus excelsa Using D2 Analysis

S. Umesh Kanna, N. Krishnakumar, K. Md. Mohideen Abdul Kather Jailani

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 416-424
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i730126

Aims: To estimate the genetic diversity studies among the biometric attributes of 30 progenies in Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.

Place and Duration of Study: The study has conducted at Forest College and Research Institute, TNAU, Mettupalayam during 2015-2018.

Methodology: The D2 statistics was adopted for the estimation of genetic divergence. Using D2 statistical results, the clustering of progenies was done. The progenies were grouped into different clusters using ‘GENERES’ statistical package on the basis of D2 values according to Tocher’s method as suggested by Rao.

Results: The 30 progeny of Ailanthus excelsa has grouped into nine clusters and among the nine clusters, the cluster IV has ten progenies. The maximum intra cluster distance was exhibited by the cluster VIII followed by cluster IV. The maximum inter cluster distance was in cluster III which indicated the presence of wider genetic distance between Ailanthus excelsa progenies. Among the growth attributes, volume index contributed maximum percentage towards genetic divergence.

Conclusion: The results of 30 progeny of Ailanthus excels showed the presence of wider genetic distance between Ailanthus excelsa progenies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Industrial Brewery Wastewater Biologic Treatment in an UASB Reactor Using Activated Sludge in Republic of Congo

K. M. Mbemba, H. M. Bounkosso, A. C. Kayath, J. M. Ouamba

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 425-434
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i730127

The brewing industry generates large amounts of wastewater which are released into surface water after treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of the anaerobic treatment of brewery wastewaters in a UASB bioreactor containing activated sludge. After six-weeks operation, 30 samples were taken. Physicochemical analyzes were carried out on activated sludge (T, pH, VFA) and raw and treated waters (T, pH, AT, CAT, TSS, and COD). These analyzes showed that the conditions of the environment were favorable to an optimal growth of the bacteria:  temperatures and pH were mostly mesophilic. the ionization of VFA was continuous and their concentration increased at the exit of the bioreactor thus revealing a significant conversion of organic materials by bacteria. The average values ​​of the physicochemical parameters of the raw and treated wastewaters respectively increased from 31.5°C to 35°C for the temperature, from 8.9 to 7.5 for the pH, to 5.54 mg/l at 0 for AT, from 12.35 mg/l to 3.45 mg/l for TAC, from 234.08 mg/l to 129.61 mg/l for TSS and from 1637 mg/l to 282, 46 mg/l for COD. The effectiveness of the treatment allowed a COD reduction ranging from 70 to 94%.