Open Access Original Research Article

Emission Characteristics of Methyl Ester of Rice Bran Oil Blends with Ethanol in CI Engine

Rajat Kumar Sharma, Jayant Singh, Ankit Negi, Deepshikha Azad

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i530195

Increasing demand and rapid depletion of fossil fuels have together prompted the researchers of many countries to look for alternate renewable fuels. This study is an attempt to test the feasibility of rice bran oil as fuel in C. I. engine in its original and in its refined form. It is generally produced from rice bran which is a by-product produced during paddy processing. Its viscosity though relatively higher than diesel can be reduced by natural sedimentation process. In this attempt, the performance and emission characteristics of rice bran oil and its refined form were studied and compared with diesel by employing them as a fuel in a single cylinder, direct injection, 4.4 KW, air cooled diesel engine. The performance characteristics revealed that the brake thermal efficiency of the rice bran oil was higher than its refined form and were marginally lower than that of diesel. Emission measurements were carried out using MRU Delta 1600L gas analyzer and the soot concentration was measured with AVL smoke meter. It was found that though blends of rice bran oil with ethanolexhibited greater soot concentration characteristics than rice bran oil and diesel at all loads, it exhibited desirable characteristics for other emissions such as lower CO, HC, NOx emissions and lower exhaust gas temperatures with increasing load.

Open Access Original Research Article

Emission from Uyo Main Refuse Dumpsite and Potential Impact on Health

S. A. Nta, M. J. Ayotamuno, A. H. Igoni, R. N. Okparanma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 8-13
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i530196

This paper presents potential impact on health of emission from landfill site on Uyo village road, Uyo local government area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three sampling points were assessed for particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide H2S, ammonia (NH3), total volatile organic carbon (TVOC) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) using highly sensitive digital portable meters. The data obtained were expressed in terms of an air quality index. Air quality index indicates that the ambient air can be described as unhealthy for sensitive groups for NO2, unhealthy for SO2 and PM2.5 and moderate for CO, respectively. H2S, NH3, TVOC, HCN, PM10 were not indicated in USEPA air quality standards. It recommended that stringent and proper landfill emissions management together with appropriate burning of wastes should be considered in the study area to ease the risks associated with these pollutants on public health.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Engineering Approach to Roof Top Gardening

Abhinav Dubey, A. R. Radhakrishna, R. Narendra, N. Madhu, R. Rajesh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 14-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i530197

With the growing demand for vegetables and fruits in this world of urbanisation roof top gardening finds an insignificant place. The study focuses on identifying and suggesting remedies for effective management of the engineering components involved in roof top gardening.  They majorly include design of roof, irrigation management, arrangement of pots, waste management, moisture proofing etc. These factors contribute significantly in designing an effective roof top garden. Various problems faced in the engineering intervention were identified and suitable remedies were suggested in the research using a case study approach of roof top gardens in Bangalore. A well maintained roof top garden is a positive sign of a healthy household.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Silicon on Reduction of Methane Emissions for Sustainable Rice Production

G. Bhupal Raj, Kasthuri Rajamani, B. H. Kumara

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 44-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i530199

The increasing human population requires greater rice production and methane is the second most potent greenhouse gas emitted from rice soils under anaerobic conditions. To address this, an experiment was carried out in two phases. In the first phase of the experiment, Si content accessed in the rice index leaves and recorded the mean values of 2.50, 2.48, 2.51 and 2.43% at Jagtial, Warangal, Rajendranagar and Rudrur varietal display plots in Telangana. For the second phase of field experiment, one with high Si (JGL-3855) and another with low Si (RNR-2354) content genotypes were selected with each four levels of N (0, 80, 120 & 160 kg ha-1) and Si (0, 200, 400 & 600 kg ha-1) in strip plot design. Conjunctive application of N and Si to both genotypes, JGL-3855 recorded significantly higher grain and straw yield compared to RNR-2354, among the different combinations of Si and N, application 160 kg N + 600 kg Si ha-1 recorded significantly higher grain and straw yields (7180 and 9693 kg ha-1). The treatments which received a higher dose of Si@600 kg ha-1 in combination with N@ 80, 120 and 160 registered the lower emission of methane@ 25.7, 24.6 and 24.3 mg m-2 hr-1 and there was a significant scaling down of pest and disease incidence was noticed in treatments wherever increased Si doses (0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1) were included.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers Extent of Adoption of Climate Resilient Agro-technologies

Sobnam Sultana, Pabitra K. Das, Dipankar Saikia, Indrajit Barman

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 53-56
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i530200

Climate change is possibly the most significant environmental challenge and possess serious threats to sustainable development in the world and more so in developing countries. Impact of climate change affects ecosystems, water resources, food and health. To adapt to the change and overcome the threats of climate change several climate-resilient agro-technologies have been introduced under the National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) Project. The present study was conducted in Lakhimpur District of Assam to measure the extent of adoption of the climate-resilient agro-technologies introduced under the NICRA Project by the participant and non-participant farmers. A total of 160 farmers, 80 NICRA participant farmers and 80 non-participant farmers were interviewed. Findings revealed that the majority of the participant farmers (68.75 per cent) had a medium extent of adoption followed by 17.50 per cent with a low extent of adoption of climate-resilient agro-technologies. Only 13.75 per cent of the participant farmers were found to have a high level of adoption of climate-resilient agro-technologies. Among the non-participant farmers, majority of them (75.00 per cent) had a low extent of adoption followed by 17.50 per cent with a medium extent of adoption of climate-resilient agro-technologies. Only a very small proportion of them (7.50 per cent) had a high extent of adoption of climate-resilient agro-technologies.

Open Access Review Article

Prospects and Constraints of Transplanted Maize, Wheat, Sorghum and Pearl Millet: A Review

Saikat Biswas

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 24-43
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i530198

Cereal crops such as maize, wheat, sorghum and pearl millet are important for human consumption due to their nutritional benefits. These cereals play pivotal roles to meet world’s food demand. However, maintenance of food security particularly in the circumstance of changing climate, constantly urges for modification of agro-techniques and one such modification is the incorporation of transplanting technique in these cereals as an alternative under a non-practicable situation of direct sowing. Transplanting is a method of transferring seedlings grown in nursery or others to the field. It has been already found to shorten the crop duration and improve germination, plant stand, seed and seedling quality parameters, growth, yield and economic profitability of these cereals. Besides, research findings are also available stating that transplanting helps these cereals to cope up with vagaries of weather and to exhibit greater radiation and water use efficiencies and suppression of weeds. Outcomes of transplanting are however dependent on various factors like methods of nursery raising, the variety used, mode of planting, age of seedlings etc. In spite of these prospects, transplanting technique is not so popular in these cereals due to poor dissemination, discouraging research findings, pest and disease problems, lack of suitable package of practices etc. Therefore, focuses are to be given in conducting more and more research trials to confirm its location and situation wise efficacy and also in developing and disseminating a suitable package of practices of transplanting accordingly.