Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness, Knowledge and Adaptation Practices of Farm Women in Relation to Climate Change in Northern Transitional Zone of Karnataka

Geeta P. Channal, Rekha Rayangoudar, Supriya P. Patil

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030242

Anthropogenic climate change is the topmost contemporary global issue. Climate change can potentially upset the rhythm of nature threatening the very existence of life on earth. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have increased since the pre-industrial era, driven largely by economic and population growth, and are now higher than ever. Their effects, together with those of other anthropogenic drivers, have been detected throughout the climate system and are extremely likely to have been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century. Further, relative to 1986-2015, warming is projected between 2.6 to 4.8°C under RCP8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway) by the end of 21st century. So, climate change is the biggest threat to agriculture in countries around the globe as well as in India. Farmers in India are not fully aware of climate change and its indicators, causes, and impacts. Therefore, this study was conducted to know the awareness level, knowledge and adaptation practices of farm women regarding climate change. This study was conducted during 2018-19 under All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Home Science in Sulla village of Dharwad district. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 farm women in the village. A pre tested interview schedule was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis of the data. The study revealed that all of the respondents were not aware about the increase in melting of glacier, cold wave and frequent flood. It was observed from the study that, 36 per cent of the farm women belonged to low category of awareness on indicators on climate change. It was also noticed that all of the women were not aware about changes in farming system in present climate condition. Results show that women were not aware about rapid urbanization, use of pesticides, natural disaster, burning of fossils and farm waste, use of electrical appliances and global warming as the causes of climate change. Moreover, all of the women adopted change in planting calendar, adoption of crop rotation and adoption of intercropping.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Climate on Oak Savanna Tree Species in the Midwestern United States

Isaac Hayford, Sophan Chhin

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 7-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030243

Aims: The previously abundant high quality and open canopy oak savanna communities in the Midwest have been reduced by more than 98% of their pre-settlement (pre-1840) area because of changing land use and represent some of the most threatened ecosystems in North America. Prior knowledge of oak savanna communities’ climatic resilience to potential impact of climate change and competition is critical to restoration success.  This study examined sensitivity to climatic stress, and effects of competition, which are important considerations during oak savanna restoration.

Methodology: Dendrochronological methods were used to sample oak savanna communities located in MacCready Reserve (MR) situated in southern Michigan, U.S.A. The influence of climate (mainly temperature and precipitation) on white oak (Quercus alba L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L), and black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh) were correlated using dendroclimatic techniques. The effect of competitor species (A. rubrum and P. serotina) on Q. alba were examined using competitor ratio chronologies and examining correlations with climatic variables.

Results: Findings indicate that precipitation in winter, spring, and summer is beneficial for radial growth of white oak. White oak is more resilient to drought stress than red maple and black cherry due to its ecophysiological adaptations but tends to grow rather slower when in competition with shade tolerant and fire sensitive competitor species.

Conclusion: Overall, this study has shown that temperature and precipitation play key roles in tree productivity and thus climatic sensitivity should be incorporated in the restoration of oak savanna ecosystems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Conservation Agriculture on System Productivity and Carbon Sequestration in Rice-Based Cropping Systems

T. Pandiaraj, Sumit Chaturvedi, A. K. Bhardwaj

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 24-34
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030244

Low crop yields due to constant monocropping systems and deteriorating soil health in a smallholder farmers’ field of Indo-Gangetic plains of India have led to a quest for sustainable production practices with greater resource use efficiencies. The aim of the study was to elucidate the short term effects of conservation agricultural systems on productivity, soil health and carbon sequestration rate of soils in three different diversified cropping systems. The treatments consisted of two different tillage systems (conventional and reduced tillage), two mulch levels (no and straw mulch) and two levels of fertility (100 and 75% RDF) were compared in three rice-based cropping systems (rice-wheat; rice-vegetable pea-greengram; and rice-potato-maize sequences) for two years on an experimental field (clay loam) located at Norman E Borlaug Crop Research Center, Pantnagar, India. The resource conservation technologies (RCT) i.e. reduced tillage, mulch, and 100% RDF had recorded 2.5 and 3.0% higher system productivity and relative production efficiency in rice-vegetablepea-greengram and rice-potato-maize sequences, respectively in two consecutive years. Conservation tillage had sequestered three times higher carbon than conventional tillage while mulching acted four times higher than non-mulched condition in agricultural soils. Even though cropping system not significant significantly influenced on carbon sequestration, rice-vegetablepea-greengram sequence had recorded higher carbon sequestration rate and higher soil organic carbon stock noted in surface plough sole layer than any other cropping systems. Therefore, our results suggested that Indo-Gangetic farmers should consider adopting resource conservation practices together in indogangetic area because of benefits to soil health, carbon sequestration and system productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Drought Over Parambikulam Aliyar Basin of Tamil Nadu

Guhan V., Geethalakshmi V., Panneerselvam S., Raviraj A., Lakshmanan A., Ramanathan S. P., Bhuvaneswari K.

