Open Access Short Research Article

As Climate Change Responds with Terrifying Brutalities

Nura Jibo MRICS

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 322-330
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230308

Introduction: The lip service in tackling the climate change issues five years after the famous Paris Agreement on climate change is quite unwholesome to individual countries' pledges and promises that were made on reducing global carbon emissions at Le Bourget, France. The attempt to limit the global mean temperature to 1.50 Celsius preindustrial level has even resulted in warming the climate more than anticipated [1]. The bulk of the climate change adaptation and mitigation effort(s) have, generally, ended up in a tragic fiasco. The rise in sea level and temperature overshoot carry substantial and enormous risks and uncertainties that have caused the entire humanity to head towards an irreversible crossing tipping point [2].  For example, the year 2020 horrible flooding; animal and plant species extinction; coral reef death; permafrost melt; loss of sea and land ice; breaking of the two major glaciers in the coast of the Amundsen Sea in West Antarctica that has kept climatologists and meteorologists terrified in studying the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, are all cases in point that proved an irreversible condition of the climate change. 

Methodology: This paper used content analyses by reviewing the climate change brutal scenarios that occurred at random globally. The data on climate events was obtained from the existing literature on the magnitude of destruction of flood rains and storms’ damage due to sea level rise that is exacerbated by the breaking away of the two major glaciers in the coast of the Amundsen Sea in West Antarctica.

Results: The paper examined critically the flood scenarios that occurred in Puerto Rico; Arecibo; Panzhihua; Gopalganj; Kara-Kache; Krasnoyarsk; Tlalpane; Talas; Taif; Valencia; Lagamenas; Khabarovsk; Hadejia; Dabi; Magarya; and Auyo etc. It revealed that massive flooding was witnessed globally within a span of a weeklong catastrophe. Sea level had risen by at least 0.05 percentile as a result of the breaking away and melting of the two glaciers at the coast of the West Antarctica.

Conclusion: The paper concluded that human beings are no longer near the target of achieving the 1.50–20C goal. What remains now is for everyone to understand the dangers of the climate change blind investment that has already thrown the entire world habitat into a déjàvu phenomenon.

Open Access Short Communication

Response of Black Gram to Seed Biopriming with Facultative Halophilic Bacteria under Salinity

Yalavarthi Nagaraju, . Mahadevaswamy, R. C. Gundappagol, Nagaraj M. Naik

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 561-571
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230338

Under high salinity conditions, plant growth promoting halophilic bacteria (PGPHB) can thrive and greatly encourage plant growth. The use of PGPHB is minimal and less discussed in sustainable agriculture and abiotic stress control. The focus of the current investigation is to improve the growth of black gram by inoculating with of halophilic bacteria under salinity stress. Four PGPHB bacteria, viz., Bacillus safensis strain Lewis_Bac_3 (HB-5), Pseudomonas stutzeri strain MN1 (HB-13), Staphylococcus xylosus strain C5 (HB-18) and Pseudomonas sp. (GP-21: reference strain) were inoculated to black gram seeds to evaluate their plant growth promoting ability at 4 dS m-1 and pH >8.5. Increase in root length, plant height, and number of branches have been reported in consortium treatment (T8), indicating that salinity does not affected black gram photosynthesis and nutrient absorption in consortium treatment. Corroborating evidence revealed higher nodulation and total nitrogen and phosphorous content in the same treatment, in comparison with control. Due to salinity stress, decreased blooming was reported in control, conversely, consortium treatment showed 29.3 flowers/plant. A positive correlation with yield was demonstrated by number of pods and seeds per pod of black gram. In addition, there is a strong association between pods per plant and the amount of flowers per plant, nutrient content, and length of root. The decrease in control plot yield was due to shoot and root development resulting from insufficient nutrients availability. In this study we also found positive correlation between% P in plant and yield. Hence, we conclude that PGPH bacteria helps in the reduction of salt stress and significantly increase black gram growth and yield under mild salinity stress.

