Open Access Original Research Article

Projected Impact of Sea Level Rise on Nigeria’s Coastal City of Calabar in Cross River State

Joel Efiong, John O. Ushie

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 535-548
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1030138

This study projects the impact of sea level rise on Nigeria’s coastal city of Calabar in Cross River State. Data for the study were obtained from both secondary and primary sources through the use of the internet and questionnaire administration respectively. The data were analysed using the geographical information systems (GIS), frequency tables and percentages. The results revealed that at 0.3 m rise in sea level, about 4.56% of the total land area will be covered with flood water. This would affect 159 houses, with approximately 1,431 persons. Further, at 3.0 m rise in sea level, about 10.10% of the area will be flooded, affecting 2012 houses with an estimated population of 18,108 persons. Again, the resilience of the residents to the vagaries of flooding by sea level rise is generally low due to very low income and lack of awareness. The study concluded that Calabar City is vulnerable to the impact of sea level rise which is primarily caused by climate change. Therefore, awareness campaign on the impact of flooding by sea level rise on coastal communities should be carried out by the appropriate agencies of government in the State.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydraulic Performance Assessment of Mychew Small Scale Irrigation Scheme, North Ethiopia

Efriem Tariku Kassa, Mekonen Ayana

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 549-561
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1030139

Performances assessment of irrigation schemes network is very essential in taking different water management strategies. However, the performance of Mychew irrigation scheme was not assessed and hence, this research was undertaken to assess the hydraulic performance of Mychew small scale irrigation scheme. Moreover, identification of the cause and effect for mal-functionality of irrigation structures was also another objective of this study. Hence, comprehensive field observations, measurements and focus group discussions were held to investigate hydraulic performance, cause and effect of failed hydraulic structures. Simple descriptive statistics was employed for analysis of the data collected from focus group discussions and observations. Eight performance indicators were used to assess the performance of this irrigation scheme. Several factors such as sedimentation, design problem, damage of sluice gates, abstraction of irrigation water by unwanted plants has been identified for mal-functionality of different structures. There were problems in irrigation adequacy (0.75) and equity (0.28) of irrigation water was categorized as poor, while good and fair for dependability (0.08) and irrigation efficiency (0.79), respectively. The average water surface elevation ratio, delivery performance ratio, and delivery duration ratio of the main canal during the monitoring period was less than one, greater than 5% and 150%, respectively. The highest sediment accumulation was observed at head and middle reaches of the irrigation scheme than the tail reaches. Generally, there were a number of irrigation structures which was mal-functioned in this irrigation scheme. Now it needs sustainable solution to improve the performance of the irrigation scheme. Therefore, it was recommended that water should be fairly distributed spatially and temporally. Additionally, capacity building and awareness creation to concerned bodies holds the key to bring a difference in irrigation water management in this irrigation scheme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comprehensive Drought Analysis Using Statistical and Meteorological Indices Approach: A Case Study of Badin, Sindh

Aisha Akber, Syed Feroz Shah, Muhammad Wajid Ijaz, Hira Soomro, Nimra Alam, Latief Ahmed

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 594-604
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1030141

Drought is a global phenomenon that can occur in any ecological zone and render significant damages to both the natural environment and human lives. However, hydro-climatic stresses are growing distinctly in the arid zones across the globe. Literature suggests that the analysis of a long-term data-set could help in strengthening of mitigation planes and rationalization of disaster management policies. Thus, the present study is aimed to analyze the evidence-based historical drought events happened in arid-zone Badin, Pakistan and predict its occurrence and severity for the next 82 years (2018-2099). Drought indices viz standardized precipitation index and reconnaissance drought index have been used to detect the severity of the drought events. Thirty years (1988 to 2017) past data of precipitation and temperature were used to categorize the drought severity and validated against the local data. Climate projections based on RCP 4.5 and 8.5 made at 25x25 km resolution used for future drought analysis. The results demonstrate that the region faced severe to extreme drought in 1990-91 and 2001-04. While, in future 2020-21, 2036-37, 2038-39 would be the extreme driest years under RCP 4.5 and 2029-30, 2089-90 under RCP 8.5. Further insight revealed that the average annual temperature has increased and precipitation has decreased w.r.t the base year 1988. It is concluded that drought detection with SPI and RDI is suitable and drought prediction with the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 could be a better option.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Changing Rationale of the Fisher Youth in Climate Change Hotspots of Kerala

Shyam S. Salim, Harsha Elizabeth James, A. M. Shinu, N. R. Athira, R. X. Smitha

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 605-615
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1030142

The Indian fisheries and aquaculture statistics seems fail largely to capture the youth and children working in the sector. A detailed study in the area related to the rising interest of fishermen, especially the younger generation to move out of fisheries in search of new opportunities in other fields and the reasons for the same has not been carried out. Taking this into consideration, to throw insights into the changing rationale of fisher youth, and their preferences in the context of climate change and depletion in fish catch over the years, a study was conducted in three coastal villages of Ernakulam district with the objectives of assessing the socio-economic profile of the fishermen community, younger generations interest in choosing fisheries as a livelihood option, generational shift in fishing operations and reasons for the disinterest of the younger generation in choosing fisheries as an occupation. Low status job, low profit and income, poor working conditions, high capital investment and operating cost and seasonal nature of occupation was reported as the five major reasons because of which the younger generation is not interested in choosing fisheries as an occupation and a considerable generational shift in social, economic and professional status was observed.

Open Access Review Article

Predictive Connection for 2100 between Atmospheric Carbon, Global Warming and Ocean Height Based on Climate History

Thomas F. Valone

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 562-593
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1030140

Many recent climate panels and committees have predicted a one and a half (1.5°C) to two degrees (2°C) Celsius as an achievable global limit to climate change [1]. Instead, this review has found that observationally informed projections of climate science underlying climate change offer a different outlook for the most likely outcome for 2100 of five to six-degree (5-6°C) increase as “most accurate” with regard to present trends, climate history and models [2]. The most significant result from the review is a quantitative, linear global temperature link to carbon dioxide levels, which has a short temporal feedback loop. The Vostok ice core temperature and CO2 values for the past 420,000 years, with sea level estimates have produced “Hansen’s Graph” [3]. Analysis results in an equation for global average temperature change and an indebted sea level rise, from any CO2 change. The best-performing climate change models and observational analysis project more warming than the average model often relied upon [4]. World atmosphere, temperature, and sea level trends for 2100 and beyond are examined. A CO2 experimental analysis proves its dramatic heat-entrapment versus air which relates to the global atmospheric system. Policy-relevant climate adaptation, including carbon capture, positive individual action, zero and negative emissions are reviewed, including Hansen (1988) projected temperature increase for 2019.