Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Capsule and Seed Development in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) as Influenced by Seed Priming

Utpal Biswas, Rupa Das, Amitava Dutta

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i430189

Aim: To study the influence of seed priming on the pattern of capsule and seed development in sesame.

Place and Duration of Study: The field experiment was conducted during the pre kharif seasons of 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 in sesame variety Savitri at AB Block farm, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India.

Methodology: Experiment was laid out in split plot design with 3 replications. Ten schedules of seed priming viz T1 (KNO3 @ 10 mM), T2 (KNO3 @ 20 mM), T3 (KNO3 @ 50 mM), T4 (KH2PO4 @ 50 mM), T5 (KH2PO4 @ 100 mM),T6 (KH2PO4 @ 200 mM), T7 [Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 @ -0.4 MPa], T8 [Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 @ -0.3 MPa], T9 [Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 @ -0.2 MPa], T10 Distilled water (Hydro priming) along with control T11 (Dry seed) were taken as main plot treatment and stage of harvest was considered as sub plot treatment. The pattern of capsule and seed development was studied at 10 days after anthesis (DAA), 20 days after anthesis (DAA), 30 days after anthesis (DAA), 40 days after anthesis (DAA) and 50 days after anthesis (DAA) interval. Ten plants from each replication and in each treatment were selected at random to record data on morphological and physiological characters.

Results: Fresh capsule length, fresh capsule breadth, fresh capsule weight, fresh seed weight and dry seed weight showed a steady increase up to 40 days after anthesis (DAA) then decreased slowly up to maturity.

Conclusion: Considering seed yield and quality parameters, T7 [Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 @ -0.4 MPa] and T9 [Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 @ -0.2 MPa] appears to be ideal among the treatments for quality seed production in sesame.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Growing Media on Growth and Yield of Marigold (Tagetes erecta (L.)) under Protected Environment

E. Sujitha, K. Shnamugasundaram

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 8-13
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i430190

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Kumulur, Trichy to study the effect of different growing media (Experimental plot Soil, Soil + Sawdust (2:1) and Soil + Coirpith (2:1)) with three level of irrigation (120% ETc, 100% ETc and 75% ETc) with three replication on the yield and water use efficiency. Among the treatments Soil + Coirpith (2:1) 100% ETc (T8) was found superior to all other treatment combination in producing higher yield of marigold flower. Maximum yield was recorded with treatment T8 which was 27% higher than the treatment T2. Similarly highest water usage efficiency was recorded in T8 (948.65 kg.ha-1mm-1). Therefore the study concluded that, the soil + coirpith (2:1) at 100% ETc would be best growing media as well as optimal irrigation level for growing marigold crop under greenhouse without causing any stress in irrigation and negative effects in plant growth parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aggregates Characterization and Its Associated Organic Carbon in Two Contrasting Lowland Rice Soils of West Bengal

Ramprosad Nandi, Subham Mukherjee, Priyanka Ghatak, Arnab Kundu, Deep Mukherjee, P. K. Bandyopadhyay

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 14-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i430191

Aims: The present study investigated the effect of lowland rice soils of two regions viz. new alluvial and red-laterite on aggregate characterization and their associated organic carbon (SOC).

Study Design: Randomized block design (RBD).

Place and Duration of Study: New alluvial soils were collected from Jangipara block of Hooghly, West Bengal and Red-laterite soils were collected from Raghunathpur block of Purulia, West Bengal during 2017-18.

Methodology: For each soil types (New alluvial and Red-laterite) five locations were identified and soil samples were collected from three depths i.e. 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. The aggregate characteristics i.e. water-stable aggregates (WSAs), mean weight diameter (MWD), aggregate stability and aggregate size fractions along with the distribution of carbon in those aggregate size fractions were critically studied.

Results: The aggregate size as well as the stability decreased with increasing soil depth from 0 to 30 cm in both soils. New alluvial soils showed higher aggregate stability than red-laterite soils. Mean weight diameter (MWD) values of new alluvial soils were 34, 29 and 87% more than red-laterite soils at 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm depth, respectively. Presence of higher amount of clay and organic matter in new alluvial made the difference in structural coefficient. The surface soil (0-10 cm) had more coarse aggregate (Cmac A >2000μ) fraction, however, microaggregates (<250μ) were dominant in lower depths in both soils. Water stable aggregates (WSA) in surface soils of new alluvial and red-laterite were 57 and 36%, respectively and were decreased with depth. Red-laterite produced higher micro aggregates as compared to new alluvial soils. Coarse macro aggregate fractions (>2000μ) retained maximum amount of soil organic carbon in both soils however, coarse micro aggregate associated carbon (Cmic AC<250μ) was captured in lower depths. New alluvial soils yielded aggregates with higher in diameter and stability coefficient that is due to higher amount of carbon stored in aggregates.