Open Access Short Communication

Participatory GIS Mode of Sustainable Surface and Groundwater Management Practices Involving NGOs in India

L. Murali Krishnan, N. Kumarasamy, K. C. Sivabalan, S. Oliyarasan, R. Ravikumar, Sukanaya Barua, M. V. KarunaJeba Mary, K. Ragavendra, K. Kannan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 602-608
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230343

Groundwater resources plays important role in agro-biodiversity and environmental conservation perspectives. Surface and groundwater have played a significant role in the agrarian economics in the developing economics particularly in India. At the same time, the tropical and sub-tropical India is the largest groundwater user in the world through unregulated construction and utilization of millions of private wells in the last five decades exploited groundwater availability and sustainable regeneration issues. Hence, in order to improve the surface and groundwater conservation, regeneration, management and protection for sustainable utilization of Groundwater requires a participatory and coordinated action. Nationwide, many national and regional Non Government Organisations (NGOs) are functioning in the line of effective surface and ground water management the community. The recent Geographical Information Systems (GIS) based technologies also supports for drought mitigation and climate change adaptation. This study highlights the important NGOs led sustainable Groundwater management practices under various local hydro geological settings and agro economic realities for up scaling the community driven sustainable Groundwater management.

Open Access Minireview Article

How States Can Drive the Next Era of Climate Management in India: Perspectives in Mainstreaming Climate Actions from Gujarat

Shanal Pradhan, Shwetal Shah

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 255-263
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230302

At the September 2019 UN climate action summit, India vowed to upscale its climate action by focusing on a low carbon pathway through renewables and other forms of clean energy, adopting sustainable mobility, preserving water, and securing finances for this transition. Implementing and up scaling these actions form an influential agenda under India’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to the Paris Agreement. The emphasis on national determination and its success strongly hinges on the ambition of the states and the seriousness it has for driving climate actions. The initial step is to streamline such activities at sub-national levels to achieve climate change goals. Indian states, like countries, are too at different starting points with dissimilarities in their economic and developmental interests. Climate priorities took center stage for a few states, while many others have not been too aspirational due to misplaced prerogatives and differing capabilities. Thus, a pertinent question which arises is, could cross-pollination of ideas and innovations push states for concrete climate actions? This paper discusses a few prominent initiatives from the progressive state of Gujarat that could facilitate the exchange of climate measures in other states.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Weather Parameters and Thermal Time Approach on Green Gram at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

S. A. Naveen, S. Kokilavani, S. P. Ramanathan, G. A. Dheebakaran, S. Anitta Fanish

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230278

An investigation was carried out at the Agro Climate Research Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, on the effect of weather parameters on the green gram yield sown at various sowing dates during the rabi season of 2019. At various sowing dates, two green gram cultivars, VBN 4 and ADT 3, were sown. For both cultivars, the phonological crop length decreased with delays in sowing dates beyond October 23rd. The yield of green gram sown on 23rd October was significantly higher than the crops sown on 30th October and 6th November. The weather parameters Maximum Temperature (Tmax), Diurnal Range (Trange), Bright Sunshine Hours (BSS), Relative Humidity (RH I), Wind Speed (WS) were found to be negatively correlated with seed yield whereas Minimum Temperature (Tmin), Relative Humidity (RH II), Vapour Pressure (VP) were found to be positively correlated with the yield of green gram. The accurate prediction of green gram yield could be done with the maximum temperature, bright sunshine hours, wind speed and with thermal indices especially hygrothermal unit II with 82 percent, accuracy level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genotype x Environmental Interaction for Growth and Yield Parameters of Tree Mulberry Genotypes in Different Seasons

B. N. Ahalya, . Chikkalingaiah, H. D. Jayaramu, S. Chandrashekar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 6-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230279

Aims: To identify the stable genotypes across the seasons for different yield and its contributing traits.

Study Design: Field experimental design was used

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in different seasons during 2017-19 at Department of Sericulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore.

Methodology: The present study comprised of six mulberry genotypes viz., MI-012, MI-79, MI-21, MI-139, MI-516, ME-05 and two popular check varieties V1 and M5.

Results: The mean squares due to seasons was significant for total shoot length (cm), number of leaves per plant, leaf yield per plant (g), ten fresh leaf weight (g), leaf moisture content (%) at harvest, leaf moisture retention capacity (%) at 6 and 9 hrs after harvest. Analysis of variance indicated high significance of mean sum of squares due to season for number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, leaf yield per plant, single leaf area, moisture content and moisture retention capacity at 6 and 9 hrs after harvest of leaf. Further, it could be observed that variance due to seasons (linear) were highly significant for number of branches per plant, total shoot length, number of leaves per plant, ten fresh leaf weight, leaf yield per plant, single leaf area, moisture content and moisture retention capacity at 6 and 9 hrs after harvest of leaf. Whereas, variance due to G х S (linear) was non significant for shoot height, internodal distance, number of leaves per plant, ten fresh leaf weight, leaf yield per plant, moisture content and moisture retention capacity at 6 and 9 hrs after harvest of leaf. Variance due to pooled deviation was highly significant for shoot height, number of branches per plant, total shoot length, internodal distance, number of leaves per plant, ten fresh leaf weight, single leaf area, moisture content and moisture retention capacity at 6 and 9 hrs after harvest of leaf. Whereas, variance due to pooled deviation was non significant for leaf yield per plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Socio-Economic Status of Mango Growers in Bijnor District of Western Uttar Pradesh

