Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancing Farmer Income through Value Addition to Rice in Khammam District, India

W. Jessie Suneetha, J. Hemanth Kumar, P. Jagan Mohan Rao, Y. G. Prasad

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930224

Rice is the staple food to half of world’s population providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide. Cereal grains are rich sources of phenolic compounds present in cell walls that help in combating many life style diseases occurring due to oxidative stress. Rice has been domesticated more than 10000 years ago but even today the farmers prefer selling freshly harvested paddy at a lower price. Few entrepreneurial farmers have come up with the idea of primary processing the paddy as semi polished and brown rice that can fetch them more profits along with providing health benefits. Each Kg of paddy, white, semi polished and brown rice cost Rs. 17 – 18.50, 46 – 48, 58 – 60 and 65 respectively. Similarly, one Kg of brokens get Rs. 15, bran Rs. 12 during season and Rs. 20 during off season.

The rice without any processing fetched the farmer profit of about Rs. 24400 to 36000 on an average per acre. But if the farmer subjected the rice to primary processing and sold as white, semi polished or brown rice, the profits generated per acre were Rs. 57156 – 66480 Rs. Rs. 82996 – 102400and Rs. 105910 – 120400 can be generated.

As can be seen the decrease in processing produced lower quantity of brokens and bran and income from them was comparatively lower than on processed rice indicating that there can be rise in income with minimal processing with added health benefits. There can an increase in profits by 4 to 5 times due to primary processing benefiting the paddy growers.

The white, semi polished and brown rice can increase the income of farmer by 76.92, 127.79 and 161.58% per one bag of paddy weighing 75 Kg. There was a significant decrease in brokens and bran produced in semi polished and brown rice that actually fetch less prize than the actual produce. The growing awareness of consumers towards health foods, improved eating habits and health consciousness is expanding brown rice market at higher compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) compared to overall rice market.

Open Access Original Research Article

GIS-Based Climate Change Induced Flood Risk Mapping in Uhunmwonde Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria

Obot Akpan Ibanga, Osaretin Friday Idehen

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 8-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930225

Introduction: Flood is one of the climate change induced hazards occurring in most parts of the world. It exposes humanity and many socio-ecological systems to various levels of risks. In Nigeria, extreme rainfall events and poor drainage system have caused inundation of several settlements to flooding. To contain the disaster, risk mapping were among the measures recommended.

Aims: The aim of this paper is to highlight flood risk zones (FRZ) in Uhunmwonde Local Government Area (LGA), Edo State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Flood risk (FR) was mapped using hazards and vulnerability and implemented using geographic information system (GIS)-based multi-criteria analysis analytic hierarchy process (MCA-AHP) framework by incorporating seven environmental and two socio-economic factors. Elevation, flow accumulation, soil water index of wettest quarter, normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall of wettest quarter, runoff of wettest quarter and distance from rivers constituted the hazard component while population density and area of agricultural land use was the vulnerability layer. The climate change induced flood risk was validated using the responses of 150 residents in high, moderate and low flood risk zones.

Results: The resulting flood risk map indicated that about 40.4% of Uhunmwonde LGA fell within high flood risk zone, 35.3% was categorized under moderate flood risk zone whereas low flood risk zone extended up to about 24.3% of the LGA. The high number of respondents who reported occurrence of flooding with frequency being very often and the fact that flooding was a very serious environmental threat during on-the-spot field assessment validated the generated climate change induced flood risk.

