Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Change and Man-made Interventions, as Destabilizing Factors of the Coastal Zone: Some Examples of Coasts and Coastal Wetlands in Urban, Peri-Urban Areas and Natural Parks in Greece

Aristeidis Mertzanis, Asimina Mertzani

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 616-642
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1130144

The consequences of man-made interventions, Climate Change and future Sea-level rise upon some coastal plains of Greece are examined. Many urban, peri-urban areas and Natural Parks, in low elevation coastal zones in Greece are experiencing or are at risk of Sea-level rise, storm surges, water and soil pollution, saline water intrusion (salinity), coastal erosion and shoreline retreat, floods, and droughts. Sea-level rise could erode and inundate coastal ecosystems and disrupt wetlands, Urban and peri-Urban areas. Characteristic examples of these are the protected wetlands that exist in Greece such as those in the Delta and the river mouth areas of the Sperchios, Alfeios, Arachthos, Louros, and Inois rivers, and the small town of Tolo. Man-made interventions affect the coastal wetland ecosystems, Urban and peri-Urban areas under study. At the same time, an important factor of the destabilization of the ecological balance is the Climate Change and the expected sea-level rise. The main anthropogenic degradation and stresses on the under investigation areas, in recent decades, includes wetland draining, exsiccation of lagoons and lakes, river engineering works, dam construction, intensification and development of agriculture projects, sand mining from riverbeds and beaches, construction of motorways, construction of harbor structures, such as harbors, jetties, seawalls, groins, and breakwaters, rapid urbanization processes, holiday home building and tourist facilities, massive tourism and intense coastal development, water pollution, human-induced land subsidence (uncontrolled water abstraction from surface and underground water tables), and removal of coastal vegetation. Satellite images, maps and systematic in situ observations, integrated with the direct digitizing on the basis of different aged aerial photographs was adopted to estimate the coastal erosion and accretion rates in recent decades (1945-2019) in the areas, under study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adaptation Approaches for Direct Seeded Rice to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emission in the Perspective of Climate Change

Suborna Roy Choudhury, Anupam Das, Veena Bharati, Swaraj Kumar Dutta

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 643-651
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1130145

A field experiment was conducted at research farm, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, India during 2017 and 2018 to gain insight crop phonology mediated greenhouse gas emission under different tillage and nitrogen management practices in direct seeded rice (DSR). The experiment was conducted in split plot design with two tillage viz. zero tillage (ZT) and conventional tillage (CT) as main plot and four nitrogen management practices viz. 100% nitrogen through neem coated urea (S1), SPAD based nitrogen management (S2), 75% through neem coated urea + 25% nitrogen through vermicompost, (S3) and ¼ nitrogen as basal and rest in equal three splits at 20, 40, 60 DAS (S4) as sub plot, in three replication. The highest yield (4.69 t ha-1), net return (Rs 46440 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.44) were recorded from zero tilled DSR. Further, highest yield (4.82 t ha-1), net return (Rs 44880 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.36) was obtained under split application of nitrogenous fertilizers among other subplot treatments. The range of methane (0.57- 1.47 mg m-2 hr-1) carbon dioxide (0.32- 0.61 mg m-2 hr-1)  and nitrous oxide (19.58- 38.79 µg m-2 hr-1) emission was recorded lowest in zero tilled plots and split application of nitrogenous fertilizer also emitted lowest values of 1.59 mg m-2 hr-1 methane, 0.86 mg m-2 hr-1 carbon dioxide and 46.76 µg m-2 hr-1 nitrous oxide at maximum tillering stage of crop growth. Moreover, methane and nitrous oxide emission was gradually decreased from maximum tillering to harvesting stage. Zero tilled DSR with split nitrogen fertilizer application ascribed lowest greenhouse gas intensity among the other crop establishment and nitrogen management options. Thus, zero tilled method of crop establishment with split application of nitrogenous fertilizer could be a remunerative and environmentally stable method for direct seeded rice cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Flood Management in Nigeria: A Case Study of Yauri Local Government Area, Kebbi State

Daniel Habila Galadima, Ishaya K. Samaila, Magaji I. Joshua

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 652-659
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1130146