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 35-42
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030245

Rainfall has a greater impact on agricultural, hydrological, economic, environmental and social systems. Inconsistencies in rainfall pattern could lead to extremities like drought and flood. Drought is a long period of unusually low rainfall that severely affects crop production and welfare of the people. Understanding the impacts of drought is crucial for planning, mitigation and responses.  The Standardized precipitation index (SPI) method was employed for identifying drought occurrence in Parambikulam aliyar basin based on rainfall data of 37 years (1981–2017). SPI method indicated PAP basin had drought once in 4 years. In 19 per cent times, wet situation found to exist in PAP basin, five years exhibited moderately wet condition (1984, 1996, 2010, 2015 and 2017) and two years (1992 and 2005) fell under extremely wet event. Quantification on the drought events forms the scientific basis for decision makers to reduce the societal vulnerability to drought.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thermal Power Station and Human Health in an Agriculturally Green Ecology: The Impact and Perception

Sk Wasaful Quader, Arindam Ghosh, S. K. Acharya, Monirul Haque, Kabita Mondal, Amitava Biswas

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 52-60
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030247

Thermal power stations are now considered as the foremost global concern as these are responsible to produce detrimental effects on the environment. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impact so proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse. In this study, the perception of certain(60) farmers in 5 villages of Kolaghat block of Purba Medinipur,West Bengal, India are recorded and analyzed on the basis of their knowledge and views about thermal power, environment and about their individual enterprises. There are 10 independent variables-ages (x1), education (x2), family Member (x3), income (x4), homestead land (x5), total Land (x6), land under Boroj (x7), input cost (x8), and livestock number (x9), distance of villages from Kolaghat thermal power plant (x10) and 1 dependable variables- 1) perceived impacts of Kolaghat thermal power plant on human health(y1).It has been found that toxic elements and fly ash from Kolaghat thermal power plant have several consequences upon local environment, human, agriculture and livestock. It has also revealed that Kolaghat thermal power plant hampers the social ecology of the local areas. The study has further suggested several recommendations to cope with adverse environmental and ecological condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Pre Released Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes under Different Sowing Windows in Rabi Season

D. Anil, Sreedhar Siddi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 43-51
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030248

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different sowing dates on growth and yield potential of pre released rice genotypes under irrigated conditions of Northern Telangana zone. The field experiments were carried out during two consecutive rabi seasons of 2018-19 and 2019-20, on clay soils of agricultural research station, Kunaram, Telangana state, India. The experiment was laid out in strip plot design with three replications. The treatments comprised of three sowing dates i.e. 20th November, 5th December and 20th December in horizontal factor and four genotypes i.e. KNM 733, RNR 15048, KNM 1638 and KNM 118 in vertical factor. Pooled data analysis results revealed that the different sowing dates and genotypes significant effect on all the studied growth and yield characters. The rice crop sown on 20th December recorded significantly  higher grain yield ( 8138 kg ha-1) and Among the genotypes, the short slender, short duration genotype KNM 733 recorded the recorded the maximum grain yield ( 8024 kg ha-1), which was on par with the other genotypes. The treatment combinations data results concluded that the, among the genotypes the genotype KNM 118 was recorded highest grain yield (8438 kg ha-1) when sowing was taken up on 20th December and followed by  the genotype KNM 733 with sown on 20th  November. In respect of economics of treatment combinations, the highest net returns (Rs.91,165 ha-1) and B:C (2.47)  ratio were obtained when rice crop was sown during 20th December with the  genotype KNM 118 and followed by sown on 20th November with the  genotype KNM 733.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Heat Units on Defoliation, Physiology and Yield of Cotton during Defoliants Application

P. Chandrasekaran, V. Ravichandran, T. Sivakumar, A. Senthil, L. Mahalingam, N. Sakthivel

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 77-84
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030251

Aims: A study was conducted to determine the effect of temperature on defoliation process, physiology and yield of cotton during defoliants application.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with four replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiment was conducted at Department of Crop Physiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2018 to 2019.