Conclusion: The utilitarian capabilities of GIS-based MCA-AHP framework in integrating remotely-sensed biophysical and climate change related flood inducing indicators with socio-economic vulnerabilities to arrive at composite flood risk was demonstrated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Variability and Associated Risk Assessment of Nitrate and Ammonium Concentration in Hail Haor Wetland, Northeastern Bangladesh

Humyra B. Murshed, Arafat Rahman, M. J. Uddin, Muhaiminur Rahman

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 24-37
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930227

Nitrate-nitrogen and ammonium-nitrogen concentration were evaluated to assess the current nutrient condition of an ecologically as well as economically important wetland of Bangladesh. The contamination condition of surface water nitrate and ammonium of Hail Haor wetland was assessed to understand its probable risk to human health using the water samples collected from total-fifty monitoring stations, 25 each for two different seasons within 2018 to 2019. Nitrate concentration was measured using the spectrophotometer by colorimetric method, whereas ammonium was quantified using the micro Kjeldahl's distillation method. Statistical and geo-spatial analysis revealed an extensive understanding of the temporal and spatial variability as well as possible source identification of the nutrients in the studied area. Medium to a low level of nitrate ranging from 0.95 up to 9.25 mg/L and high ammonium with values from 0.32 up to 1.92 mg/L was a sporadic trend observed in wetland water, with low water season having more concentration than that of wet high water season. Hazard quotients (HQ) obtained from wetland water for four individual age groups recognized wetland water to be safe for consumption (HQ<1) based on its nitrate level. Wetlands can provide valuable ecosystem services, conserve the native and exotic wetland inhabitants and mitigate flood along with their purifying properties of nutrient removal to lessen the public health concerns about nitrate-nitrogen in drinking water. Therefore, appropriate rein in measures, incentivizing water use efficiency, and continuous monitoring of water quality will ensure safety for wetland habitats, also may aware of the risks or opportunities associated with using wetland water for both drinking and agricultural use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Lockdown amid COVID-19 Pandemic on Weather Parameters of Mid Hill Region of Jammu District of J&K, UT

Mahinder Singh, Vishaw Vikas, Charu Sharma, Rohit Sharma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 53-77
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930229

Aim: A study was conducted in mid hill region of Jammu district, J&K to analyze the impact lockdown amid covid-19 pandemic on weather parameters so as to define it as a tool to mitigate the pace of climate change.

Methodology: Day and night temperature readings were recorded fortnightly during 22nd March to 10th June 2020 from maximum and minimum thermometer, relative humidity from dry and wet bulb thermometers in stevenson screen, rainfall values from ordinary rain gauge,  evaporation readings from pan evaporimeter and soil temperature at different depth from soil thermometers.

Results: After analyzing the data statistically using “Descriptive statistics” in MS-Excel 2010, it was observed that after the implementation of lockdown and with the beginning of unlock down the change in day temperature was -8.07% from normal mean value, night temperature was -4.44% from normal mean value, rainfall pattern was 30.00% more from normal mean value, Relative Humidity (morning) pattern was 6.94% more from normal mean value, relative humidity (evening) pattern was 20.94% more from normal mean value, evaporation pattern was 7.66% more from normal mean value. The average change in soil temperature in morning at 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm depth was -3.46%, -3.84% and -7.23% as compared to year 2019 (22nd March to 10th June 2019) mean value and the change in soil temperature in evening at same depths was -7.69%, -6.31% and -4.14% from year 2019 (22nd March to 10th June 2019).

Conclusion: With the variable significant pattern observed in almost all parameters, it can be concluded that lockdown might be an effective tool in mitigating pace of climate change in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organoleptic Properties of Ready to Reconstitute Little Millet Smoothie with Fruit Juices

B. Neeharika, W. Jessie Suneetha, B. Anila Kumari, M. Tejashree

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 78-82
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930230

Millets being climate resilient crops with high nutritional value are far better than staple grains like wheat and rice. Being adaptable to wide range of agro ecological conditions, the nutricereals little millet can grow on low fertility dry lands meeting demands of exploding population and providing solution to agrarian and nutritional challenges the world is dealing with. Further, value addition could be a strategic intervention in popularization of underutilized small millets and transform the billions of people from nutrient insufficiency to nutrient adequacy. The present fast-paced era with increased nuclear families and changing eating habits due to rapid urbanisation and globalisation demands for development of ready to consume nutrient dense food. In addition, growing awareness regarding health benefits of millets demands for millet-based designer foods to meet diversified needs of consumers. In view of these aspects, a ready to reconstitute (RTR) little millet smoothie mix was developed and tested for its suitability to blend with fruit juices through sensory profiling. The nourishing little millet and fruit-based smoothies would be a healthy inclusion in one’s daily diet with a great market potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Weather Parameters on Foliar Diseases of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in Coastal Ecosystem of West Bengal, India

