Open Access Original Research Article

Refurbishment of Environmental Damage and Socio-Economic Consciousness Relate to Improvement of Climate Change

Hari Sadhan Sarkar, Oly Sarkar Ghosh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i830214

Demand for energy, water, food and shelter for raising the standard of lifestyle of country people is the driving force of democracy in modern days but that cause the environmental damages through Green House Gas, micro-particles emission from combustion of fossil fuels like coal, oil as well as fuel gases and incessant emissions of hydrocarbons from automobiles, oil fields, oil refineries besides industrial activities in the globe along with horizontal land encroachment decreasing greeneries in the planet earth with the decrease of oxygen/nitrogen ratio. The emissions are the main causes for increase in environmental pollution and responsible for climate change in contrast to the idea expressed by various researchers about the impact of climate change on environment. Mechanisms on interaction of solar/electro- magnetic radiation with PM1-2.5 and hydrocarbons in air play a role on degradation of stratospheric ozone as well as accumulation of ozone in troposphere which manifests in various episodes and global warming. Increasing population, increasing urbanization with growing carbon footprint, deceasing greeneries in the planet, the carbon-dioxide: oxygen: Nitrogen ratios in the atmosphere suffered for the last 1000 years or more. The initiatives that are needed to promote the environmental capacity through replacement of fossil fuel energy by green energy establishments, socital up-liftment through intercontinental sweet relations instead of power supremacy depriving 80% global population to refurbish the health of environment with improvement of climate. The fruit of green energy to reach all classes of people in this earth is the immediate need of the globe. The flaws of environmental laws are to be tightened and socio-environmental economic culture is to be inculcated among citizens of states for environmental health improvement vis-a-vis control on climate change to save the planet from extinction of dominant human lives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Change Responses of Cocoa Farmers in Ghana

David Nii Baah Buxton

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i830215

Background: Undoubtedly, vulnerability and adaptation of the agricultural sector to the adverse impacts of climate change are among the most crucial concerns of many developing countries where agriculture is largely rain-fed. In Ghana, the cocoa sector is the mainstay of the agricultural sector, contributing about 60% of agricultural GDP. The cacao tree is susceptible to the vagaries of climate, a fact which manifests in outbreak of pests and diseases and their pattern, loss of pods and early ripening of young pods, among others. Cocoa farmers have over the years used short-term (coping) strategies and long-term (adaptation) strategies to offset the effects of climate change on their production.

Methods: A field survey of 444 cocoa farmers in Ghana was conducted, using a guided interview schedule.

Results: Farmers’ coping strategies included those on crop, soil fertility and soil water management practices. Adaptation strategies included behavioural adjustments (spraying, fertilizer application, weed control, pruning) as well as institutional and technological adjustments (change in variety and increased extension services).

Conclusion: The study showed that farmers who perceived that the climate had changed and had some effect on their production usually employed adaptation measures. Differences in farmers in terms of personal managerial and entrepreneurial capacities and family circumstances influence their responses to climate change. However, one major challenge is to separate the adaptations in response to climate change from adaptations in response to other stimuli, such as market price or government policy changes that farmers face in the real world. Assessing adaptation strategies also provides the information needed by cocoa farmers to increase their capacity to moderate potential damages and to take advantage of opportunities, if any, to survive in a changing climate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Municipal Solid Waste Open Dumping on Soil, Water, Crop, Human Health and Its Prospectives

S. C. Kiran, C. Nagarajaiah, M. Mahadeva Murthy, P. C. Ranjith

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 36-45
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i830216

Characterization of heavy metals in 5 Km2 range of dumping yard in relation to soil, water and crop has been studied. The concentration of Cd (4.05 mg/kg) in soil was higher than the permissible limit of WHO (3 mg/kg) and in descending order of metals in soil was found to be Fe> Cr>Cd>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb and in bore well water it was Cr, Fe, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu (23.20, 0.63, 0.31, 1.19 and 0.69 mg/l respectively) than the permissible limit (0.54, 0.40, 0.068, 0.03, 0.22, 0.018 mg/l) and their respective concentration ordered as Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd>Ni>Cr. Further the vegetables grown nearby dumping yard was highly contaminated by Cr in range (2.78 to 12.78 mgkg-1) in tomato, beans and cabbage and even in ragi and green gram Cr was high (1.78 to 14.96 mgkg-1). i.e., in Tomato; Cd>Fe>Cr>Zn>Pb>Ni>Cu, Beans; Cr>Cd>Pb>Fe>Zn>Cu>Ni, Cabbage; Cr>Cd>Pb>Fe>Zn>Cu>Ni, Ragi; Fe and Zn were below permissible limit and Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd are BDL and Green gram; Cr>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu > Ni>Cd. In support of results, primary survey was conducted in nearby 20 villages circumventing the dumping yard. A total of 150 respondents were randomly enquired to know their level of knowledge and health status as result of open dumping site. The results revealed that 43.33%, 36% and 20.67% as medium, high and low impact in relation to heath and knowledge aspect of dumping site. Thus there is a considerable impact on environment and humans due to the presence of heavy metal in crop, soil and water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sorghum Forage Farming for Crisis Resolution and Food Security in a Changing World: A Preliminary Study of Taraba State Nigeria Sorghum Production, Prospects and Problems