Desh Pal Singh, Satya Prakash, Vikas Malik, Krishna Kumar Singh, Narendra Singh, Shakuntala Gupta, Prerna Sharma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 13-19
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230280

Mango is a tropical and subtropical fruit crop grown in India over an area of 2258.13 thousand hectares with production of 21822.32 metric tons. The total area under mango cultivation in Uttar Pradesh is 265.62 thousand hectares with 4551.83 metric tons production 2017-18. In Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh, mango grown 5.91 thousand hectares area with 118.09 metric tons production of mango in the same period. Mango grown in diverse agro climatic conditions faces differential biotic and abiotic stress limiting the production and productivity of mango that in influenced the economic condition of mango Growers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the socio-economic status of mango growers in Bijnor district of Western Uttar Pradesh. The result of the analysis shows that 39.09 percent of respondent fall within the age range of 46 to 60 years,  general caste (53.64 percent), education level-literate (50.91 percent), family type-joint family (69.09 percent), family member-4 to 6 members (67.27), land holding size-above 5 hectare (50.91 percent), irrigation facilities-own (84.55 percent), 58.18 percent of respondents were engaged in farming activities only and 25.00 percent respondent were doing farming with business.  38.18 percent respondent got more than Rs 300000.00 annual income,  36.82 percent respondent have their own pumping set and electric motor and 53.64 respondent has not participated in any technical programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Zones of Turmeric and Coriander Cultivation in Tamilnadu

N. Kowshika, T. Sankar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 20-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230281

The research paper attempts to delineate district level efficient cropping zones of turmeric and coriander over Tamilnadu (2001-2015) after analysing the trend on cultivation of both the crops at state level (1985-2015). Trend analysis of area and production revealed that both were increasing for turmeric and decreasing for coriander; but productivity had a downscale with turmeric and an upscale with coriander. Delineation of Efficient Cropping Zones of Coriander resulted in Tiruchirappali, Perambalur, Virudhunagar, Cuddalore, Ramanathapuram and Thoothukudi districts as better performers, whereas, Erode, Namakkal, Coimbatore, Salem and Dharmapuri disricts were excelling in Turmeric cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of F2 Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Segregants Derived from a Cross the BPT-5204 / IR-64Drt1

Anjani Kumar, D. N. Singh, Krishna Prasad, Avinash Pandey

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 31-47
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230282

The present investigation was carried out with F2 plants from a cross between two parents i.e., BPT-5204 and IR-64Drt1. The selection of parents for crosses was made based on genotypes that were tolerant and susceptible to drought condition. BPT-5204 was drought susceptible and IR-64Drt1 was also tolerant to drought. In this experiment adequate amount of variability was detected for grain yield per plant and its components among 324 segregants evaluated under augmented randomized block design II in normal field condition. The analysis of variance for grain yield and its attributing characters among blocks, treatments, entries, checks and checks vs entries revealed presence of significant variation in the segregants studied. However, with respect to checks, non-significant differences were recorded for only L/B ratio. The results indicated that among 324 rice genotypes including checks, only 9 rice genotypes expressed higher yield compared to seven checks varieties under normal field condition. The segregants S-51, S-122, S-135, S-195, S-199, S-210, S-219, S-222, S-251 were top ranking genotypes with respect to all checks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changing Rainfall and Swinging Tea Production: The Correlates and Perception of Social Ecology of Tea Garden

Dristika Jairu, S. K. Acharya, Anwesha Mandal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 48-54
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230283