Nayan Kishor Adhikary, Krishnendu Roy, Kajal Kumar Biswas

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 83-88
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930231

Sesame is one of the most important oilseed crops in India due to mainly its high quality seed oil and antioxidant properties. Occurrence of foliar diseases, like Alternaria leaf spot and Cercospora leaf spot has become a major constraint in recent years for successful and profitable cultivation of sesame. Field experiments were conducted with sesame var. savitri in a factorial randomized block design with three different dates of sowing with 15 days interval and two different plant protection situations (Protected i.e., treated with disease control protocols and unprotected i.e., control), replicated four times, during two consecutive summer seasons of 2018 and 2019 at Agricultural Experimental Farm, Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta, Baruipur, South 24 Parganas. The diseases incidence was estimated and correlated with the weather parameters. The average of weather parameters viz., maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity (morning), relative humidity (evening) and rainfall prior to seven days of disease appearance were considered for study the correlation between the weather factors and the disease. In 2018, disease incidences of the plants shown at third date of sowing (26th April, 2018) in both the protected and unprotected plots had significant (P=.05) but negative correlation with maximum temperature. For plants sown at first date of sowing (27th March, 2018) in 2018 had disease incidences significantly (P=.05) and positively correlated with minimum temperature. However, in 2019, except for the relation between disease incidences in the unprotected plots and maximum temperature, all other disease-temperature correlations were non-significant. Disease incidences were positively and significantly correlated with relative humidity (both morning and evening) in all dates of sowing irrespective of experimental years, except with morning relative humidity at first date of sowing in first year. Total rainfall was positively and significantly correlated with disease incidences at all dates of sowing in 2018; however, such relation was non-significant in 2019. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Amount of Waste used for Different Purposes: A Socio-ecological Impact

Arindam Ghosh, Dibyendu Pal, Amitava Biswas, S. K. Acharya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 89-99
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930232

Waste is a ceaselessly developing issue at worldwide and territorial just as at neighborhood levels. Due to vigorous globalization and product proliferation in recent years, more waste has been produced by the soaring manufacturing activities. The social ecology of waste recycling implies the structural, functional and managerial intervention of waste generation process. The specific objective of the research was to isolate and identify the system variables characterizing and the management of waste recycling process and to estimate intra and inter level of interaction amongst and between the variables for respective, inductive and interactive contribution. The present study takes a look into the approach, process and impact of ongoing waste management process, followed by the both kalyani and jalpaiguri municipalities. A set of agro-ecological, socio-economic and techno managerial factors have been developed by selecting  two sets of operating variables: Independent Variables: Age(x1), Education(x2), Family member(x3), Total cost of energy(x4), Household land(x5), Income(x6),  Expenditure of family(x7), Volume of waste generation per household(x8), Water consumption per day(x9), Total bio diversity(x10), Impact of waste management on health(x11), Impact of waste management on agriculture(x12), Impact of waste management on livestock(x13), Impact of waste management on water(x14),  Impact of waste management on soil(x15), Impact of waste management on micro flora and fauna(x16), Exposure to media(x17),Training received(x18), Participation on waste recycling programmer (x19), Perception on environmental impact of waste management(x20), Waste management at household level with value addition by percentage (x21a), Waste management at household level with value addition by percentage (x21b). Dependent variables: Volume of waste used for different purposes (y1). The following independent variables have come out with stark contribution on this consequent variable. Result suggested that in terms of variable, behavior and responses there have been stark differences between jalapaiguri and kalyani municipal areas. In kalyani, some few variables like perception of environmental impact on waste management, waste management at household level with value addition by percentage, impact of waste management on agriculture have recorded the distinct contribution on volume of waste used for different purposes and in jalpaiguri total household land, volume of waste generation from household, water consumption per day have gone in the determinant way. So, in kalyani and jalpaiguri municipal areas these variables have maximum influence on the dependent variable. Household wastes mostly are bio degradable in nature. It can be converted to organic manure which has a great nutritional value for plants and if these bio wastes can be converted into organic manure then amount of waste will be reduced. Not only bio waste but we can use non bio degradable wastes for energy production also.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Salinity Stress on Antioxidative Enzyme Activity in the Leaves of Tolerant and Susceptible Genotypes of Groundnut