Conclusion: The abundance of macro aggregate of New alluvial soils indicates better soil physical quality than Red-laterite soil which was dominated in higher micro aggregates leads to poor in structure and susceptible to water erosion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Microclimate on Yield and Quality Attributes of Cherry Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme) under Open Field and Polyhouse Conditions

Chandni ., Deepti Singh, Shirin Akhtar, Swaraj Kumar Dutta

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 24-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i430192

Cherry tomatoes are usually cultivated under greenhouse which is out of the reach of the marginal farmers. Due to unavailability of microclimatic and biochemical data in cherry tomato, meagre yield is obtained at open field conditions. Since the microclimatic factors and growing environment have immense influence on yield and quality attributes of any crop, this experiment was aimed to study the correlation of microclimate with the yield and quality contributing traits of eighteen genetically diverse genotypes of cherry tomato at open field trained on trellis and under naturally ventilated polyhouse conditions. In the given study, under open conditions, mean canopy temperature in morning at 7 a.m. (15.3-19.4°C) showed highly significant positive correlation with total yield, whereas total yield possessed highly significant negative association with the mean mid-day (12 noon) canopy temperature and mean mid-day soil temperature above 25°C. In poly house condition, total yield reflected significant negative correlation with morning mean canopy temperature (24.6°C) and mid-day mean canopy temperature (25.8-26°C), whereas total yield was negatively correlated with morning and mid-day mean soil temperature when the temperature was above 20.7°C. Among biochemical parameters, lycopene and beta-carotene content increased with mean canopy temperature at 19.5°C and further decreased above 21.5°C, however TSS increased with increase in mean canopy temperature from 15 to 25°C and decreased beyond 30°C temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Resource Management and Sustainability in Kipkelion West Sub-County, Kenya

Chepngetich Doreen, Sitienei Anne, Kiplagat Andrew

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 31-38
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i430193

Indisputably, water is an important resource. On the other hand, sustainable water resource management forms part of the key global development concerns. The present study, therefore, sought to establish sustainable measures used in the management of water resources in Kipkelion West Sub-County, Kenya. The descriptive research design was used in this study. A total of 394 households were surveyed together with interviewing 10 key informants within Kipkelion West Sub-County. The descriptive research design was used in this study. Findings from the present study revealed that for, household use, most residents sourced their water from rivers and streams at 35%, rainwater collection at 25%, springs at 22%, piped water at 11%, water vendors and boreholes at 3% and finally ponds and dams sharing 1%. In addition, most households do not incur any direct financial charges when sourcing for water. It was further pinpointed that negative indicators affected the sustainability of the water resources in Kipkelion West Sub-County and the manner in which the residents manage the available resources. Taken together, stakeholders in water resource management work independent of each other with occasional collective efforts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on UK Potato Production

Olufemi Samson Adesina, Brian Thomas

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 39-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i430194

This study assessed the potential impacts of climate change on potato production in the United Kingdom. Climate change actions are becoming a nightmare for growers worldwide, and the British potato industry is not an exception. Extreme weather conditions were experienced in 2006, 2012, and 2018, respectively. Thus, this study identified the future climate risk associated with major potato producing regions in the UK using the recent climate projection weather data (UKCP18) based on RCP 8.5. In total, the study considered seven (7) regions with a minimum average of 3000 hectares of potato planted area in the past five years. Findings showed that drought, high temperatures, and prolonged precipitation caused significant yield and quality loss in the past, with a likelihood of causing a more harmful impact in the future. The analysis revealed a hotter (Tmax ≥ 25°C, Tmin ≥ 15°C) and drier (1-1.5 mm day-1) summer most especially in the EE, EM, SW, WM, and YH as well as a warmer (Tmax& Tmin 6-10°C) and wetter winter (5 mm day-1 on average) in Scotland and North West England respectively. Future climate is predicted to hinder land preparation and harvesting operation in the Northern regions while the EE, EM, SW, WM, and YH would be faced with drought, with irrigation and water demand increasing by 20-30% as evapotranspiration also increases by 20-30% in 2050-2080. Irrigated potatoes are predicted to double its current spatial coverage in the future. The study identified suitable adaptation measures and strategies required to reduce the impacts of climate change on the British potato industry.