Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Screening of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs); Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) and Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) Flame Retardants in Municipal Dumpsite in Delta State, Nigeria

Oghenekohwiroro Edjere, Chukwunonso Elvis Stephen

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i730208

Aims: This study is aimed at determining the concentration of two widely used BFRs; Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) and Tetrabromo Bisphenol-A (TBBPA) in sediment and leachate samples.

Place and Duration of Study: Field sampling were carried out from five major dumpsites around Warri Municipality, Delta State, Nigeria. Analyte extraction was done in 2017 at the Science laboratory, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun Delta State, Nigeria and quantification done in Switzerland by Bachema Analytical Laboratories in 2017.

Methods: Three soil samples were collected from each site 15cm from the soil surface. Also, three leachate samples from three different trial pits done for each site. Collected soil samples were stored in glass bottles and labelled. While the leachate samples are stored using glass containers and labelled. The BFRs were extracted using Aceton and cyclohexane for each soil matrix and cyclohexane for the leachate samples, then the extract was analysed using GC coupled with an ECD supplied by Thermo Trace GC Ultra, Italy.

Results: The results showed the average concentration for TBBPA in the sediments was 0.0234 g/kg and that of the BDE-209 was recorded as 0.1828 g/kg. Results from the leachate sample were below the detectable range of the analytical equipment, TBBPA (0.02 g/kg) and BDE (0.1 g/kg). There is no statistical difference between the mean concentration of TBBPA for the sediment in each of the locations (P>.05) and no difference (P>.05) for BDE-209 for the sediment in each of the locations (P>.05).

Conclusion: Findings from this study holds that the concentration of TBBPA and BDE-209 in sediment is higher when compared with concentrations presented in other literatures studied in this report and this calls for immediate action due to the health risk associated with exposure in these municipalities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Disaster Coping Strategy Practiced by the Affected People for their Livelihood Due to Climate Change

M. J. Alam, M. N. Islam, M. Y. Uddin, M. M. Haque, M. G. Mostafa

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 34-53
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i730210

The purpose of the study were to (i)  determine the disaster coping strategy practiced by the affected people (ii) assess the socio-economic profile of the respondents, (iii) ascertain the contribution of selected characteristics of the people and (iv) identify the constraints of disaster coping strategy practiced by the affected people. The study was conducted at Gangachara Upazila of Rangpur District. Data were collected from a sample of 302 respondents, randomly selected from disaster affected population. Age, education, family size, farm size, disaster affected land, annual income, training received, extension media contact, knowledge on disaster coping strategy, environmental awareness, household assets, credit facilities, IGAs, water and sanitation condition, risk orientation, awareness about SSNP, perception of Climate Change (CC), perception of disasters and scope of work in vulnerable situation constituted the independent variables, while disaster coping strategy practiced was the dependent variable. For measuring the disaster coping strategy practices, a 4-point rating scale was used against 50 items taking 10 items from each of five components of human needs e.g. 1) food preservation, collection and management, 2) agricultural products protection, 3) maintaining social network, 4) safeguard of health and sanitation, and 5) protection of housing and shelter. Numerical values and scales were used to measure the personal attributes. Regression and path analysis were employed to determine the contribution among the variables. For exploring relationship between the two variables Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (r) was used. The majority (77.8 per cent) of the respondents had regular coping strategies compared to 22.2 per cent were found to have occasional coping strategies in the study area. Among 19 independent variables 16 were found significant relationship with the dependent variable. Stepwise multiple regression revealed that six variables namely education (23 per cent), participation in IGAs (3.6 percent), awareness of SSNPs (2.9 percent), disaster affected land (1.2 percent), farm size (1.9 percent) and perception of CC (1 percent) were the important contributing variables which combined explained 33.6 of the total variation of practice of coping strategy. Path analysis indicated that disaster affected land (0.589) had the highest positive direct effect while farm size (0.643) had the highest positive indirect effect to the disaster coping strategy practice. The major constraints for practicing disaster coping strategy in the study area were ‘Lack of knowledge and skills of affected people‘, ‘Lack of relief materials during disaster‘, ‘Lack of technologies‘, ‘Weak weather forecasting‘, ‘Less motivation’, ‘Low sanitation & health coverage’ and ‘Lack of communication during disasters’,. To cope up with the challenges of the disasters, the people used reduction of food intake per meal, putting goods above flood level, keeping women and children in safer places, using boiled and tube well water, providing health care support to the sick family members, transfer important documents to the safer places, increasing level of homestead with soil, taking relief, credit, religious fasting, using mosque/temple as campaigning center, borrowing principal food from neighbor, use savings, migration, livestock sell, and social interconnectedness as the major coping strategies to survive the situation and improve their livelihood.