Tea is the second most commonly consumed beverages, after water, across the globe. However, the quality and aroma of the produce largely depends on different climatic factors like temperature, rainfall, altitude etc. Even a slight alteration in these climatic factors, affects the quality and production adversely. Climate change, a global challenge, is a big threat to the tea industry as well as its workers. With degraded quality and swinging production due to changing rainfall and temperature, hundreds of tea gardens have been closed down in the past few decades, putting livelihood of thousands of tea workers to question. This paper attempts to find how the changing rainfall and swinging tea production varies with the profile characteristics of the tea workers. The study was conducted in the Darjeeling, Kalimpong and Dooars districts of West Bengal with 90 randomly selected tea workers from nine randomly selected tea gardens, three each belonging to three different altitudes. All the results has been analyzed using statistical tools of correlation coefficient, multiple and stepwise regression and path analysis. The results shows that treatment and mobility are two important variable explaining the variation in perception on change in rainfall and perception on tea production respectively. It has also been found that variables like income, treatment and garments have been reliable predictors for estimating the change in rainfall whereas the variable mobility exhibits a positive and significant relationship with perceived change in tea production. The regression analysis showed that treatment has explained 19.4 per cent of total variation in case of perceived change in rainfall and mobility has explained 16 per cent of total variance in case of perceived change in tea production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Groundwater-river Interactions Using Hydrochemical Tracers in Fissured Rock: Case of the Lobo Watershed at Nibéhibé (Central-West, Côte d’Ivoire)

Gningnéri Souleymane Ouattara, Brou Dibi, Arthur Brice Konan- Waidhet, Jules Mangoua Oi Mangoua, Bamory Kamagate

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 55-66
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230284

Water is a vital resource for all populations. However, there are warning signs that the water from the Lobo River used by SODECI to supply drinking water to the population is declining in quantity during the dry season and its quality is becoming poor due to climate variability and anthropogenic activities. However, the river is able to maintain a certain flow, probably with the contribution of groundwater. It is therefore a question of whether there is really a connection between surface water and groundwater. The aim of this study is to characterize the groundwater-river interactions based on the physico-chemical parameters of the Lobo watershed in Nibéhibé. The approach adopted is a coupled statistical-geochemical approach applied on data from two sampling campaigns (dry and rainy season). This coupled approach consisted, on the one hand, in understanding the chemical specificities within the water classes using the piper diagram and, on the other hand, in classifying the waters according to their physico-chemical similarity and highlighting the phenomena at the origin of the water mineralization using the Kohonen self-organized map (SOM). The results obtained from the piper diagram show that in both the wet and dry seasons, the chemical signature of the waters remains controlled by two main hydrochemical facies: the chlorinated calcium-magnesium nitrate hydrofacies and the bicarbonate calcium-magnesium hydrofacies. Kohonen's self-organized map has established that the mineralization of groundwater, under natural conditions, comes from the nature of the rocks crossed during infiltration and from the contact time between water and minerals. This work provides managers with decision-support tools for planning and searching for groundwater in support of surface water to reinforce the drinking water supply of the populations in this watershed. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Livelihood Dependence on Highland Pastoralism (Doksa) in Trans-Himalayan Region of Zanskar, Ladakh

Anup Raj, Dorjey Angchuk, M. A. Islam

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 67-76
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230285

A unique system of short-distance vertical transhumance pastoralism has evolved in the Trans-Himalayan region of Zanskar, Ladakh in response to short summer cropping season and vast alpine pasturelands. Cattle are taken to highland pastures for three-and-a-half month in summer season and kept in temporary settlements locally called as doksa. The study investigated the herding practices, migration pattern, livestock production and livelihood dependence on highland pastoralism. Purposive sampling technique was administered to withdraw the sample of 6 doksas and the data were collected from both secondary and primary sources. Results revealed that 31 herders in the 6 doksas possessed a total of 794 milk producing zhomos. The doksas produced 3 lakh litres of milk, 18000 kg of butter and the same amount of dried protein cake (chhurpey). The herders earned incomes of ₹ 122500.00 and ₹ 59375.00 by trading 300-350 kg of butter and 450-500 kg of chhurpey, respectively with employment opportunities of 3100 woman-days/year. The poor living conditions at doksa and unavailability of alternative economic opportunities for women herders has threatened its continuation for cash generation, food and livelihood security and socioeconomic development. Therefore, livelihood diversification using alternative resources is imperative to keep pace with current development and future challenges.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Weed Management Practices on Weed Dynamics and Productivity of Blackgram

Lipi Meher, Satyananda Jena, Manoranjan Satapathy, Bishnupriya Patra

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 77-84
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230286

