Open Access Opinion Article

Electric Phenomena as a Possible Driver of Polar Snow-air Interactions: Does this Factor Act Synergistically with Photoinduced Effects?

E. Yu. Tkachenko

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 518-521
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i930136

Processes that occur inside polar snow cover significantly affect polar atmosphere but they are still poorly understood. Most studies consider photochemistry as the dominant mechanism of chemical transformations but recent field data cannot be interpreted only by such photochemical model. A concept is proposed to consider electric phenomena that are well known to physics but their role was never analyzed by snow chemistry specialists. But there is a question on how to differentiate influences of photo effects and electric phenomena. It can be supposed that these factors are not independent.  On the contrary, they reinforce each other and act synergistically.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Climate Change on the Production of Major Food and Commercial Crops in India: A Five Decadal Study

Pooja Arora, Rajni Devi, Smita Chaudhry

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 477-485
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i930133

Climate change is posing a great threat to agriculture and food security, especially in the agriculture oriented and developing countries like India. The present study was carried out to critically study the impact of climate change on productivity of major cereal and commercial crops by statistically analyzing the time series data.  The analysis inferred that crop production of both food and commercial crops in India has increased since 1960-61. It was observed that major food crops (rice & wheat) were adversely affected by increase in maximum temperature and decrease in rainfall. The alternative measures such as area under cultivation, irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide consumption were observed to be nullifying that negative impact of climate change by enhancing the overall production. However, the commercial crops were observed to be positively affected by the increasing temperature. The study suggested that although the agriculture sector is able to withstand the adverse impact of climate change till now, but in near future this situation can become reversed. This necessitates the implementation of appropriate adaptation and mitigation measures to deal with the problems of climate change and to ensure the food security and food safety along in long run.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Quaternary Sediments of Quartz Grains Applied to the Identification of the Environment of Some Ivory Beaches East of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)

Konan Konan Ernest, Gbangbot Jean-Michel Kouadio, Diangone Eric, Wognin Ama Valérie

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 486-502
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i930134

Morphoscopic and exoscopic analysis of quartz grains collected on the Ivorian beaches of the gulf of Guinea between Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) and Aforenou (Ghana) during topographic surveys between March 2007 and March 2009 on the examination of quartz at the binocular loupe, reveals blunting grains shining on all beaches (50% to 70%).

In Abidjan area, the majority of the grains are reddish, indicates a ferrous and inherited environment. The exoscopy for the fine and detailed study of the morphology and the surface of the quartz grains was made with the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). This approach makes it possible to interpret traces related to events (energy level) or environments (transport, transition and storage environments).

These observations indicate that the quartz after a long transport in a fluvial environment have been reworked in a marine environment. They were finally deposited in a low-energy aquatic continental medium marked by the polishing of the crystalline points and the siliceous corpuscles dotting the surface of the grains.

The energy of the transport environments crossed is high in a turbulent environment through traces of shock, as large and numerous as they are. SEM examination of the samples reveals that beach quartz has generally been transported by river and recovered in an intertidal and/or subtidal environment. They have a continental and marine origin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Local Global Warming on Rainfall and Annual Cocoa Water Requirements in the Regions of Lôh-Djiboua and Gôh in West-central Côte d'Ivoire

Jean-Noël Ehounou, Brou Kouamé, Mathias G. Tahi, Emmanuel K. Kassin, Charles S. Dékoula, Guy F. Yao, Hypolith K. Kouadio, Angelo E. B. N’guessan, Nagnin Soro

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 503-517
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i930135

Aims: To understand the role of the interannual variability of cumulative rainfall and maximum dry sequences in cocoa production in the Centre-Ouest, one of the cocoa basins in Côte d'Ivoire, in order to propose technical routes more adapted to current rainfall conditions.

Study Design: Collection, analysis and processing of daily rainfall data collected by the rain gauges at Divo and Gagnoa stations.

Location and Duration of Studies: Divo Cocoa Research Station of the National Center for Agricultural Research, between January 2017 and June 2019.

Methodology: The rainfall regime of each locality was determined to assess the impact of rainfall changes on the seasonality of rainfall. The interannual variability of rainfall was studied from the reduced centred rainfall indices. The break years in the time series were detected at both stations from the Khrono Stat software. The interannual cumulative rainfall were analysed for each station and compared to the minimum threshold allowed for cocoa trees. The means of the maximum interannual dry sequences and their probabilities of occurrence were determined using the agrometeorological software called Instat + Version 3.37.

Results: The rainfall regime in the area studied (west-central Côte d'Ivoire) has not been modified by the post-rupture rainfall recession as is the case in other parts of the country; it remains a bimodal system characterized by two rainy seasons and two dries during the year. The Divo and Gagnoa regions have been facing a general recession in rainfall since 1966 in Gagnoa and 1972 in Divo. However, the locality of Gagnoa has experienced an increase in rainfall since 2000. Most of the rupture detection tests identified rainfall rupture dates identical to those indicated by the interannual variability highlighted by the rainfall indices. In Gagnoa and Divo, the interannual cumulative rainfalls after the years of rainfall break are reduced compared to those before these rainfall accidents. This situation has led to an increase in the maximum interannual dry sequences in the departments studied.

Conclusion: Local climate change has created difficult rainfall conditions after years of rainfall break for cocoa trees as their water needs are increasingly reduced, especially in Divo in Lôh-Djiboua where the downward trend in rainfall has been continuous since 1972. In Gagnoa since the beginning of this century, there has been a new wet period that allows rainfall to adequately meet the cocoa tree's water requirements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytoremediation of Industrial Waste Leachates by Planted Filters Composed of Phragmites australis (Cav) Trin ex Steud, Typha latifolia L. and Cyperus papyrus L.

K. M. Mbemba, A. C. Kayath, A. B. Madiélé Mabika, G. R. Dielé Mouko, J. M. Ouamba

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 522-534
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i930137

The aim of this study is to evaluate the purifying ability of 3 parallel planted filters (PF1, PF2 and PF3) composed of three plants (Phragmites australis (Cav) Trin ex Steud, Typha latifolia L., Cyperus papyrus L.) on leachates from a landfill of industrial waste in Pointe-Noire (Republic of Congo). This landfill site includes a technical landfill for ordinary industrial waste (OIW) and a technical landfill for hazardous and soiled industrial waste (SIW). In order to assess purifying ability, we sampled 14 samples over 8 weeks, with 7 samples of the raw leachates from the technical landfill center, and 7 samples of leachates cleaned after passing through the tryptic vegetable filter. The physico-chemical analyzes made it possible to determine the following parameters: TOC, COD, NO3 -,PO42-, Ni, Cd, CrVI, Zn, Cu and Pb. The results showed a significant decrease in organic pollution with abatement rates in TOC and COD greater than 90%. The average removal efficiency is respectively 45.97% for nitrates and 40.2% for phosphates. The abatement rates for heavy metals range from 41.2% to 60.9% for nickel, from 52.2% to 68.5 % for cadmium, from 49% to 71.7% for chromium VI, from 59% to 74.6% for zinc, from 50.9 % to 65 % for copper and from 61.4% to 75.1% for lead. However, additional analyzes are needed to confirm the hypperaccumulator nature of these plant filters in particular absorption isotherms and kinetics of extraction of heavy metals of Phragmites australis (Cav) Trin ex Steud, Typha latifolia L., Cyperus papyrus L.)