Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Reject of Dairy Wastewater into the Aquatic Environment: Case of the Bayo Dairy Company (Brazzaville-Congo)

A. C. Litébé, C. A. Ngakegni-Limbili, R. F. Louzayadio Mvouezolo, C. Nkounkou Loupangou, D. Nzobadila, J. M. Ouamba

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i230177

The development of industrial activities is the source of the production of large quantities of wastewater. The last-mentioned are rejected in the environment often without any prior treatment and have serious short-term and sometimes long-term environmental consequences. The objective of this work is to assess the environmental impacts and to propose a process for treating wastewater of reject from Bayo dairy in Brazzaville-Congo. The samples were taken at four (4) stations before, during and after production of dairy products. Multivariate statistical analysis of the physicochemical data was carried out using Statistica 7.1 software. The results obtained show that the wastewater from the Bayo dairy has a basic pH which fluctuates between 8.32 and 9.17 with standard temperatures of reject. The salinity of the wastewater increases greatly during production, which shows rising mineralization. The contents of MES (49.78-181.80 mg/L), MO (40.23-72.64 mg O2/L), COD (51.08-98.91 mg O2/L), BOD5 (34.80-59.50 mg O2/L) and the turbidity (26-179) NTU are moderately high and reflect an increase pollutant load before, during and after production of dairy products in stations S2 and S3. The COD/BOD5 ratio reveals that the Bayo dairy wastewater is moderately biodegradable before, during and after production with a biodegradability coefficient which varies between 1.40 and 1.78. The ACP approves possible industrial pollution from wastewater from the Bayo dairy and reports on the impact of the rejects in the environment. Thus, this study is a contribution to raising awareness among the Congolese population and decision-makers on the quality of wastewater rejected by local industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factor Path of Constraints to Adaptive Capacity on Climate Change among IFAD-VCDP Farmers in North Central Nigeria

H. Sallawu, J. N. Nmadu, A. A. A. Coker, U. S. Mohammed

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 13-33
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i230178

Aim: Adaptive capacity is the ability of the farmer to adjust his farm plans and programmes in the face of emerging risks, constraints and currently available information. In this study, the various constraints faced by International Fund for Agricultural Development-Value Chain Development Programme’s farmers (IFAD-VCDP) in North Central Nigeria in adapting to climate change challenges were investigated.

Study Design: A multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the selection of respondents.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Benue and Niger States of Nigeria in 2018.

Methodology: Data were collected from a total of 483 respondents using interview schedule and questionnaire. The data were analysed using exploratory (principal component analysis) and confirmatory (structural equation modelling) factor analysis.

Results: The results of the analysis revealed the significant constraints the farmers faced in order to improve their adaptive capacity to climate change which were institutional and technical (49.45%) and climate information (26.62%) constraints, although the factors differ slightly within the two states under study. In Benue State, institutional (31.26%), personal (14.63%), land and farm inputs (12.54%) and population (11.73%) while in Niger State, public and institutional (22.34%), land and farm inputs (14.78%), and personal (10.75) were the constraints to adaptive capacity.

Conclusion: These constraints make it harder to plan and implement adaptation actions by restricting the variety and effectiveness of options available to the farmers to improve their productivity and cope with the vagaries of climate change. It was therefore recommended that government and NGOs should intensify efforts on public, institutional, educational and climate policies, assist in increasing the adaptive capacity of the farmers in order to employ more adaptation measures, land governance systems should be strengthened in Nigeria to provide tenure security for all, financial institutions should help facilitate access to credit by farmers and assist in making reliable climate information accessible to all farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Earth Observation-based Damage Assessment of 2018 Flood in Parts of Hadejia-Jama’ are River Basin, Nigeria

B. A. Odewole, A. Y. Yusuf, S. O. Ibrahim, G. Jibrin

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i230179

Floods, Landslides, Forest fire, Volcanoes, Hurricanes and Tsunami among others are indeed considered as the most natural hazards that cause loosed of resources which includes human lives. Hadejia-Jama’ are River Valley has a well-known seasonal occurrence of floodings with maximum interval of five years incidents historically. Among these disasters floods especially along the river basin particularly in developing nations like Nigeria became a regular disaster with state of frequent occurrences almost seasonally. This study assessed pre-flood and post-flood nature of floodplain along Hadejia-Jama’ are from Jigawa to Tiga Dam in Kano State. Remotely sensed sentinel 2 satellite data and ALOS Digital Surface Model (DSM) was used for the study. The sentinel images were subjected to image pre-processing activities such as geometric correction and radiometric correction. To focus on the flood plain, a 5 km buffer of the area around Hadejia-Jama’are River Basin from Jigawa to Tiga dam were extracted from the data by using the extract/clip tools in ArcGIS 10.3 software. Findings of the study revealed that dominant land use along the floodplain prior to flood include bare surface, patches of agriculture/vegetation, settlement, water body. The study also revealed that patterns of flood damages vary irrespective of the risk with areas like Dawakin Kudu and Garun mallam were witnessing more flood damages than Miga LGA of Jigawa State. It is, therefore, concluded that Earth observation and its applications are useful tools/methods for flood damages assessment and evaluation as well as a basis for taking proactive steps in mitigating flood hazard along floodplains and another flood prone environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Seed Hydropriming on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under Adverse Climatic Condition of Drought and Salinity

Shivasharanappa S. Patil, Ashok S. Sajjan, N. K. Biradarpatil

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i230180

Aim: Assessment of influence of seed hydropriming in seed and seedling vigour enhancement for stress tolerance in chickpea which is important for successful crop production under erratic climate change causing drought and salinity stress severely affecting the seedling emergence and establishment especially in arid and semi arid regions of the world.