Apurba Pal, Debjani Dutta, Anjan Kumar Pal, Sunil Kumar Gunri

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 100-111
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930233

Aims: To better understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms in the light of antioxidative enzymes activity under salinity stress between tolerant and susceptible genotypes of groundnut.

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: The laboratory experiment was carried out in the departmental laboratory of Plant Physiology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Mohanpur, Nadia, and West Bengal during the year 2017-18.

Methodology: A controlled study was conducted to screen 26 genotypes of groundnut under 200 mM NaCl salinity stress. Fourteen-day old seedlings were subjected to salinity treatment. For this, the modified Hoagland nutrient solution containing 200 mM NaCl (osmotic potential: -0.8 MPa) was applied in each case and the pH was adjusted to 6.3. The treatments were repeated on every third day. Control set without salinity stress was also maintained similarly in each case for comparison of results.

Results: The salt tolerance index or STI of the genotypes ranged from 47.57% to 96.40%. Out of all the genotypes KDG-197 (STI= 96.40%) was found to be the most tolerant under a salinity stress of 200 mM NaCl and it was closely followed by R 2001-2 (STI=87.92%), VG 315 (STI=84.05%), TCGS 1157 (STI=77.59%) and TG 51 (STI=73.67%). While the genotypes Girnar 3 (STI= 47.57%), OG 52-1 (STI=49.09%), TVG 0856 (STI= 49.28%) and J 86 (STI= 50.66%) were the most susceptible genotypes based on their relative performance under stress in respect of total dry weight. It has been noted further that, out of the nine genotypes, enhancement of antioxidative enzyme like super oxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) and catalase (CAT) activity was recorded maximally in tolerant genotype KDG 197 (64.18%, 71.74% and 52.82% increase over control respectively) and R 2001-2 (53.68 %, 93.48% and 53.96 % increase over control respectively) but the activity of these enzyme in the four susceptible genotypes declined considerably under salinity treatment.

Conclusion: Tolerant genotypes of groundnut in general registered much higher activities of antioxidative enzymes in their leaves as compared to the susceptible genotype under high salinity stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validation of Carbon Dioxide and Temperature Distribution in South-South and South-East of Nigeria

G. F. Ibeh, E. O. Echeweozo, L. O. Onuorah, E. E. Akpan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 112-122
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930234

The study determined the variations of carbon dioxide and temperature within south-south and south-eastern parts of Nigeria from January 2009 to December 2014. The study specifically focused on the perceived impacts posed by climate change on environment within these regions due to carbon dioxide emissions. The results revealed that rise in temperature within these regions could significantly be dependent on the increase in CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gases. It was observed that CO2 emission increases continuously over all the years of study at each station. This could be attributed to high percent occurrences of urban warming experienced in these areas. The results also revealed that various impacts of climate change and weather within these regions could be due to high emission of carbon dioxide caused by fossil fuel, gas flaring etc found within these regions. It was also observed from the results that no gaseous pollutant or greenhouse gas can have 100% influences on climatic parameters like temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Three-Way Cross Hybrids and Their Parents for Storage Losses in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

Ajay Kumar Pandav, R. Veere Gowda, B. Varalakshmi, K. Padmini, M. V. Dhananjaya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 123-132
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930235