Adelalu Temitope Gabriel, Mohammed Bakoji Yusuf, Benjamin Ezekiel Bwadi, Yakubu G. Clement

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 46-57
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i830217

Taraba State is endowed with natural resources; vast lands, water resources, animal resources and human resources. However, amidst plenty, food insecurity and incessant crisis ravage the government efforts to sustainable agricultural and economic development. This paper discusses the nexus between Climate vagaries and skirmish leading to shift in crop yields. It assesses grain yield variation, problems and prospect across the local governments in Taraba State. Apart from personal observation and focus group discussion, the paper relied mainly on secondary data that were generated through the analysis of relevant data from government and non-governmental agencies. Rainfall and agronomic data were collected from Upper Benue River Basin and Ministry of Taraba Agricultural Development Program (TADP) respectively. These were collated and analyzed using standardized anomaly index and linear regression in SPSS environment. The study fails to reject the null hypotheses that no relationship exists between the average annual rainfall and quantity of sorghum produced annually. It recommends application of biotechnology using (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) for animal feeds and food crop diversification to cushion the ever increasing demand for forage that often vortex crisis in the state. SFF can stand heavy grazing reduce roaming encourage ranching eliminate crisis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological and Biochemical Changes under Salinity and Drought Stress in Ricebean [Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi and Ohashi] Seedlings

Kousik Atta, P. Chettri, A. K. Pal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 58-64
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i830218

Aims: To study the effect of iso-osmotic potentials of drought and salinity during seedling growth stage in ricebean.

Study Design: Completely randomised design.

Place and Duration of Study: The lab experiment was conducted during the year of 2017- 2018 and 2018-2019 in ricebean variety Bidhan 1 at Department of Plant Physiology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India.

Methodology: For studying the effect of iso-osmotic potential of salinity and drought stress, the solutions of NaCl and PEG 6000 with -0.2, -0.4 and -0.8 MPa osmotic potential were used and the experiment was conducted in sand culture using modified Hoagland solution [1] under laboratory condition of diffused light, at around 80±1% relative humidity (R.H.) and at a temperature of 28±1°C.

Results: All the biochemical parameters under study, in general were adversely affected by the both stress with the effects being more drastic as the intensity of stress increased. The highest intensity of salinity stress was found to produce more adverse effects than drought in respect of RLWC, leaf chlorophyll as well as protein content in leaves of ricebean in the present experiment. While the content of soluble sugar, starch and phenol in the leaf were more drastically affected by drought stress.

Conclusion: The drought stress was found to register more drastic effects on seedling growth as compared to iso-osmotic potential of salinity stress, especially, at the highest intensity of stress in ricebean cultivar Bidhan 1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Long-term Use of Balanced and Integrated Nutrient Management Improved Soil Aggregation and Carbon Stabilization in a Maize-wheat Cropping Sequence

Anmol Singh, G. S. Dheri, D. K. Benbi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 65-76
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i830219

Sustainable nutrient management practices have the potential to enhance carbon (C) storage capacity of agricultural soils that may help offset increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Nutrient management practices on long-term basis differentially influence aggregates and distribution of soil organic C (SOC) present within aggregates, which in time may affect C stabilization. The present study assessed the impact of long-term application of fertilizers for 44 years either alone or integration with farmyard manure (FYM) on bulk density, SOC and C pools, potassium permanganate oxidizable C (KMnO4), aggregate stability and distribution of C fractions within different size aggregate under maize-wheat cropping sequence. The application of 100%NPK+FYM significantly (P< 0.05) improved soil aggregation and mean weight diameter (MWD). The percent of macro-aggregates (MacroA) and meso-aggregates (MesoA) was maximum in 100%NPK+FYM followed by NPK and the minimum in the control treatment. Irrespective of aggregate classes, TOC (g kg-1 aggregate) was maximum in 100%NPK+FYM treatment with an average of 8.42 g kg-1 aggregate as compared to control (5.05 g kg-1 aggregate). If averaged across the treatments, TOC concentration in aggregates followed the order MacroA> MesoA>MicroA. Correspondingly, results for KMnO4-C were similar in different treatments and aggregate classes. Application of FYM with inorganic fertilizers (NPK) or NPK showed a significant increase in all oxidizable organic C fractions particularly recalcitrant C fraction, which reflects the stable nature of OC as compared to very labile and labile C fractions. In general, C present in mineral fraction and large-sized aggregates (MacroA) has higher recalcitrant fractions of SOC as compared to small-sized aggregates (MesoF and MicroF). The study concluded that long-term balanced and integrated nutrient management improved soil aggregation, C distribution within aggregates, and C storage capacity of soils under maize-wheat. Carbon associated with macro aggregate and a mineral fraction has more recalcitrant C fraction compared to meso and micro aggregate fractions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Temperature Variability Effect on Rice Production in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Oladeinde Stephen Olufemi, Magaji I. Joshua, Ekpo Abraham Salamatu

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 91-100
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i830221