Study Design: A three factorial randomised block design was used in the study, involving seed hydropriming treatment, chickpea varieties and growth conditions.

Place and Duration of the Study: The experiment was conducted in Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, during the year 2018.

Methodology: Six months old chickpea seeds of variety JG-11 and Annigeri-1 were hydroprimed for 12 hours at 25°C in dark condition. The primed and unprimed control seeds are sown under normal, drought and salinity conditions imposed in pots under controlled conditions. The data recorded were analysed for Analysis of Variance (ANNOVA).

Results: The result of the experiment revealed that, upon seed hydropriming an average of 19 per cent increase in seedling emergence and 53.3 per cent increase in seedling vigour index was observed as compared to unprimed control seeds irrespective of variety and the abiotic stress conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Mineral Nutrient Accumulation in Different Cultivars of Guava Fruits

Dhyanananda Kumari, Muneshwar Prasad, Feza Ahmad

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 81-88
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i230205

Guava, is one of the most promising fruit crops of India and is considered to be one of the exquisite nutritionally valuable and remunerative crops. We are unaware of any report describing macro and micronutrient dynamics in fruit at different growth stages of guava. Micronutrients play an important role in production and their deficiency lead in lowering the productivity. For conducting this experiment fruit of variety Allahabad Safeda, L-49, Lalit, Shweta, Arka Kiran, Salithong, Kimchu were collected at different stages like Marble, Stone hardening & Harvest stage for estimation of primary nutrient (N, P, K), secondary nutrient (Ca, Mg) & micronutrient (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu). The nutrient content particularly N, K, Mg, and Mn are highest in variety of Allahabad Safeda, whereas, P and Ca are highest in variety Lalit. Micronutrient Fe recorded highest in Salithong while Zn and Cu were accumulated maximum in Arka Kiran and Kimchu respectively. Recommendation of fertilizer at various growth stages is paramount for precise nutritional management for which the requirement of different nutrition is essential.

Open Access Review Article

Climate Change Impact on Agriculture and Related Sustainable Land Management Practices in Bangladesh – A Review

M. A. Hossain, M. N. Amin, J. Sultana, M. N. A. Siddique

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 53-69
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i230181

Sustainable land management (SLM) is an effective climate adaptation technique in the present world. Bangladesh is listed in long-term Climate Risk Index 2019 due to its unicorn geographic features (e.g. low-lying riparian lands, big rivers, dense population and coastal settings). The livelihoods of Bangladesh are directly or indirectly linked to agricultural practices and or agribusiness. Many studies revealed that climate change-induced natural calamities (e.g. rainfall and temperature variability, sea level rise, flood, cyclone, drought, groundwater depletion, salt intrusion) unfavorably effect on agricultural production and livelihood activities and these are making critical food insecurity situation. Thus, identification and implementation of SLM practices to maintain food security of the bursting population are a prerequisite in Bangladesh. In this study, we have compiled the prospective SLM practices based on land management objective, land user requirements, crop and land suitability by reviewing peer-reviewed articles and grey literature. The potential SLM identified includes land resource conservation, erosion control, tillage technology, soil fertility management, vegetation management, efficient groundwater use, salinity-drought adaptations, land zoning and site-specific climate-smart agriculture. Among these SLM practices, the cultivation of suitable crop based on land quality and resource availability requires knowledge of decision support components involving the stakeholders for meaningful implementation of SLM. We proposed conceptual decision support components (e.g. land user, land quality, crop suitability, site-specific management, capital and governance) that would be the basis for the development and implementation of SLM towards land users and or farmers. The motivation of farmers through efficient extension activity and agri-governance for optimized land management can lead to minimizing the climate-induced vulnerability in agriculture. We concluded that the identified SLM practices, if implemented by adequate decision supports, SLM will help to achieve agricultural production as required by the sustainable Millennium Development Goals in Bangladesh.

Open Access Review Article

Climate Change: Global Indicators, Socio-economic Implications and Mitigation

Daniel E. Azunna, Godwill U. Chukwu, Magnus U. Igboekwe, Faustinus C. Anyadiegwu

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 70-80
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i230182

Climate change which is the variation in the climate condition over comparable periods has some indicators like surface temperature, atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone layer area. This paper seeks to examine the state of the climate change indicators, their effects and how climate change can be mitigated. A review of data sources and literature reveal that global average temperature has increased more than 0.8ºC above the pre-industrial baseline over the past 100 years with 2016 and 2017 being the warmest years. Fossil carbon emissions also reached up to 41.5 billion tons in 2018. The extent of depletion of the ozone reduced to an area of 24.8x106 km2 in 2018 as against its value of 28.2 x106 km2 and 29.6 x106 km2 in 2015 and 2006 respectively. The effects of climate change on the socio-economic development were identified to include; natural disasters, food insecurity, diseases, human mobility and population displacement. To mitigate the adverse effects of climate change, minimizing our dependence on petroleum and fossil fuels by using cleaner and renewable energy sources, carbon capture and sequestration, proper management of land, forest and the entire ecosystem was highlighted. If these options are explored, climate change will drastically reduce while fostering global economic, environmental and social well-being.