Open Access Short Research Article

Trends in Area, Production and Productivity in Onion in Tamil Nadu

R. Parimalarangan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 95-99
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130269

India ranks first in area in onion and second in production next to China, but productivity is low as compared to Netherland, USA, China. Growth rates are widely employed in the field of agriculture as these have important policy implications. To study the trends of growth in area, production and productivity of onion crop compound growth rate were worked out. The study concluded that In India, Even though there was decline in area, increasing trend in production was noticed. It was due to increase in Productivity. In Tamil Nadu, the trend in area, production and productivity of Onion was found to be stable.

Open Access Short Communication

Thermal Indices of Fodder Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cultivars in Bundelkhand Region of Central India

Suchit K. Rai, . Reetu, G. Prabhu

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 19-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130263

The present study was conducted to identify the impact of temperature indices on different phenophases and yield of cowpea varieties growing in Jhansi region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is a warm season legume crop grown in arid and semi-arid regions of India. Traditionally, it is very important as a staple food and source of fodder for the African continent, India and other semi-arid regions. A field experiment was conducted during rainyseasons (July to October) of 2010 and 2011 to determine the thermal indices for fodder cowpea varieties at Central Research Farm, ICAR-IGFRI, Jhansi. All the data were subjected to ANOVA using PROC GLM procedure in SAS (v 9.3). In ANOVA, varieties, date of sowing and year effect is considered as fixed factors and replication as random factor. Crop sown on 12th July took higher accumulated growing degree days (GDD) during 50% flowering (1111°C days) and maturity (2074°C days) as compared to crop sown during 4th August. Green fodder yield of Kohinoor recorded highest heat use efficiency (HUE) (32.4 kg ha-1°C day-1) over BL-2 and EC-4216 at the time of 50% flowering while it is at par with BL-1. From the results, it is found that early sownfodder cowpea recorded maximum duration, heat unit and heat use efficiency at maturity. The Variety Kohinoor recorded the highest grain yield, lowest calendar days and highest HUE as compared to all other varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Mass Media Channels in Promulgating Farm Technologies among Banana Growers in Trichy District of Tamil Nadu

P. Ravichamy, K. C. Siva Balan, S. Nandakumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130260

Farming decisions are crucial to farm productivity ie., providing technical agro information to the farmers at the right time in a right way that leads to assured good yield and sustainable economic returns. In the digital era, there is a clear cut digital gap between knowledge centres and individual farmers. Though knowledge centres develop many novel technologies to disseminate farm information to farmers, the individual farmer face difficulties in accessing those information. Thus bridging the information gap is crucial for extension services to occupy a strategic position in the transfer of technology (ToT) in the agricultural sector. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools such as Electronic media (Radio, television) print media (newspapers, magazines, posters and notices etc.,) and new media (Computer, Internet, Website, Smartphone, Social media) play a pivotal role in bridging the gap between the source (Knowledge centres) and target audience (Farmers). In the information explosion era, digital interventions could revitalize the ToT practices. The present study assesses the satisfaction level of mass media communication in the dissemination of cultivation technology among banana farmers in Tiruchirapalli district of Tamil Nadu.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Influence on Access to and Control of Resources for Coping to Climate Variability. A Case of Mbita Fisher Community, Homa Bay County, Kenya

Robert David Lubalo Onyango, Christopher Oludhe, Dorothy Amwata

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 8-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130262