Methodology: The main plot comprised of three stage of defoliants spray (120 DAS, 127 DAS and 134 DAS) and the sub-plots were seven defoliant treatments (Control, 2, 4 D (0.5%), Ethephon (0.5%), Ethephon (0.5%) + Triiodbenzoic acid (TIBA) (450 ppm), Sodium chlorate (0.9%), 6 benzylaminopurine (BAP) (0.1%), Thidiazuron + Diuron (0.03%).

Results: After 15 days of defoliants spray, Thidiazuron + Diuron (0.03 %) recorded highest defoliation percentage (99.3, 98.1 and 96.8%) followed by Sodium chlorate (0.9 %) (91.9, 94.6 and 93.6%) at three different stage of defoliants spray. Although a significant effect was observed on chlorophyll index value (SPAD) due to the favorable weather condition like minimum temperature of 14.3, 16.9 and 19.3°C and maximum average temperature of 30.8, 31.8 and 33.23°C (120, 127 and 134 DAS respectively) during defoliants spray to 15 days after defoliants spray. Sodium chlorate (0.9%) and 6-BAP (0.1%) recorded higher (95.8 and 95.4) per cent boll opening at 120 DAS when comparing to 127 DAS and 134 DAS. Heat units accumulated during defoliants spray to 15 days after defoliants spray was 113.54, 140.52 and 169.57°C days (120, 127 and 134 DAS respectively).

Conclusion: Therefore, the minimum and maximum temperatures of 14.3 and 33.3°C, respectively conducive for inducing defoliation process and boll opening in cotton.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Local Construction and Technique: Adequacy of an Existing Nubian Vaulted Building with the "Bioclimatic" Concept Including the Performance of Its Envelope in Sahelian Climate of Ouagadougou

Fati Zoma, David Y. K. Toguyeni, Barkwendé Jude Kiemtoré, Emmanuel Ouedraogo

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 85-98
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030252

This study permitted to evaluate the adequacy of an existing Nubian vaulted building with the "bioclimatic" concept including the performance of its envelope. In that purpose, we needed to analyze its architectural concept and to measure parameters such as the temperature of the internal and external surfaces of all the façades (walls, roof and floor) of the study building. The measurement campaign took place over three (03) days in the month of January 2018 with a one-hour step for temperatures. Out of eleven (11) bioclimatic principles identified, six (06) were respected in the design of the building. In addition, we obtained thermal amplitudes of the interior surfaces lower than 1.5°C for the walls and 5°C for the roof, a decrement factor lower than 12% for the walls and 17% for the roof and a thermal time lag of 6 to 8 hours on in average for the walls and 4 to 6 hours in average for the roof. Finally, after evaluation of the thermal loads, with the Nubian vault building a reduction of a bit more than one third (1/3) of the thermal loads is achieved comparatively to a building of the same size made of cinder blocks for the walls and aluminum roofing sheet. However, this comfort offered by the Nubian vault can be improved with more bioclimatic provisions which we have recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Cost-Benefits of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies of Cassava-Based Farmers in Southern Nigeria

Adanna Henri- Ukoha

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 99-110
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030253

The study examined the assessment of the cost-benefits of climate change adaptation strategies of cassava-based farmers in Southern Nigeria. About 300 cassava-based farmers were selected using simple random sampling. Primary data were obtained through administration of questionnaire, interview schedule and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, Net Return model and Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA). The findings of this study revealed that more than 55% of the cassava crop farmers indicated depletion of the ozone layer as the most cause of climate change in the area. The net returns of the cassava production were estimated at ₦215,240.86 ($614.97) and the gross marginal returns of ₦220,078.86 ($628.80) respectively. This indicates that cassava production using the adaptation strategies is profitable. Conservational agriculture recorded the highest internal rate of return of 68% over other adaptation strategies with Net Present Value of E399.53. The factor analysis revealed the major constraints in using climate change adaptation strategies as high cost of labor, inadequate information on climate change issues, high cost and scarcity of inputs, insecurity, poor extension services and low response from government among others. Farmers should be encouraged to practice conservation techniques as the cost-effective and efficient climate change adaptation strategies in the study area. Government support in bridging the gap between climate change and crop farmers’ adaptation strategies and farm inputs provisions at a subsidized rate were recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Block Wise Spatial Distribution and Mapping of Cationic Micronutrients in Soils of Jhargram District of West Bengal

Shreya Das, Animesh Ghosh Bag, Nitin Chatterjee, Biplab Pal, Debashis Ghosh, Gora Chand Hazra

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 111-122
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030254

Aims: This investigation is aimed to conduct a delineation study to know the spatial distribution of available cationic micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) in red and lateritic soils of Jhargram district of West Bengal and their relationship with soil chemical properties.

