Preliminary Screening of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs); Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) and Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) Flame Retardants in Municipal Dumpsite in Delta State, Nigeria
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change,
Aims: This study is aimed at determining the concentration of two widely used BFRs; Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) and Tetrabromo Bisphenol-A (TBBPA) in sediment and leachate samples.
Place and Duration of Study: Field sampling were carried out from five major dumpsites around Warri Municipality, Delta State, Nigeria. Analyte extraction was done in 2017 at the Science laboratory, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun Delta State, Nigeria and quantification done in Switzerland by Bachema Analytical Laboratories in 2017.
Methods: Three soil samples were collected from each site 15cm from the soil surface. Also, three leachate samples from three different trial pits done for each site. Collected soil samples were stored in glass bottles and labelled. While the leachate samples are stored using glass containers and labelled. The BFRs were extracted using Aceton and cyclohexane for each soil matrix and cyclohexane for the leachate samples, then the extract was analysed using GC coupled with an ECD supplied by Thermo Trace GC Ultra, Italy.
Results: The results showed the average concentration for TBBPA in the sediments was 0.0234 g/kg and that of the BDE-209 was recorded as 0.1828 g/kg. Results from the leachate sample were below the detectable range of the analytical equipment, TBBPA (0.02 g/kg) and BDE (0.1 g/kg). There is no statistical difference between the mean concentration of TBBPA for the sediment in each of the locations (P>.05) and no difference (P>.05) for BDE-209 for the sediment in each of the locations (P>.05).
Conclusion: Findings from this study holds that the concentration of TBBPA and BDE-209 in sediment is higher when compared with concentrations presented in other literatures studied in this report and this calls for immediate action due to the health risk associated with exposure in these municipalities.