Global warming effects have far reaching impacts of livelihoods of many rural communities including fishers. It is in record that fishing accounts for world’s 36 million fishers nearly 1.5 billion consumers who rely on fish for their dietary animal protein. Past studies have concentrated on fisher communities and climate variability in marine waters and oceans; mainly investigating the impact of climate variability on fish distribution and production. Limited focus has addressed the interaction between impacts of climate change on the fishing activities on inland and fresh waters such as in Lake Victoria and the fishers coping and adapting with changes and variability of climate. The discussions in this article focused on Lake Victoria shore location of Mbita where the livelihood of local community is largely fishing. The objectives were to: Determine the influence of gender on access and control of fisher resources for climate adaptation in Mbita sub-county; Document the current coping strategies and constraints to Climate variability/change in Mbita sub-county. The study used a constructivist epistemology and the mixed methods research design to help it achieve its findings. Yamane’s formula (1964) is used to get the sample size of 388 respondents out of a population of 13191. Primary data was collected through use of  questionnaires, interview schedules for KII and FGDs. Secondary data collection was collected through document reviews of relevant past studies reports and working papers on  (temperature/rainfall data) of Mbita for the last 30 years data to get the trend of these elements and to determine climate variability and change. The instruments were validated using experts’ content validity with the supervisors. Piloting was used to ascertain reliability of the instruments Analysis was accomplished using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences. Presentation was done in descriptive and inferential statistics. The study found that there was gender discrimination in access and control of resources which support adaptive activities that makes women more vulnerable to Climate Variability/Change hazards and disasters. The study further found that adaptation  requires access and control of factors of production which were traditionally under the control of male fishers making women more vulnerable and susceptible to surviving through chamas and table banking activities. Statistically access to and control was significant to adaptation at p-value of 0.000. Under coping strategies the study found that adaptation required transformation of mind set that called for bigger investment which required the collaboration and consultation of entire Mbita community and county government to address environmental and conservative resource utility. The study concluded that lack of alternative livelihood opportunities/options is the major constraints to adaptation for people living in the Lake Victoria region escalated with limitation of skills outside fishing industry, limitation of other employable professional skills including lack of capital. The study recommends a transdiciplinary concientization of adaptive strategies which can translate into flexible and sustainable climate change adaptation and gender inclusive livelihood activities. Future research should explore participatory action research on environmental influences affecting CCA by comparing findings across other beaches and livelihoods to see if gendered resources have any role in their adaptation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Climate Variability Over High Rainfall Zone of Tamil Nadu, India

V. Guhan, V. Geethalakshmi, K. Bhuvaneswari, M. Rajavel, Dhanya Praveen, G. R. Mugilan, S. Pavithra, K. Senthilraja

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 24-33
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130264

Rainfall is one of the most important climatic variables that determine the spatial and temporal patterns of climate variability of a region, which also provides useful information for the planning of water resources, agricultural production, and others. Climate change is one of the most significant worldwide issues talked among scientists and researchers, and one of the consequences of climate change is the alteration of rainfall patterns. 'India's population and the economy is linked to climate-sensitive activities, including rainfed agriculture and excess climate anomalies, deficient and flooded rainfall years have a dramatic impact on the economy as well as on the living conditions of the inhabitants of the affected region. An understanding of current and historical trends and variation is inevitable to her future development, especially in agricultural and hydrological sectors. In the present study, historical weather data for 33 years (1981-2013) was analyzed for rainfed cropping season (September - December) to understand the climatic variability in the Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu. The maximum daily air temperature increased on average by 0.02°C per year, whereas minimum daily air temperature remained constant during the rainfed cropping season. The high rainfall zone receives an annual and rainfed cropping average rainfall of 1307and 672 mm, respectively. Analysis of rainfall during rainfed cropping period over 33 years showed ten years had standard RF, nine years had deficit rainfall, six years had below standard RF, one year had above standard RF and seven years had excess RF. Analysis indicates that the deficit condition prevailed in every alternate year in recent decades. The onset of rainfed cropping season varied over the years (1981-2013), 13 years had onset in the slot from 1st to 5th  September, and in others, years onset occurred between 6 and 30th September. Cessation also had a variation over 33 years and 16 years had cessation from 26 to 31st December while remaining years had cessation in the period of 1-25th December. LGP ranged from 57 to 143 days, with an average LGP of 106 days.  Dry spell varied from 3 to 12 days with the mean of 6 days, and wet spell varied from 2 to 8 days with an average of 5 days.

Open Access Original Research Article

Community, Dominant Tree Species Leaf Phenology and Seasonality in a Tropical Dry Forest, India

Appaji Nanda, Hebbalalu S. Suresh, Yelugere L. Krishna Murthy

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 34-49
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130265

Aims: Plant phenology is a tool to assess climate variability, but less is known about the differences in phenological sensitivity at community, life-form and individual species level. The aim of the present study is to know the contribution of individual, life-form leaf phenophases within the community.