Study Design: Spatial distribution.

Place and Duration of Study: Geo-referenced 253 surface soil (0-15 cm depth) samples were collected from eight blocks (Gopiballavpur- 1, Gopiballavpur- 2, Nayagram, Jhargram, Sankrail, Jambani, Binpur- 2 and Binpur- 1) of Jhargram district of West Bengal, India during 2017- 2018.

Methodology: Grid based detailed block wise soil sampling has been carried out in long term crop growing fields of Jhargram district of West Bengal.The collected soil samples were analyzed and their cationic micronutrient status were depicted through nutrient index and fertility maps. Geographical information system (GIS) is an important tool to identify the risk areas. In our study Arc Info GIS has been used to prepare the spatial distribution maps of available cationic micronutrients and soil chemical properties (pH and organic carbon) of different blocks of this district.

Results: The pH, organic carbon content, available Zinc, Copper, Iron and Manganese content in soils were in the range of 3.68-7.6, 0.15-2.01 (%), 0.56-5.52, 2.4-11.76, 31.6-208.4 and 6.32-99.74 mg kg-1, respectively, with the mean value of 4.97,0.64 (%),2.21, 5.75, 114.68 and 41.87 mg kg-1 respectively. The lowest zinc content has been recorded from the soils of Gopiballavpur- 2 block.

Conclusion: The calculated NIV and spatial distribution maps clearly indicated that there is no deficiency of Iron, Manganese and Copper in this region. Zinc status did not resemble with other cationic micronutrient status which was mostly low to medium with some patches of deficiencies. Soil pH has significant positive relation with Iron. Copper has significant positive relation with soil organic carbon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Concern and Support for Policy on Adaptations to Impacts of Climate Change in Grand Bahamian

Feraldo D. Joffre, Berkley N. King Jr.

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 123-135
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030255

This study assessed the knowledge, concern and support of policy relative to climate change impacts of Grand Bahamians. Specifically the study assessed the awareness and concern of Grand Bahamians; examine the difference in participants’ awareness and concern of climate change impacts; analyze the factors that influence the awareness and concern of climate change impacts of participants; and assess the predictive ability of the Value Belief Norm Theory in relation to the participants’ intent to support policy for climate change issues. A survey questionnaire and focus group discussion were used for ata collection Findings showed that Grand Bahamians have a low level of scientific knowledge, a high level of concern regarding climate change and a strong intent to support policy for climate adaptation. Despite this low level of scientific knowledge, they have a developed experiential knowledge due to their frequent exposure to extreme climate events they perceive to be associated with climate change. The high level of concern influenced their desire to support policies aimed at adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Biodiversity Status and Conservation Activities of Singra National Park (SNP) in the Link of Co-Management Strategy

M. M. Ali, N. Akter, M. R. Kabir, M. M. Hasan, M. M. Rahman, M. S. Bari

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 136-146
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030256

This paper emphasizes the trend of biodiversity and their conservation strategy of Singra National Park (SNP), which is very well known for its characteristics as deciduous forest. Two types of studies were conducted: (i) Study of the vegetation composition and structure and (ii) conservation strategy of the Forest. In the first study, the diversity of plant (trees, shrubs, herbs and climbers) and animal (birds, amphibians, reptiles and mammals) species were measured. A stratified random quadrat method was employed to determine the floral diversity. A total of 32 plant species  were recorded including 19 tree species, 5 herbs, 4 shrubs and four climbers. Inventory of fauna species was conducted using a combination of transect walk/ opportunistic and ethno zoological interview methods. Total 28 animal species were recorded of which 13 were birds, 3 were amphibians, 6 were reptiles and 6 were mammals. With regard to the quantitative attributes of total flora and fauna species, the highest number was found in trees (mean, 126.00) and the lowest number was found in mammals (mean, 7.00). The result showed very high significant variation among them. The second study examined the management of the forest, causes of biodiversity loss, administrative problems with management of wildlife. Data were collected from the SNPauthority and questionnaire survey among local people in the study area. It was evident from the study that the people around the forest collect forest flora and fauna illegally. The people are not aware of the importance of forest in various aspects like  social, economic, ecological and environmental domains. Forest authorities are trying to involve the people in and around the forest to co-management for conservation and restoration of the forest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Sentinel-1 Data in Flood Mapping in the Buna River Area

Freskida Abazaj, Gëzim Hasko

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 147-156
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030257

Floods are one of the disasters that cause many human lives and property. In Albania, most floods are associated with periods of heavy rainfall. In recent years, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors, which provide reliable data in all weather conditions and day and night, have been favored because they eliminate the limitations of optical images.