A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2018 at the Agronomy Main Research Farm, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar to study the effect of Integrated weed management in blackgram. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with a total of eight treatments replicated thrice. Important predominant grass, sedge and broad-leaved weeds found in the experimental field were Eleusine indica (12.6%), Cyperus rotundus (8.9%) and Celosia argentea (9.7%), respectively. Severe weed competition in kharif blackgram recorded a yield loss of 66.7% in this experiment. Post Emergence application of Imazethapyr @ 0.75 kg/ha at 120 Days after sowing followed by one Hand Weeding at 30 DAS recorded lowest weed density (25.33 no./m2), weed dry weight (38.98 g/m2); highest weed control efficiency (83.4%) and lowest weed index (7.0%) at harvest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a High Quality, Rapid, Efficient and Economical DNA Extraction Protocol from Climate Resilient Pearl Millet Crop Without Liquid Nitrogen

Supriya Ambawat, Subaran Singh, C. Tara Satyavathi, Rajbala Meena, R. C. Meena, Vikas Khandelwal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 85-94
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230287

Extraction of good quality genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from plants is a major prerequisite for molecular biology experiments. An efficient genomic DNA protocol must be simple, fast and cost effective with high yield and purity. Presence of polyphenols, polysaccharides and secondary metabolites in some plants hamper with DNA extraction making it a very laborious, difficult and time consuming procedure. Here, we portrayed a modified protocol based on the cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method to isolate DNA from climate resilient pearl millet leaf tissues having higher amount of polysaccharides. It also excludes the use of expensive chemicals and equipments like proteinase K, liquid nitrogen and tissue lyser. This method includes extraction of DNA using a buffer (pH 8.0) containing 200 mM Tris-HCl, 20 mM ethylenediamine tetracetic acid (EDTA),1.4 M NaCl, 2% CTAB, 2% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and 1.0 % β-mercaptoethanol followed by purification of DNA with phenol, chloroform, isoamyl alcohol and finally precipitation of DNA by sodium acetate and isopropanol. Good quality genomic DNA with sharp and clear bands was obtained from 48 pearl millet genotypes using this protocol. The yield of DNA varied from 105.2 to 328.3 ng/μl. The purity of DNA sample ranged from 1.74 to 1.95 based on the absorbance at A260/A280 ratio indicating that it’s free from ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein contamination. PCR analysis using simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers exhibited consistent and reliable amplification products ranging from 150 to 650 bp.This study reveals a fast, simple, efficient, specific, reproducible, reliable and cost effective method for extraction of DNA from small to large number of plant samples amenable to PCR amplification and could be stored for longer duration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Planning Bus Transit Unit in Sprawling Townships; Khurdha Road Junction, Odisha; India

Siba Prasad Mishra, Chandan Kumar, Kumar Ch. Sethi, Mohammad Siddique

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 95-109
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230288

The customized buses (CBs) is a novel approach of community transportations at present and have become popular mode of expanded municipal conveyance, modernized, gorgeous and traffic services. The CB is planned by combining long term demand and passenger’s comforts and necessities. Based on analysis of the passengers travel data from inland and abroad at a focused point, the development of the CB is to be planned and proposed in a small town like Khurdha Road Junction (Jatni) in Odisha.. Present study points out the glitches linked with the operation and maintenance, expansion of CBs depending upon increase in numbers of travelers and other factors like stop assortment, line plan, schedules, and the impact of the proposed new public bus transit system. Traffic excellence factors, like average speed, delays, traffic jamming, travel time, and cost were considered while planning for the new transit bus terminal. The small towns around the smart city Bhubaneswar is gazing at a grave commuting conundrum. The planning and construction of the bus transit at Khurdha Road junction (Jatni) is developed to cope with the sprawling township and save the roads from severe traffic jam. Economic analysis with environmental Impact assessment of the project is done.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Lockdown amid COVID-19 Pandemic on Temperature and Rainfall in Sub-Himalayan Ranges of Jammu & Kashmir Union Territory, India

Mahender Singh, Vishaw Vikas, Sushmita M. Dadhich, Rohit Sharma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 110-125
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230289