Methodology: The leaf phenology of tropical dry forest trees in Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Karnataka, India was observed during June 2004 to May 2009. A total of 277 trees belonging to 45 species were monitored on monthly basis for different phenophases of leaf phenology. Simple Spearman’s correlations and multiple regressions were performed between different phenophases and environmental factors like rainfall and temperature. Seasonality was determined with circular statistics analyses using the phenological variables and dates of observation.

Results: The influence of temperature was stressed with multiple regressions. Seasonality of each of the phenophases was also tested with circular statistics. There is a strong seasonality observed in all phenophases, the strength of seasonality was highest with leafless phenophases. Leafing phenophases among some dominant species within the community was described for seasonality and differences among them were also analyzed. Understorey species had longer leaf life span compared to canopy species. At the community level different phenophases are distinctly seasonal, though the strength of seasonality varied considerably with flushing and expansion of leaves, the strength of the seasonality was high with leaf senescence for all species.

Conclusion: The results of this research are in agreement with previous study but the present study suggests that community, population and individual sensitivity might vary under the present context of increasing climatic variability and their adaptation helps to understand the climatic influence in shaping phenology at individual, species and community level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Flood Vulnerability Assessment of Settlements in the Niger-benue Trough, Central Nigeria

O. O. Ifatimehin, P. S. U. Eneche, N. A. Ismail

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 50-67
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130266

Flooding has become a household phenomenon, particularly for communities in close proximity or situated in floodplain areas, although only on extreme cases that serious alarms are given. The brunt of this study assessed the flood vulnerability levels of settlements located in the Niger-Benue Trough of Central Nigeria by considering their livelihood assets. Data were sourced via a random administration of questionnaire in 36 communities in the study area earmarked; water level and discharge data obtained; communities were mapped; and remotely sensed data (Spot 5 and the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data were retrieved and analyzed using ArcGIS 10.5 and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 25) software. The simulated worst-case scenario of flooding revealed 22 settlements were inundated in the 2019 flood between July – September, covering larger areas before the confluence with more than 50% of the area under the high and moderately high-risk zones. Natural and physical livelihood assets were vulnerable and seriously damaged with indices greater than 3.0, while human, financial and social assets were all below 3.0. Generally, vulnerability index computed for all communities was 2.82, indicating moderate vulnerability of the communities to the flood event of 2019. Also, the Pearson correlation test revealed a strong, positive relationship (r = .769, α = .036) between the level of communities’ flood vulnerability and the livelihood assets in the study. It was therefore recommended that yearly flood events are worth simulating to aid prioritization of decisions and development of a comprehensive flood management plan for the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Solar Trees: Shift from Grey to Green Sky for Future Fuel Pumps under Clean/Green Energy: India

Siba Prasad Mishra, Nimay Chandra Giri, Debashree Debadatta Behera, Smruti Ranjan Nayak

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 68-86
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130267

Clean/green energy embraces renewable resources like bio, geo, hydro, oceanic, solar, and aeolian power. They are utilized in energy generation, heating and cooling processes, transport, domestic and urban niches. India has aimed to rise in its per capita energy use to rise by 40%, and emission cut/GDP pledge by 33-35% till 2030 compared to 2005 level by building extra carbon sink 2.5-3.0 billion MT CO2e by targeting renewable source to 175GW (100GW of Solar) by 2022. The killer SARSCoV-2 virus has the target and the clean/green energy growth. The reduction of CO2 has been depleted due to industrial, urban and transportation shut downs and the 2019 grey sky has converted old blue environment, Solar power plants considered to be best remedy for apocalyptic. The Solar tree or Solar Parks concept is novel and the most easy, economic and commercial method that can have utilities in all development sector. The work envisages the design by MATLAB (Simulink simulated). The fabrication of solar trees of 180 watt capacity in workshop including has been tested under different solar insulations. The result inferred that the solar tree can be a part to solar park, installed at fallow/hilly terrains in less area, low cost by 18.51%, with higher power generation by sustaining the environment serve as real trees. The solar trees near National Highways shall sell/hire batteries on commercial basis like fuel pumps and gas cylinders for supply to e-vehicles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Crop Weather Relationships of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Different Sowing Windows and Hybrids