The aim of present investigation was the assessment of the several new onion hybrids develop through three- way cross along with their parents for having less problem of weight losses due to sprouting and rotting, and long storage quality at normal room temperature and relative humidity. The design of experimental plot was complete randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications. This study was carried out in the year of 2018-2019 at Division of Vegetable Crops, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bengaluru, India. Thirty hybrids developed by three- way cross, thirteen parental lines and one check have been included for the experiment. Three F1 hybrids used as female lines and ten commercial varieties used as male testers, were taken to develop the hybrids through line x tester design. The bulbs of all these genotypes were kept for four months in normal storage chamber at 25-30°C room temperature with 65-70% relative humidity. The overall losses of per cent bulb weigh was recorded and conclude that the three-way hybrids TWCHO-15 (26.91) were recorded for smallest amount of loss followed by TWCHO-5 (27.02), TWCHO-14 (28.83) and TWCHO-4 (29.98). These hybrids can be suggested for more profit to onion grower by keeping for long shelf-life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analyzing the Effect of Lockdown on Weather Parameters Amid COVID-19 Pandemic of Mid Hill Region of Rajouri District of Jammu & Kashmir, Union Territory, India

Rohit Sharma, Vishaw Vikas, Mahender Singh, Manish Kr. Sharma, Narinder Panotra, Charu Sharma, Deepak Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 133-153
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930236

A study was conducted in mid hill region of Rajouri district, J&K, India to analyze the impact lockdown amid covid-19 pandemic on weather parameters. Day and night temperature readings were recorded fortnightly from 1st March to 30th June 2020 from maximum and minimum thermometer, rainfall values from ordinary rain gauge,  and soil temperature at different depth from soil thermometers and values were compared with data from 2017-2019 and normal. After analyzing the data statistically using “Descriptive statistics” in MS-Excel 2010, it was observed that within the period of lockdown, the change in day temperature was -6.66% from normal mean value, however night temperature was least affected as it changes 10.33% and rainfall pattern was 19.27% more from normal mean value. The average change in soil temperature in morning at 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm depth in lockdown was -4.65%, 3.74% and 2.65% as compared to year 2019 (1st March to 30th June) mean value and the change in soil temperature in evening at same depths was -5.14%, -11.30% and 0.3% from year 2019 (1st March to 30th June) depicting a slow change in values. With the significant sustainable pattern observed in day and soil temperature parameters and rainfall it can be concluded that lockdown might be an effective tool in reducing speed of climate change in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploration of Knowledge, Perception and Adaptation Strategies of the Mbita Fisher Community to CC/ CV

Robert David Lubalo Onyango, Christopher Oludhe, Dorothy Amwata

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 154-169
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930237

Decreasing livelihoods of fishers’ communities is blamed on consequences of global warming and climate change impacts. Food security and livelihoods of the world’s 36 million fishers and the nearly 1.5 billion consumers rely on fish for their dietary animal protein. Past studies concentrated on fisher communities and climate variability in marine waters and oceans; mainly investigating the impact of climate variability on fish distribution and production. Limited research has addressed the interaction between impacts of climate change on the fishing activities on inland and fresh waters such as in Lake Victoria and how the fishers are coping and adapting. This article discussion focuses on Lake Victoria shore location of Mbita where the livelihood activity of local community is fishing. The interactive field study was guided by these two research objectives to: Determine the fishers’ knowledge and perception of climate change and variability in Mbita sub-county. Establish the effect of gender in climate change adaptive activities among the Mbita county fishers. The study used a constructivist epistemology and the mixed methods research design to help it achieve its findings. Yamane’s formula (1964) is used to get the sample size of 388 respondents from a population of 13191 fishers. Primary data was collected through use of questionnaires, interview schedules for KII and FGDs. Secondary data collection was collected through reviewing of documented information, such as the fish catch data and climate (temperature/rainfall data) of Mbita for the last 30 years data to get the trend of these elements and to determine climate variability and change. Content validity of the instrument was done through experts; supervisors. Reliability was attained through test and re-test Data analysis was accomplished through use of computer based software (SPSS). Presentation was done in descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings were:-there was gender discrimination in access and control of key fishing resources which support adaptive activities that makes women more vulnerable to CC and CCV hazards and disasters. The study found that majority fishers had clear perception of CC but only 46% had knowledge of CC. The fishers relied more on indigenous knowledge and meteorological forecasts were too technical and considered irrelevant. The study further found that erratic variations in temperatures and rainfall were greatest stressors with statistical significant p-value = of 0.02. Wet seasons destroyed infrastructure, increased weather-borne diseases and endangered the fishers’ lives while dry and hot season resulted in insufficient fish catches and near starvation food consumption.  Statistically loss life and access to food were significant at p-value of 0.001 and p-value of 0.000 respectively. The study found that CCA requires access and control of factors of production which were traditionally under the control of male fishers making women more vulnerable and susceptible to surviving through chamas and table banking activities. Statistically access to and control was significant to adaptation at p-value of 0.000. The study concluded that lack of alternative livelihood opportunities/options is the major constraints to adaptation for people living in the Lake Victoria region escalated with limitation of skills outside fishing industry, limitation of other employable professional skills including lack of capital. The study recommends a transdiciplinary consientization of adaptive strategies which can translate into flexible and sustainable CCA gender inclusive livelihood activities. Future research should explore participatory action research on environmental influences affecting CCA by comparing findings across other beaches.