The output of cereal farmlands is imperative for sustainable global food security. Quantity of production from cereal croplands are partly a function of climatic elements and are connected to the pulses of climatic variation. Hence, this paper assessed temperature variability effect on rice production in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Daily maximum and minimum temperature data were obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency and converted into monthly averages while annual rice production data was obtained from the office of Nasarawa State’s Agricultural Development Programme. Acquired data were analysed using Linear Multiple Regression Model, coefficient of variation and spatial data analysis techniques. Although rice production in the State is being affected by the fluctuations in both minimum and maximum monthly temperature, the later poses grave concern for sustainability of rice production with a negative effect size of -3.145 and a coefficient value of -191,324.30 metric tons. This negative impact of maximum temperature fluctuations on rice production indicates that rice production in Nasarawa State is vulnerable to climate variability with increasing maximum temperature. LGAs in the south senatorial district has more favourable locations for rice production in comparison to those in the North and West districts given that less temperature fluctuation was observed in the former. Government and non-governmental institutions as well as individuals planning to establish rice farm project(s) in the study area should consider doing so in the South Senatorial District in order to avoid the adverse effect of temperature variability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Climate Change and Vulnerability Assessment of Pastoralists Located in South Central Somalia Based on Income and Marital Status

Ahmed Adam Mohamed, Redemtor Awuor Ojwang

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 101-112
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i830222

Recent changes in climate over the last three decades, have increased the incidences of severe droughts and floods in Somalia. Moreover, the frequent internal conflicts increases the level of vulnerability of its citizens’ to climate change impacts. The UNDP puts at 5 million, the number of Somali people affected by drought incidences. Notably, factors such as income and marital status influence the vulnerability status of individuals in the region. This study assessed the vulnerability and impact of climate change of South Central Somali pastoralists based on income and marital status. The research was conducted through structured interviews and questionnaires and the sample size for the study was 400. The divorcees, were found to be the most vulnerable, compared to the married, singles and widows. On the other hand, the higher income earners were found to be less vulnerable to climate change impacts compared to the lower income earners. The findings demonstrate that marital status and income, play a key role in influencing the level of vulnerability of the individuals in the study area. The information can be used to formulate policies that will provide appropriate interventions to the most affected groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rooftop Gardening: Estimation of Income from a Score of Socio-Ecological Variables

Kabita Mondal, S. K. Acharya, Apurba Pal, Monirul Haque, Rik Chakraborty

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 113-120
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i830223

Aims: To study the relationship of total income was incurred from the rooftop gardening with various socio economic and behavioural aspects and elicit the future opportunity for this innovative method in this global warming situation where the world is facing the increasing crisis of availability of the land resources, support sustainability, contamination of ground water, food accessibility, and economic sustainability.   

Study Design: The locale was selected by purposive sampling technique and the respondents following rooftop gardening had been interacted and was selected by the snowball sampling method.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out during 2017 and 2018. The place, Janai Road of Srirampur, Khanakul-I and Khanakul-II block of Hooghly district, Budge Budge-II, Bishnupur-I and Bishnupur-II of South 24 Parganas and various areas in Kolkata were selected for the study.

Methodology: In this present study 50 respondents following rooftop gardens have been interacted and are selected by the snowball sampling method. A semi-structured schedule has been administered to generate women information regarding family composition, the rationale for opting rooftop gardening, the ecological views on roof gardening, and the cost opportunity analysis. The gathered data had been put into multivariate analysis (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences V20.0 (SPSS) of IBM was used for analyzing the Coefficient of Correlation, Stepwise Regression and Path Analysis).

Results: Education (X2), rooftop area (X4), diversity of plants (X6), labour charges (X8), organic manure (X11), fertilizer (X13) variables have been found to exert strong and determining contribution to total income. Respondents revealed that it had provided a certain amount of income in addition to the conventional farming income.

Conclusion: The study had revealed that Rooftop gardening is not only eco-friendly horticulture but also a successful enterprise, having all the three critical echelons viz. economy, ecology, and equity as well.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Fluoride on Soil, Plant and Human Health: A Review on Its Sources, Toxicity and Mitigation Strategies

Nitin Chatterjee, Gayatri Sahu, Animesh Ghosh Bag, Biplab Plal, G. C. Hazra

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 77-90
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i830220

In recent scenario, fluorosis is now going to be a severe problem throughout the globe due to toxic effects of fluoride (F) on both plants, animals and humans. Natural geological sources and increased industrialization have contributed greatly to the increasing incidence of F-induced human and animal health issues. The toxic effects of high doses of F may adversely affect human health by causing skeletal fluorosis, dental fluorosis, bone fractures, the formation of kidney stones, decreased birth rates, weakening of thyroid functionality and impair intelligence, particularly in children. High concentrations of F in soil may seriously threaten the life of plants, devastate soil microbial activity, disrupt the soil ecology and causes soil and water pollution. Hydrogen fluorides (HF) in gaseous form accumulated in the leaves of sensitive plants against a concentration gradient and HF mainly damages the plant by entering into its body in the form of gas and affects a variety of plant physiological processes. In this review we discuss about the effect of fluoride toxicity on plant, human and soil health and its mitigation strategies.