B. H. Dadapeer, S. Sridhara, Pradeep Gopakkali

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 87-94
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130268

A field experiment was conducted to know the crop weather relationships under different sowing windows and hybrids in maize at the College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga, Karnataka, during Kharif 2015. The experimental site is situated at 14°01 to 14°11 North latitude and 75°401 to 75°421 East longitude with an altitude of 650 meters above mean sea level. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with a factorial concept and replicated thrice. There were eight treatment combinations, including four-date of sowing (15th June, 30th June, 15th July and 30th July) and two hybrids (PAC-740 and CP-818). Maize sown on 15th June recorded significantly higher grain yield (7632.57 kg ha-1) as compared to other dates of sowing and among the hybrids, CP-818 (7060.72 kg ha-1) was found superior than PAC-740 (6776.93 kg ha-1). Grain yield had a highly significant positive correlation with weather parameters such as cumulative pan evaporation (0.85**), cumulative solar radiation (0.83**), cumulative rainfall (0.79**) and average relative humidity (0.75**) during silking to maturity stage. The variation in grain yield was primarily affected by average maximum temperature (69%) followed by cumulative sunshine hours (68%) and cumulative pan evaporation (66%) during sowing to maturity and lower variation was observed in average relative humidity (54%) during silking to maturity. From the present findings it can be inferred that sowing maize on June 15th with CP-818 hybrid can be a better option to get higher productivity in southern transition zone of Karnataka.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alleviation of Sodicity Stress in Green Gram and Black Gram Using Plant Growth Regulating Substances

S. Nithila, R. Amutha, R. Sivakumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 121-126
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130271

Most of the pulses in India are grown in low fertility, problematic soils and unpredictable environmental conditions. Major issues in pulse production are poor establishment and low harvest index. In pulses harvest index is only 15-20%. Physiological manipulations such as spraying of hormones and nutrients that reduce flower drop and thereby facilitate large sink size. The objective of this research is to study the impact of Growth regulating substances on germination and establishment and economic yield of black gram and green gram under Sodic soil conditions. The study area is Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Trichy. The nature of soil is sodicity with exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of 18.94% with pH of 9.02. The two crop varieties green gram VBN (Gg) 2 & black gram VBN (Bg) 6 were employed under sodic soil condition. Field experiment was conducted during late July to October 2017 under sodic soil condition with ten treatments. The experiment was laid out in a Randamized Block Design with three replications. Foliar spray was given at flower initiation and pod initiation stages. Ten treatment combinations were employed by T1: Control, T2: Seed Treatment (ST) with Ammonium Molybdate (AM) 0.05% + foliar spray of ZnSO4 – 0.5%. T3: AM 0.05% + Panchagavya -3.0%,              T4: AM 0.05% + foliar spray of KCl -1%, T5: ST with GA3 50 ppm + foliar spray of ZnSO4 – 0.5%,   T6: GA3 50 ppm + Panchagavya -3.0%, T7: GA3 50 ppm + KCl -1%, T8: Cowpea Sprout Extract 2% +ZnSO4 – 0.5%, T9: Cowpea Sprout Extract 2% +Panchagavya -3.0%, T10: Cowpea Sprout Extract 2% + foliar spray of KCl -1%. In conclusion the yield enhancement in best treatment may be due to the presence of bioactive substances in sprouted cowpea extracts and panchagavya were found effective towards yield maximization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Present day Agricultural Education Ecosystem and Assessment on Educational Aspirations of Farm Graduates

N. Anandaraja, K. C. Sivabalan, Molu T. Lalson

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 127-133
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130272