Open Access Original Research Article

Technology Socialization Process of Pulse Enterprise: The Structural and Functional Analysis

Dibyendu Pal, Arindam Ghosh, Amitava Biswas, Sankar Kr. Acharya, Kabita Mondal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 170-178
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930238

Technology socialization process has operationally been defined as the interactive summation of all possible responses to a technology application process in terms of adoption, rejection, discontinuance and reinvention. Here, this interactive summation is measured against a set of standard practices applied in pulse enterprises and the level of socialization as measured against a “recommended technology”. The following specific objectives are set to intervene the present study. Those are, to generate basic information on socialization of pulse crop in the study area to identify and standardize the variables, dependent and independent, impacting on both socialization of pulse crop in the study area, to elucidate inter and intra level interaction between dependent variables i.e. Socialization with those of selected socio economic and ecological variables, to delineate the micro level policy based on the empirical result on effective socialization process.

The study has been carried out in two developed block namely Chakdah and Haringhata of Nadia District in West Bengal. The multistage purposive and random sample techniques were the key to contrast sampling design in the present study. The following variables, gross return, area under pulse cultivation, training received, yield, farmer’s attitude towards pulse cultivation have been found generating significant functional impacts on the predicted character, technology Socialization. The statistical tools like mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation, coefficient of variation, coefficient of correlation, multiple regression, step down multiple regression and path analysis. The study also responded to the inquiry as to where and how the classical crop production process can be replaced with pulse crop and whereas this replacement will be much rewarding and beneficiary to the common farmer. The determinants like gross return, area under pulse crop, training received, productivity of pulse crop and farmer’s attitude are decisively characterizing the socialization process of pulse crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biodiversity Conservation Friendliness Status of Rural Farmers in Abak Agricultural Zone of Akwa Ibom State

J. T. Ekanem, N. U. Okorie, J. Ibanga

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 179-189
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930239

Consolidating on farmers’ agro-ecological knowledge to design environmental-friendly agricultural systems is crucial given the environmental impact of commercial agriculture. The study aimed at assessing the awareness level of the respondents on biodiversity conservation, their biodiversity conservation information source(s), respondents’ information seeking behaviour and their perception towards biodiversity conservation. A survey was conducted on 120 respondents using simple random sampling procedure. Data collected were analysed using frequency distributions, and composite index analytical technique. Findings revealed that all of the respondents had average to high level of awareness of biodiversity conservation practices. Findings also revealed that the information on biodiversity conservation were mostly gotten from friends/neighbors, other farmers, radio/television and internet/electronic mails. The respondents had very positive or favourable perception of biodiversity conservation but biodiversity conservation information seeking behaviour of the respondents was not quite high. Six (6) independent variables contributed a multiple correlation influence (R= 0.606) on the respondents’ perception on biodiversity conservation. However, awareness of biodiversity conservation (b = 0.598, t = 6.882, P = 0.000) was found to significantly and statistically influence the respondents’ perception on biodiversity conservation. These findings are crucial for policy orientations, research and development to efficiently support the implementation of more environmental-friendly farming systems in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Drought Characteristics Using the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) over Parambikulam Aliyar Basin of Tamil Nadu