Open Access Original Research Article

Shade and Irrigation Effects on Growth, Flowering, Pod Yields and Cacao Tree Survival Following 5 Years of Continuous Dry Season Irrigation

E. F. Charles, S. O. Agele, O. P. Aiyelari, I. B. Famuwagun, E. Faboade

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 54-64
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i730211

The effects of plantain shade and dry season irrigation on the growth, field survival, flowering and pod production of cacao was investigated. Treatments were a 2 by 2 factorial combinations of shade regimes (Unshaded/open sun and shaded) and irrigation intervals (5-day and 10-day intervals) arranged in a split-plot design. There was an unirrigated but shaded control. The shade regimes constituted the main plot while irrigation intervals were the sub-plot treatments. The growth, dry season survival, flowering and pod/bean yield characters of cacao were enhanced in the unshaded (open sun) compared with the shaded plants. The open sun treatment combined with 5-day irrigation produced the largest canopy development, flowering and pod production compared with shading-irrigation combinations. The shade-irrigation ameliorated microclimate and enhanced growth and development, flowering and uniform fruiting/pod production and total bean yield and reduced dry season mortality (whole tree death, branch and twig dieback). For the non-irrigated but shaded cacao, about 30% dry season mortality (branch and twig dieback) were obtained. Air temperatures within the cacao field were highest for open sun cacao followed by moderate and dense shade respectively. Flowers were more profuse for unshaded (open sun) cocoa compared with the shaded while the yield and yield components of cacao for each harvest dates and total pod and bean yields were significantly different between the unshaded and shaded cacao regimes. Trees that were irrigated at 5-day intervals produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher LAI, branching, flowers and pods compared with those irrigated at 10-day intervals. The 5-day irrigation interval significantly increased percentage of trees bearing flowers and pods, and produced larger number, and heavier pods and beans compared with the 10-day interval. The drip irrigation strategy adopted ameliorated dry season terminal drought (hydrothermal stresses) in cacao. This is a veritable tool to scale up growth, survival, establishment and flower/pod production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Development of Solar-biogas Hybrid Dryer for Onion Drying

A. K. Rupnar, Sudhir Jain, N. L. Panwar, S. K. Jain

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 65-73
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i730212

A solar-biogas hybrid dryer was designed, developed and tested for onion drying with a capacity of 8 kg/batch. Solar energy was utilized as primary energy for onion drying in a greenhouse type drying chamber (direct solar) and biogas powered air heater used as a supplementary heat source for continuous operation. The hybrid dryer consists of greenhouse type drying chamber, concentric pipe air heater and biogas burner. The greenhouse type drying chamber has floor area of 1300 mm×900 mm and collector area of 3 m2. The dryer was operated as a solar dryer during normal sunny day and hybrid mode whenever sunlight is insufficient to maintain desired 60°C inside the drying chamber. The results indicated that the moisture content of onion slices reduced from 80.06% (wb) to 9.88% (wb) in 12 hours in hybrid mode drying. A biogas powered air heater operated for 3 hours in a day with effectiveness of 0.87 and biogas burner efficiency of 47.59%. The dryer was techno-economically feasible with a benefit cost ratio of 1.12 and payback period of 2.1 years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Rainfall Pattern in North Central and Southern Nigeria and Some Tropical Climate Systems

Esmond Gesever Ugbeji, Kingsley Chukwudi Okpala

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 74-88
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i730213

Monthly rainfall data from meteorological stations in Nigeria are analyzed from 1951 to 1992, to establish their relationship with some Tropical climate systems. The climate systems include Tropical South Atlantic (TSA) sea surface temperature index, North Atlantic Ocean (NAO) atmospheric index, Tropical North Atlantic (TNA) sea surface temperature index, Central India Precipitation (CIP) and and Outgoing Longwave Radiation Anomaly (OLRA)).  The rainfall pattern was given in terms of the August break (quantified in terms of the monsoon break intensity (MBI) and annual rainfall anomaly index (RAI). Partial correlation analysis was carried out to determine the effect of the tropical climate systems on the linear association between them and the stations in Nigeria. Our results show that the rainfall anomalies although sometimes intense do not have predictable patterns. The tele connection between CIP and total rainfall in Nigeria suggests that the rainfall patterns in Nigeria is likely to be modulated by the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) connecting rainfall pattern in Central India to that in Nigeria. The August break is observed to be highly variable and does not show a clear discernable pattern of variability. Its variability may be connected with multiple forcings from ocean and mesoscale circulations.

Open Access Review Article

Bio-management Options for Ecosystem Services, Carbon Sequestration and Climate Change Adaptation in Saline Environment

Mukesh Kumar, S. R. Gupta, Neetu Kataria, G. T. Patle

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 11-33
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i730209

Nearly one billion hectares of arid and semiarid areas of the world are salt affected and remain barren due to salinity or water scarcity. These lands can be utilized by adopting appropriate planting techniques and integrating trees with tolerant crops, forage grasses, oil yielding crops, aromatic and medicinal plants. Biosaline agroforestry provides various ecosystem services such as the improved soil fertility, carbon sequestration, and biomass production. Provisioning services relating to biomass production have been well studied in different biosaline agroforestry. Tree plantations and agroforestry enrich the soil in organic matter and exert a considerable ameliorative effect on soil properties. The soil microbial biomass serves as a useful indicator of soil improvement under salt stress. By integrating trees with the naturally occurring grassland systems on highly sodic soils, the soil organic carbon content increased from 5.3 Mg ha−1 (in sole grass) to 13.6, 10.9, and 14.2 Mg ha−1, when Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica, and Prosopis juliflora trees were introduced with grass. The strip-plantations of clonal Eucalyptus tereticornis sequestered 15.5 t ha–1 carbons during the first rotation of 5 years and 4 months. The soils of biosaline agroforestry could store 25.9–99.3 Mg C ha−1 in surface 0.3 m soil. Maintaining the stores and sink of carbon in agroforestry could play a key role in climate change mitigation as well as help in adaption changing environmental conditions.