In this study, a flood occurred in the Buna River region in March 2018, was mapped using SAR Sentinel-1 data. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of flood mapping using SAR images using different methodologies. Sentinel-1A / B SAR images of the study area were obtained from the European Space Agency (ESA).

Preprocessing steps, which include trajectory correction, calibration, speckle filtering, and terrain correction, have been applied to the images. RGB composition and the calibrated threshold technique have been applied to SAR images to detect flooded areas and the results are discussed here.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Hybrids under Different Nutrient Management Practices during Boro Season

Biplab Show, Megha Sana, Sukanta Pal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 157-163
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030258

Aim: To study the effect of rice hybrids to different nutrient management practices to find out the most suitable nutrient management and variety for hybrid rice in new alluvial zone of west Bengal.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with 20 treatment combinations with three replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: Rabi seasons of 2011-12 and 2012-13 at Regional-Research Sub-Station (RRSS) Chakdaha of BCKV under new alluvial zone of West Bengal.

Methods: Combinations having with five hybrid rice varieties viz., V1 (Winner), V2 (Champion) V3 (Raja), V4 (Karishma) V5 (KRH-2), and four nitrogen levels viz. N1 (150:75:75 N: P2O5: K2O Kg/ha), N2 (75%N of N1+ full dose of P2O5 & K2O as recommended in N1+ 25% N through FYM), N3 (50%N of N1+ full dose of P2O5 & K2O as recommended in N1+ 50% N through FYM), N4 (120:60:60 N: P2O5: K2O Kg/ha) Generally yield contributing characters were studied at maturity of the crop. For yield analysis samples were taken from each plot and yield attributes were calculated.

Results: Experimental results revealed that almost all the growth parameters and yield attributes gave significantly superior performance in the variety Champion with N1 level of fertilization. The maximum grain yield (7.49 t ha-1) was recorded in the variety V2 in combination with N1 level of nitrogen. Highest harvest index (52.23%) was noticed in same treatment combination.

Conclusion: It may be concluded that Champion can be recommended for South Bengal locations with N1 (i.e.150:75:75 N: P2O5: K2O Kg ha-1) nutrient level for maximum grain yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Cotton Pest App for Decision Making among Cotton Farmers

M. Kalpana, K. Senguttuvan, P. Latha

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 164-171
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030259

Aims: In this paper Cotton Pest App is designed to identify the leaf disease in cotton at early stage. Cotton Pest App is an innovative application that is useful for farmers.

Methodology: The farmers can capture the images in the cotton field and upload the images. Cotton API is created and placed in cloud services. Images taken from farmers field matches with Cotton API and gets the TNAU recommendation for the cotton leaf diseases.

Results: Cotton Pest App for pest management in cotton will analyze and provide an accurate recommendation to farmers about the type of pesticide for the symptoms given through the images.

Conclusion: This paper expresses the idea about the creation of Cotton Pest App, an android application that helps to make management decision for cotton leaf symptoms. The study would provide a better understanding of the management practice required for the cotton leaf disease.

Open Access Review Article

Modeling the Impacts of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources: A Review

Syed Rouhullah Ali, Junaid N. Khan, Yogesh Pandey, Mehraj U. Din Dar, Mudasir Shafi, Ishfaq Hassan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 61-76
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1030250

Global atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) were developed to simulate the current climate and are used to predict climate change. Several Global Climate Models (GCM’s) are available for understanding and projecting climate change. GCM requires to be downscale on a basin-scale and combined with applicable hydrological models considering all components of the hydrologic process. The performance of such coupling models, such as groundwater recharge quantification, should help to make correct adaptation strategies. Climate change has the ability to affect both the quality and quantity of available groundwater, mainly through impact on recharge, evapotranspiration, pump-age and abstraction. As a consequence, groundwater is a significant contributor to the streamflow in areas with fairly shallow water resources, knowing how climate change could impact groundwater supplies is crucial for long-term water resource management. The effect of climate change on groundwater systems is very difficult to predict. Part of the uncertainty of climate predictions is embedded of possibilities. Better insights, a more profound knowledge of mechanisms and modeling skills are required to determine this critical resource’s potential in the face of predicted climate change.