Open Access Original Research Article

Growth, Yield, Seed and Seedling Quality Parameters of Rapeseed-mustard Varieties under Different Seed Priming Options

Rupa Das, Saikat Biswas, Utpal Biswas, Amitava Dutta

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i330183

Rationale: Crop production and quality of produce get affected by drought, stand establishment and low availability of nutrients. Apart from various prevailing methods, seed treatment through priming now-a-days has been found to noticeably improve crop establishment for increasing seed yield and quality.

Aim: To study the effect of various seed priming options on rapeseed-mustard varieties.

Place of Study: A field experiment was conducted at AB Block Farm, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India during winter season of 2017-2018.

Methodology: Experiment comprised six rapeseed-mustard varieties (Anushka, Sanchita, TBM-143,TBM-204, Kranti and Pusa Bold) in main plot and five seed priming options (KH2PO4 @ 0.15 mol 100 ml water-1 5 g seeds-1, KNO3 @ 0.1 mol 100 ml water-1 5 g seeds-1, PEG 6000 @ -0.3 MPa 100 ml water-1 5 g seeds-1, hydro priming @ 100 ml 5 g seeds-1 and control) in subplot, replicated thrice in a split plot design. Observations on growth and yield contributing parameters were recorded from the field. Further, various quality parameters of seed and seedlings were evaluated in the laboratory. Data on all the parameters were finally statistically analyzed.

Results: Among the varieties, Pusa Bold performed better in terms of growth, yield contributing parameters and seed yield under seed priming through either KH2PO4 @ 0.15 mol 100 ml water-1 5 g seeds-1 or PEG 6000 @ -0.3 MPa 100 ml water-1 5 g seeds-1. Seed and seedling quality parameters such as root and shoot lengths, seedling fresh and dry weights, germination % and vigour index were also improved under the same.

Conclusion: Cultivation of mustard variety, Pusa Bold by seed priming through any of those two chemicals (KH2PO4 or PEG 6000) can be recommended for New alluvial zone of West Bengal, India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature over Different Districts of Karnataka: An Aid to Climate Change Detection and Cropping System Option

S. Sridhara, Pradeep Gopakkali, R. Nandini

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 15-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i330184

Aims: To know the rainfall and temperature trend for all the districts of Karnataka state to develop suitable coping mechanisms for changing weather conditions during the cropping season.

Study Design: The available daily data of rainfall (1971-2011) and minimum and maximum temperature (1971-2007) for each district was collected from NICRA-ICAR website. A non-parametric model such as the Mann-Kendall (MK) test complemented with Sen’s slope estimator was used to determine the magnitude of the trend.

Place and Duration of Study: The rainfall data of 41 years (1971-2011) and temperature data of 37 years (1971-2007) was collected for all 27 districts of Karnataka.

Methodology: Basic statistics related to rainfall like mean, standard deviation (SD), the coefficient of variation (CV) and the percentage contribution to annual rainfall were computed for monthly and season-wise. Mann-Kendall test was used to detect trend for rainfall as well as temperature.

Results: An increasing trend in rainfall during winter, monsoon and annual basis for all most all the districts of Karnataka and decreasing trend of rainfall during pre and post-monsoon season was noticed. An early cessation of rainfall during September month in all most all the districts of Karnataka was observed. Similarly, monthly mean, maximum and the minimum temperature had shown an increasing trend over the past 37 years for all the districts of Karnataka.

Conclusion: The more variation in rainfall during the pre-monsoon season was observed, which is more important for land preparation and other operations. The increasing trend of maximum and minimum temperature throughout the year may often cause a reduction in crop yield. It is necessary to change crops with its short duration varieties in order to avoid late season drought.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk and Toxicity Assessments of Heavy Metals in Tympanotonus fuscatus and Sediments from Iko River, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