An evaluation of management in Nigeria with focus on Yauri Local Government Area of Kebbi State was carried out. The study made use of ASTER data of 2017 with spatial resolution of 30m, topographical map at a scale of 1:50,000, monthly rainfall data for 35 covering the study area and soil map at a scale of 1:50,000. Thematic maps for soil, rainfall and elevation were produced converted to raster data in GIS environment. Each data set in a single map was given weight by pair-wise comparison; reclassification of each map was done based on the weights generated from the pair-wise comparison of each dataset. The weights generated revealed that rainfall with 46 as its weight has the greatest influence on flood occurrences in the study area. Elevation accounted for weights of 24, slope accounted for 12 while drainage density, soil and LULC accounted for 10, 8 and 3 respectively. The settlements of Gumbi, Yauri, Unguwa Damisa, Zamare and Jijima that make up the study area lie along the zone of very high flood vulnerable land. Among the causes of flooding, excess rainfall and coastal location of the various settlements are responsible for flooding. Besides, the relief of the study area is such that encourage flooding as all the settlements are situated along the river course. The predominant coping and adapting strategies adopted to check flooding in the study area are temporary relocation and the raising of the floor of their houses among others.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Nonylphenol and Its Ethoxylates by HPLC 1100 in Water Environment of Taiyuan City

Kouakou Yao Salomon, Cai Xiang Zhang, Akpo Kouakou Sylvain, Yan Xin Wang, Xiao Ping Liao

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 660-670
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1130147

The aim of this work is to study the occurrence of nonylphenol and its ethoxylates in Taiyuan industrial area. The present study has firstly determined best conditions of Nonylphenol and its ethoxylates detection by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) 1100 series, variating solvent, mobile phase and flow: rate. These conditions let secondly the concentration determination of these pollutants in water media. Samples were collected from surface and groundwater in the industrial area of Taiyuan city (Shanxi province). Nonylphenol Ethoxylates (NPEOs) detection was better when solvent and Mobile phase were 2-propanol and Flow rate at 0.1 ml/min. Concentrations of Nonylphenol (NP) and NPEOs found in rivers and wastewaters collectors ranged from 80 to 933 µg/L and 38 to 743 µg/L respectively, while for groundwater, concentrations ranged from 24.6 to 151 µg/L and from 20 to 274 µg/L. These high concentrations found both in surface and groundwater, represent a risk of exposition to endocrine disruptors for humans and aquatic species. Actions should be taken to avoid or reduce the use of those compounds, or industries should apply some treatment before release their wastewater into environment. Attention should be paid especially to groundwater in case of human consumption. Introduction to groundwater way and degradation pathways from surface water to groundwater need to further study.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of an Industrial Wastewater Effluent on the Seasonal Variations of Ekerekana Creek, Rivers State Nigeria

Bankole Abdulkarim Balogun, C. O. Owuama, Ogechi Amanda Onukogu

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 671-681
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1130148

The effects of industrial wastewater from Port-Harcourt Refinery Company Limited on Ekerekana Creek, Rivers state were studied. This study was carried out in July and December 2015. Analyses focused on Lead, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, pH, Phosphate, Nitrate, Temperature, Dissolve Oxygen, BOD5 and Total Hydrocarbon Content as some of the parameters of interest. Sterilized yellowish-brown bottles were used to collect samples from each location and fixed with concentrated HNO3 before transporting to the laboratory in iced coolers. Water samples from the different stations were analyzed using standard laboratory methods. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM- SPSS(C)) version 19.0, statistical package for windows and MS Excel was used in the analysis of data. The test of homogeneity of variance in Means of the variables was carried out using the one way ANOVA. Results obtained showed that for heavy metals concentrations, Cadmium varied between 0.03 mg/L and 0.70 mg/L (0.39 ±0.06), Lead varied between 0.09 mg/L and 0.65 mg/L (0.29 ±0.04), Chromium between 0.04 mg/L and 0.46 mg/L (0.23 ±0.03) and Copper 0.10 mg/L and 0.90 mg/L (0.45 ±0.06) respectively. Others include pH which varied between 5.7 and 6.8 (6.15 ±0.07), Dissolved Oxygen 3.40 mg/L and 6.40 mg/L (4.75 ±0.22). BOD and Turbidity varied between 6.20 mg/L and 9.90 mg/L (7.77 ±0.29) and 8.60NTU and 11.20NTU (9.80 ±0.20) respectively. General results show that station 2 (discharge point) had maximum concentrations of heavy metals and other contributory parameters, and their values were higher than World Health Organization (WHO) and National Environmental Standards and Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA) standards. The test of homogeneity of variance in means of the physical and chemical parameters revealed significant spatial inequality F(161.45)>Fcrit(4.49) at P = .05 across the sampling stations.