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lockdown on temperature and rainfall in sub-Himalayan ranges i.e. Foothills of NW Shivaliks and Pir Panjal ranges of Jammu & Kashmir Union Territory, India. The statistical analysis inferred that due to the implementation of complete lockdown in region amid COVID-19 pandemic has brought reductions in day temperature in foothills of NW Shivaliks by 10.29% and 2.20% compared to year 2018 and 2019 respectively. While under Pir Panjal range the reduction in day temperature was found to be significant by 6.08% and 4.13%. Also evaluation of night temperature values revealed the significant reductions by 10.29% and 2.20% as compared to year 2018 and 2019 in foothills of NW Shivaliks and 10.37%, 5.93% in Pir Panjal. The Rainfall also increased in both sub-Himalayan ranges during this period and it was >100% and 70.25% under foothills of NW Shivaliks, 34.6% and 100% under Pir Panjal range. Hence the present study highlighted a plausible impact of lockdown on the weather parameters of the region, making it an efficient tool to mitigate the pace of regional changing climatic patterns for long term sustainability, productivity and for better soil, plant and animal health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Vermicomposting and Composting of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) on Growth, Yield and Quality of Chickpea

C. Chetankumar, P. H. Vaidya, S. P. Zade

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 126-136
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230290

The present investigation was undertaken with an objective to understand the effect of municipal solid waste (MSW) vermicompost and compost on growth, yield and quality of chickpea. The experiment was laid in randomized block design with three replications and seven treatments  viz, T1 - RDF, T2 - RDF + vermicompost of MSW @ 2.5 t ha-1, T3 - RDF + vermicompost of MSW @ 5 t ha-1, T4 - RDF + vermicompost of MSW @ 7.5 t ha-1, T5 - RDF + compost of MSW @ 2.5 t ha-1, T6 -compost of MSW @ 5 t ha-1, T7 -compost of MSW @ 7.5 t ha-1. The field experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Latur farm during the Rabi season 2016-2017. The recommended dose of fertilizer (25:50:00 N: P: K) and MSW vermicompost and compost was applied at the time of sowing. The results of field experiment revealed that the maximum availability of macro and micronutrients in soil, growth attributes viz. plant height and number of branches in all growth stages of chickpea were found at application of 7.5 tones of MSW vermicompost ha-1 along with 100% RDF (25:50:00 NPK) followed by application of 7.5 tones MSW compost ha-1 along with 100% RDF and which was significantly increased with increased levels of MSW vermicompost and compost. Similar trend was observed in case of yield and quality parameters viz., protein content of chickpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Screening of Iron Efficient Groundnut Cultivars for Calcareous Soil

V. S. Reddy Kiran Kalyan, S. Meena, D. Jawahar, S. Karthikeyan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 137-148
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230291

Aims: In the present study twenty groundnut genotypes are evaluated for their resistance to IDC and to identify feasible indicators for screening iron (Fe) efficient groundnut genotypes in calcareous soils based on the morphophysiological parameters at 45 days after sowing (DAS).

Study Design: The experiment was replicated three times with two iron treatments (+Fe and – Fe) in a randomized block design

Place and Duration of Study: Field screening of genotypes was carried during Kharif 2019 at Thondamuthur block, Coimbatore district (10°59’31.9” N 76°47’15.4 E), Tamil Nadu, India.

Methodology: The randomized field experiment was comprised of two major factors, i) Fe status (with Fe, without Fe), and ii) genotypes (twenty) with differential IDC response. Seven morpho-physiological parameters associated with IDC resistance were evaluated in groundnut genotypes.

Results: Under Fe deficit conditions, IDC efficient genotypes recorded significantly higher shoot dry weight, root dry weight, root volume, SPAD values, active Fe, catalase activity, peroxidase activity, and higher yield compared to susceptible ones because of better Fe utilization efficiency. The various morpho-physiological parameters studied showed a significant correlation with pod yield. The four genotypes viz., TAG 24, CO 7, VRI 8, and VRI-16086 were efficient under both sufficient and deficit conditions under calcareousness. The stepwise multiple regression shows the peroxidase (POD) accounts for 71 % under +Fe condition and SPAD accounted for 66 percent in -Fe in predicting the pod yield. Hence, POD and SPAD can be used as indicators for selecting Fe efficient groundnut cultivars for calcareous soil.

Conclusion: The findings indicate that SPAD values are most optimal for the initial large-scale screening of groundnut genotypes for tolerance to IDC, whereas peroxidase may be used to validate established genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Climate Resilience and Adoption of Cocoa Agroforestry in the Forest-Savannah Transition Zone of Ghana

Ishmael Hashmiu

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 149-161
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230292

Aims: Agroforestry is globally acknowledged as an essential component of climate-smart agriculture. Nevertheless, agroforestry adoption is low, and research is lacking on how farmers perceive the climate-related benefits of agroforestry and the implications of such perceptions on adoption. This paper assessed farmer perspectives on the effectiveness of agroforestry in enhancing the climate resilience of cocoa, and the extent to which such perceptions (in conjunction with socioeconomic factors) influence farmers’ decision to adopt cocoa agroforestry or otherwise.

