##### Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase Enzymes: A Possible Virulence Factor for the Management of Antibiotic Resistance Crisis in the Climate Change Era

Cesare Achilli, Annarita Ciana, Giampaolo Minetti

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 443-446
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i830129

The problem of antibiotic resistance develops when bacteria are able to grow in the presence of conventional antimicrobial drugs and today represents a serious public health issue. The environmental effects of global warming, by unknown genomic mechanisms of adaption, could dramatically increase this phenomenon and support a more rapid progression to “post-antibiotic era”, in which common infections will be untreatable. Alternative approaches toward drug-resistant bacterial infections need to be explored to ensure effective therapies. Bacterial pathogens produce virulence factors that allow them to invade and to damage host cells. Methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) enzymes (MsrAs and MsrBs) are important, but poor studied, virulence factors for many bacterial strains. A deeper insight into their mechanism of action and regulation could help in developing novel therapeutic strategies toward drug-resistant bacteria, in order to overcome the antibiotic resistance crisis.

##### Mapping a Climate Change Vulnerability Index: An Assessment in Agricultural, Geological and Demographic Sectors across the Districts of Karnataka (India)

C. Shivakumara, P. S. Srikantha Murthy

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 447-456
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i830130

Climate change is a continuous phenomenon and over hundreds of years, the atmosphere has changed considerably around the world. Karnataka has the second largest drought prone area in the country next only to Rajasthan. Assessment of vulnerability index could play a major role in designing appropriate mitigation and adaptation policies to overcome the impacts of climate change. The vulnerability assessment is an exhaustive procedure determined by a large number of indicators. This study attempted to capture a picture of composite vulnerability index of different districts of Karnataka by considering agronomic, climatic and demographic indicators. The secondary data on climatic, agronomic and demographic factors were collected from various sources for the year 2017-18. The findings of the study as shown that the average vulnerability index for 30 districts is 0.577 and 16 districts placed above the average composite vulnerability index level. Bidar (0.655) is the most vulnerable district followed by Kolar (0.658) and Yadgir (0.638) districts. Shivamogga (0.440), Davanagere (0.486) and Udupi (0.486) districts exhibit the least vulnerability to changing climate. The results suggest that agricultural and climatic indicators are the major factors which influence vulnerability. So special attention should be given to agricultural and climatic sectors to minimize the impacts of climatic change in the most vulnerable districts.

##### Development of Models for Rainfall Intensity- duration-frequency for Akure, South-west, Nigeria

A. O. David, Ify L. Nwaogazie, J. C. Agunwamba

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 457-466
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i830131

The rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) relationship is widely used for adequate estimation of rainfall intensity over a particular catchment. A 25 year daily rainfall data were collected from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) Abuja for Akure station. Twenty five year annual maximum rainfall amounts with durations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 420 minutes were extracted and subjected to frequency analysis using the excel solver software wizard. A total of six (6) return period specific and one (1) general IDF models were developed for return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years using Gumbel Extreme Value Type-1 and Log Pearson Type -3 distributions. Anderson Darling goodness of fit test was used to ascertain the best fit probability distribution. The R2 values range from 0.982 to 0.985 for GEVT -1 and 0.978 to 0.989 for Log Pearson type -3 while the Mean Squared Error from 33.56 to 156.50 for GEVT -1 and 43.01 to 150.63 Log Pearson Type III distributions respectively. The probability distribution models are recommended for the prediction of rainfall intensities for Akure metropolis.

##### Future Impact of Climate Change on the Yield of Cocoa in Ondo State, Nigeria

Femi S. Omotayo, Philip G. Oguntunde, Ayorinde A. Olufayo

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 467-476
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i830132

This study was carried to determine the trend of cocoa yield and climatic variables and assessment of the impact of climate change on the future yield of cocoa in Ondo State, Nigeria. Annual trend statistics for cocoa yield and climatic variables were analyzed for the state using Mann-Kendall test for trend and Sen’s slope estimates. Downscaled data from six Global Circulation Models (GCMs) were used to examine the impact of climate change on the future yield of cocoa in the study area. The results of trends analysis in Ondo State showed that yield decreased monotonically at the rate of 492.18 tonnes/yr (P<0.05). An increased significant trend was established in annual rainfall trend. While Maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and mean temperature all increased at the rate of 0.02/yr (P<0.001). The ensemble of all the GCMs projected a mid-term future decrease of about 9,334 tonnes/yr by 2050 and a long-term future decrease of 13,504 tonnes/yr of cocoa by 2100. The economic implication of these is that, if the projected change in the yield of cocoa as predicted by the ensemble of all the GCMs should hold for the future, it means that Ondo state may experience a loss of about $22,470,018.22 and$32,308,584.32 by the year 2050 and 2100 respectively according to the present price of the commodity in the world market. Measures are to be taken by the government and farmers to find a way of mitigating the impacts of climate change on the future yield of the cocoa study area. This research should be extended to other cocoa producing areas in Nigeria.

##### Tropical Forest: A Potential Resource for Climate Change Mitigation in Ghana

Emmanuel Amankwah

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 435-442
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i830128

Climate variability and change has become a global phenomenon with many countries including Ghana working hard to mitigate the effect or develop strategies for adaptation.  However, tropical forest has been identified to have the capacity to mitigate the impact of climate change and improve the general environment. The forest plays a critical role in the climate system, hydrology and the carbon cycle, and provide livelihood for over 2.5 billion rural dwellers in developing countries. This article therefore highlights the importance of tropical forest as a potential resource for climate change mitigation and the need for policy makers, stakeholders and the general public to seriously adopt positive approach to the management of forest resources. The article was carried out through extensive review of literature, official reports and policy documents.  The paper outlines the threat of climate change, the state of Ghana’s forest and climate, and the role of the forest to mitigate climate change. It also highlights the socio-economic benefits of the forest in mitigating the changing climate. The documents reviewed showed that the state of Ghana’s forest has dwindled over the years through anthropogenic activities and the climate is also changing. It was also established that trees can remove substantial amount of CO2 from the atmosphere for storage. The paper concludes with recommendations for the preservation and regeneration of the tropical forest for the purpose of mitigating the effect of climate change in Ghana.