U. U. Ubong, I. O. Ekwere, E. E. Ikpe

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i330186

This study evaluates the physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals in water, sediments and Tympanotonus fuscatus obtained from three sample sites along Iko River in Eastern Obolo LGA, AkwaIbom State. The heavy metal analysis results on Pb, Cd and Ni in sediments and Tympanotonus fuscatus were used to estimate the human health and ecological risk assessment of the study area. The human health risk assessment tools utilized in this study were estimated dietary intake (EDI), total hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) while sediment pollution parameters evaluated were contamination factor (CF), contamination degree (CD), pollution load index (PLI) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo). Results obtained showed that EDI of Cd in periwinkle in the study sites ranged from 0.2 – 6.4 µg/kg-bw/day and exceeded the provisional tolerable dietary intake (PTDI), while EDI for Pb (0.0004 – 2.6 µg/kg-bw/day) and Ni (0.32 – 2 µg/kg-bw/day) was within the limit for all sites, except Ni in site II (34 µg/kg-bw/day) which was higher than the PTDI of 5 µg/kg-bw/day. The THQ of Cd in all sites was greater than 1, while Pb and Ni generally recorded THQ < 1. The hazard index (HI) was as follows: site I (2.36), sites II (24.44) and site III (6.5), highlighting a potential hazardous effect to humans as a result of the consumption of Tympanotonus fuscatus obtained from site II and III. The sediment pollution assessment revealed that the contamination factor (CF) and geoaccumulation index, Igeo of Cd were far above the permissible limits while Pb and Ni were mostly within limits. The estimated contamination degree (CD) and pollution load index (PLI) showed a high degree of pollution, which can be mainly attributed to the high degree of Cd contamination in the sediment. Therefore, the area under investigation is highly polluted and the periwinkle obtained from Iko river in the study area is unfit for human consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment in the High Mountain Region of Nepal: A Case Study of Lamjung District

Kala Rai, Basanta Kumar Neupane, Raj Kumar Pariyar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 48-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i330187

Climate change vulnerability has need access to targeted scientific information about the impacts of climate change in order to adapt to its effects. Awareness can be measured through three different parameters-conceptualization, engagement and experimental. This research has conduct in Lamjung district where people are victimize from climate change. Primary and secondary sources of data are used. This study used household surveys and focus group discussions to assess people perceptions of these changes and identify the climate change vulnerability. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the Lamjung districts, vulnerable in the context of the climate change. This result is useful for policymaker, local government and different stockholder who are working on climate change sector. It is also important for long term changes in climate variables and occurrences of natural disasters is the most important component to determine the overall vulnerability. Climate change vulnerability had been decreased considerably in this study area. Meanwhile, long-term research in Nepal is required for extensive work on climate change and primary data collection for climate change vulnerability assessment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Variability and Food Crop Production in Rural Cameroon: The Case of Ejagham Community - Manyu Division

Robert Njilla Mengnjo Ngalim, Tambe Philomina Besong

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 60-77
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i330188

This study set to establish the relationship between rainfall and temperature variabilities and food crop production in the Ejagham community, Cameroon. Data were collected for crop production in the area from 2006-2015, and for rainfall and temperature from 1975 – 2015. Variance means was used to analyse the trend in climatic conditions of rainfall and temperature while correlation coefficient was used to establish the relationship between climatic conditions and food crop production. Findings revealed that the trend in rainfall has been fluctuating. Clearly, rainfall dropped in the years 1986, 2001, 2003 and 2015. Overall, there has been a decrease in annual rainfall from about 3,000 mm in 1975 to almost 2,000 mm in 2015. The highest temperature was recorded in the 2010 with 29.0°C, followed by the year 2013 with 28.2°C. 2015 recorded the least temperature which had an average of 26.0°C. Furthermore, there exist a relationship between rainfall and temperature variabilities and food crop production in Ejagham area. This is indicated in the almost negative coefficients both for rainfall and temperature. It can therefore be concluded that there is a statistically significant relationship between rainfall and temperature variabilities and food crop production in Ejagham area.

Open Access Review Article

Climate Change Impacts on Water Quality of Water Bodies-A Review

Eliud Salila, Mahendra Pal Sharma, Rajesh Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 26-37
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i330185

The impacts of climate change on water quality of water bodies are associated with the climatic extreme events (heavy rainfall and flood, heat, drought, wildfires, cyclones, hurricane, super storms) as the major drivers that require knowledge of understanding. Most research studies present the role of climate change in threatening water quality, risks on drinking water and contributions of catchment in water pollution, but less attention has directed to specific sensitive water quality parameters, appropriate methodologies, risks on ecosystem and managerial practice to reduce the impacts. This review highlight the of effect climate change on surface water bodies based on recent literatures on the impacts of climate change on water quality and promote practical opportunity for better management of these impacts. We conclude that consideration of climate change preparedness plan in catchments is the best option to adopt for minimization of climate change impacts on water quality of water bodies.