In the global ecosystem, swift changes are happening in the knowledge sphere. The present study aims to find out the aspirations of the agricultural graduates regarding their education and agriculture. The study was conducted in the three Agricultural Colleges of Kerala Agricultural University (KAU) through open online survey. Well-structured questionnaire was prepared using ‘Google forms’, an online application and data was collected by publishing it online in KAU Student’s Community through ‘Facebook’. Among the sixty four respondents, all the respondents were B.Sc. Agriculture degree holders from KAU and vast majority of the respondents were girls. Majority of the respondents are having medium level of educational, agricultural aaspirations. More than three fifth of the respondents (67.19%) are most interested doing post-graduation in agricultural sciences after completing their graduation. Over one third of respondents (39.10%) were mostly interested to become innovative and progressive farmers, where as less than one-third of the respondents (29.7%) are most interested in starting agricultural subsidiary enterprises.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability and Trend Analysis of Rainfall Data of Shillong and Agartala Stations of North East India

Mirbana Lusick K. Sangma, Hamtoiti Reang, G. T. Patle, P. P. Dabral

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 134-142
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130273

This paper discusses the variability in rainfall and trend analysis of annual and seasonal rainfall time series of Shillong and Agartala stations located in the north-east region of India. Commonly used non-parametric statistical methods namely Mann-Kendall and Sen’s slope estimator was used to analyse the seasonal and annual rainfall time series. Statistical analysis showed less variation in annual and south-west monsoon rainfall for both Shillong and Agartala stations. In the total annual rainfall, the share of south-west (SW) monsoon, north-east (NE) monsoon, winter season and summer season rainfall was observed 64.60%, 13.22%, 1.40% and 20.80%, respectively for Shillong station of Meghalaya state. However, the contribution of SW monsoon, NE monsoon, winter season and summer season rainfall in the total annual rainfall was 59.59%, 9.55%, 1.14% and 29.72%, respectively for Agartala station of Tripura state. Non-significant increasing trends of rainfall was observed by 4.54 mm/year, 2.80 mm/year and 2.54 mm/year for annual, SW monsoon, and summer season, whereas, non-significant decreasing trends in rainfall for NE monsoon and winter season was observed with a magnitude of 1.83 mm/year and 1.63 mm/year for Shillong, Meghalaya during 1992 to 2017. Results also revealed that rainfall increased by 1.07 mm/year and 0.18 mm/year in SW monsoon and winter season whereas, rainfall decreased by 7.64 mm/year, 2.58 mm/year and 1.29 mm/year during annual, NE monsoon and summer season non-significantly during 1995 to 2019 in case of Agartala. The findings of present study will be useful for water management and crop planning in hill agriculture of Meghalaya and Tripura state of India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Delineating Efficient Cropping Zones of Potato and Chilli in Tamilnadu

T. Sankar, N. Kowshika

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 143-154
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130275

Potato and Chilli are the most significant horticultural vegetable crops commercially cultivated in both field level and homestead gardening. India is leading producer of chilli and 2nd leading of potato in the world, but inadequate storage and huge unpredictable weather  conditions leads to loses. This study was done to analyse trend changes in area, production and productivity over 30 years study period (1985-2015) and also identify Efficient Cropping zones of potato and chillies, at district level for Tamil Nadu during 2000-2015, in order to venture the hotspots of 21st century. Results of trend analysis revealed   that potato production was decreasing till early 21st century and thereafter increasing gradually   with respect to cropping area and chilli showed reduction in production over the years. Relative Yield Index (RYI) and Relative Spread Index (RSI) were used to figured out potential cropping districts for both crops over Tamil Nadu. Dindigul, Erode and Krishnagiri    districts were found to be efficient cropping zone, while Nilgiris is sole district of Most Efficient Cropping Zone (MECZ) for potato. Virudhunagar district has been the Most Efficient  Cropping Zone for chilli crop, while Ramanathapuram, Sivagangai, Tirunelveli, and Thoothukkudi districts were identified as potential efficient zone (ECZs) in Tamil Nadu. Hence, this paper attempts to identify the hotspot area and to study the deviation in cultivable land, production and productivity of the crops where farmers are facing most of the problems. The climate change scenarios could influence crop cultivation, and this paper is evident on the changes in efficient cropping zones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling and Forecasting of Monthly Rainfall and Temperature Time Series Using SARIMA for Trend Detection- A Case Study of Umiam, Meghalaya (India)

P. P. Dabral, Issac Tabing

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 155-172
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130276

Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrative Moving Average Models (SARIMA) were developed for monthly rainfall, mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature time series for Umiam (Barapani), Meghalaya (India). The best model was selected based on the minimum values of AIC and BIC criteria as well as based on observing the ACF and PACF plot of residuals. SARIMA (5,1,2) x (1,1,1)12, SARIMA (2,1,2) x (2,1,1)12, SARIMA (6,1,4) x (2,1,3)12 models were found to be the best fit model for the monthly rainfall, mean monthly maximum  and minimum temperatures time series respectively. The adequacy of the SARIMA models was also verified using the Ljung-Box (Q) statistic test. McLeod-Li test and Engle’s ARCH LM test were carried out for residuals. The results indicated that there was no Arch effect in the established SARIMA models and models can be used for forecasting the future values for the year 2013 to 2028. The determination of trend in monthly rainfall, mean maximum and minimum temperatures in the forecasted series were done using different trend analysis techniques. For monthly rainfall and mean monthly minimum temperature time series, all the selected methods supported no significant trend. However, in the case of mean monthly maximum temperature time series, three selected methods supported falling trend.

Open Access Original Research Article

Astrometeorology: Relationship between Two Planet’s Aspect and Cyclone Events over Bay of Bengal (BOB)

T. Sankar, Ga Dheebakaran, S. Kokilavani, S. P. Ramanathan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 173-184
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130277

Aim: Identifying the astrometeorological relationship between two planet’s aspect and cyclone events over Bay of Bengal (BOB).

Study Design: Correlating the two planet aspects calculated from the ephemeris and different stages of Cyclone event.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted as a part of post graduate thesis research at Agro Climate Research Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Methodology: Collection of Cyclone track and their stage for each cyclone event observed from 1990 to 2016 over Bay of Bengal (BOB). Calculating planetary position for the cyclone track (eye point) and developing two planet’s aspects from the ephemeris. Correlating the two planet aspects and Cyclone event to identify frequency.

Results: Among the 36 two planets aspects studied, Uranus – Neptune and Sun – Mercury and Sun – Venus had higher influence on all the cyclone categories, whereas the Saturn – Uranus, Saturn - Neptune and Venus – Mars had high influence on high intensity cyclones from Very Severe Cyclone to Super Cyclone system. The highest number of category ‘D’ cyclones were observed with the conjunction of Uranus – Neptune (69.8%), category ‘DD’ in the Uranus – Neptune (67.6%), category ‘CS’ in the Uranus - Neptune (64.8%), category ‘SCS’ in the Uranus - Neptune (66.8%), category ‘VSCS’ in the Uranus – Neptune (68.3%), category ‘VSCS’ in the Uranus – Neptune (64.7%) and the category ‘SUCS’ in the Saturn conjunction with Uranus and Neptune (76.9%).

Conclusion: The study inferenced that, irrespective of 36 two-planet combinations, the 0-30 degrees two-planet aspects had more influence on cyclone intensity than other aspects of any two planets, in particular 0 – 10 degree aspects. Squares and oppositions angles between Mars, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are considered to be storm breeders and these angle between Mars and Saturn or Mars and Uranus can influence the formation of very energetic storm systems.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Organic Farming on Sustainable Agriculture System and Marketing Potential: A Review

G. T. Patle, S. N. Kharpude, P. P. Dabral, Vishal Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 100-120
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1130270

Organic farming helps to improve the health of agro-ecosystem by its holistic approach using on-farm agronomic, biological and mechanical methods in exclusion of all synthetic off-farm inputs. Although the organic farming is eco-friendly, question arises about possibility to adopt the organic farming for the large scale and its impacts on maintaining the productivity of land to meet the food security challenges from the ever-increasing population of the world. But at the same time, consumer’s behaviour and consciousness toward the safe and healthy food enforced the thinking of farmers toward the organic farming which is more lucrative due to high market demand and value of organic produce. This paper mainly addresses about the present status and future scope of organic farming especially in North eastern region of India, State of Sikkim, Indian and Global scenario and to investigate the major external and internal factors that influence the whole organic system including production and marketing of organic commodity.