V. Guhan, V. Geethalakshmi, S. Panneerselvam, A. Raviraj, A. Lakshmanan, S. P. Ramanathan, N. Kowshika, K. Bhuvaneswari

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 201-208
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930246

Drought tends to be a creeping phenomenon occurs gradually with the deficiency in rainfall further extending its impact on sectors which are dependent on water. The drought characteristics were analysed in Parambikulam Aliyar Project (PAP) basin based on the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim) gridded data with resolution of 0.125° ×0.125° during 1981-2017. Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) was applied for monitoring the drought. The variables used in RDI are rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (ETo), the required meteorological data were taken from the ERA Interim dataset and ETo was calculated using Penman-Monteith method. RDI indicated that 41% of the time had drought condition over 37 years. Two years (1982 and 2012) faced severe drought across all the parts of the PAP basin and the highest number of mild drought events were observed than the other drought conditions in PAP basin. Results showed that Plain areas in PAP basin experienced maximum number of drought events compared to the other areas in PAP basin during the investigation period.

Open Access Review Article

Zero Budget Natural Farming in India: Aiming Back to the Basics

Saikat Biswas

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 38-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930228

Crisis of Indian agriculture is very pertinent at this moment as green revolution is gradually losing its hope. Excessive, pointless exploitation of broods of green revolution has left bad footprints on country’s food security and environmental safety. With the motto to ensure food security by reviving Indian agriculture in environmentally safe way as well as to release farmers from debt cycle and suicides, zero budget natural farming (ZBNF) has come in the picture, which discards uses of all the chemical farming inputs and relies on natural way of farming i.e. rejuvenating soil and crop health through its own practices (Jivamrita, Bijamrita, mulching, soil aeration, intercropping, crop diversification, bunds, bio-pesticides etc.). ZBNF movement right now is the most popular agrarian movement which begun in 2002 in Karnataka and later successfully spread in many states (specially, of South India) of the nation through numbers of trainings, demonstrations and various promotional activities. Successful outcomes from farmers’ fields of south Indian states like Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka etc. are encouraging and grabbing attention of farmers, public and private organisations towards ZBNF in recent times. Yet, various controversies regarding its transparency,      inadequate information, efficacy, practices, idealisms, even the term ‘zero budget’ etc. have agglutinated around ZBNF over the years since it debuted. Critics in fact have cited several references of drastic yield reductions with ZBNF practices in many places. Adequate scientific evaluation or monitoring of ZBNF’s successes or failures through multi-locational trials is now therefore the needful before allowing or restraining its run in Indian agriculture.

Open Access Review Article

Issues in Climate Smart Agriculture in Southeastern Nigeria

E. O. Okoro, V. U. Okwu- Delunzu, C. S. Ofordu

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 190-200
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i930240

Farming is a prime livelihood activity of people of Southeast (SE) Nigeria. In the age of climate change, farmers have to cope with highly variable, short and unpredicted rainfall to sustain their enterprise. This study reviews the effects of climate change on agriculture production, identifies farmer's views on the impact of climate change on crop production in the southeast, reviews the adoption of CSA in Nigeria and identifies the importance of climate information service in agriculture in Southeast Nigeria. From the review, farmers within the SE are aware of climate change and they have adopted improved innovative strategies to adapt to the negative implication associated with climate change and variability but more awareness is needed in the area of climate information services (CIS) to assist them to cope better. Therefore, this study recommends the Participatory Integrated Climate Services for Agriculture (PICSA) approach to educate farmers more on how to manage their enterprise in the face of climate change and variability.