Study Design: A cross-sectional survey design involving households practicing different cocoa landuse systems (agroforestry vs. full-sun monoculture) was used.

Methodology: Data were collected using structured questionnaire administered to 240 randomly selected cocoa-farming household heads.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place in 12 rural communities in the Forest-Savannah Transition Zone of Ghana from March to September 2017.

Results: Findings indicated that while farmers unanimously acknowledged the effectiveness of cocoa agroforestry in enhancing resilience to excessive dry season temperatures, their perceptions in terms of resilience to drought differed, and were largely shaped by the kind of shade trees integrated. Overall, the majority of household heads perceived agroforestry to be the most beneficial strategy for enhancing the climate resilience of farmers. This perception significantly influenced households’ decision to adopt cocoa agroforestry, in conjunction with socioeconomic factors such as social network, sex of the household head, sex distribution of the household, and off-farm income.

Conclusion: Social network and farmers’ perception of the effectiveness of agroforestry in enhancing climate resilience are the key determinants of cocoa agroforestry adoption in the FSTZ of Ghana. Farmers who perceive agroforestry to be the most beneficial climate-resilient strategy in agriculture are more likely to adopt cocoa agroforestry. Social network can be used to enhance cocoa agroforestry adoption by serving as an effective communication channel for spreading information about the climate-related benefits of shade trees among farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pre Harvest Forecasting of Kharif Rice Yield Using Weather Parameters for Strategic Decision Making in Agriculture

Y. A. Garde, V. S. Thorat, R. R. Pisal, V. T. Shinde

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 162-170
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230293

In the recent year, pre harvest crop yield forecasting has been a topic of interest for producers, policy makers, government and agricultural related organizations. Pre harvest crop forecasting is important for national food security. Construction of appropriate yield forecast promotes the output of scenario analyses of crop production at a farm level, which enables suitable tactical and strategic decision making by the farmer. Indeed, considerable benefits apply when seasonal forecasting of crop performance is applied across the whole value chain in crop production. Timely and accurate yield forecast is essential for crop production, marketing, storage and transportation decisions as well as for managing the risk associated with these activities. In present manuscript efforts were made for development of pre harvest forecast models by using different statistical approaches viz. multiple linear regression (MLR), discriminant function analysis and ordinal logistic regression. The study utilized the crop yield data and corresponding weekly weather data of last 30 years (1985-2014). The model development was carried out at 35th and 36th SMW (Standard Meteorological Week) for getting forecast well in advance of actual harvesting of the field crop. The study revealed that method of discriminant function analysis gave best pre harvest forecast as compare to remaining developed models. It was observed high value of Adj. R2= 0.94, low value of RMSE= 164.24 and MAPE= 5.30. The model can be used in different crop for reliable and dependable forecast and these forecasts have significant value in agricultural planning and policy making.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Institutional and Farmer Based Climate Change Adaptation Measures on Crop Production in Mavuria Ward, Mbeere South Sub-county, Embu County, Kenya

Samuel K. Nyaga, Geofrey K. Gathungu, Justin Nyaga, Jafford R. Njeru

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 171-182
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230294

Africa is under pressure from climate stresses and is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In Kenya, agriculture is the backbone of the economy making it an important contributor to food security of rural households. Currently crop productivity is being affected by continued climate variations and decline in soil fertility. Adaptation to climate change requires to be given high and urgent priority for sustainable crop production. A study was conducted in Mavuria ward, Mbeere South Sub-County, Embu County to evaluate the effects of climate change adaptation on crop production. The study used both descriptive and experimental research designs. The primary data on adaptation measures was collected from farmers and institutions using questionnaires. In the data analysis, descriptive statistics were used to organize the climate data and that of the respondents into frequencies. Further, a Pearson correlation test was done to determine the relationship between farmer and institutional based mechanisms on adaptation to climate change at α=0.05. The main adaptation mechanisms identified were soil fertility improvement, soil and water conservation, early planting, pest and disease control, provision of certified seeds, and awareness creation. In view of these findings, the study recommends continuous implementation of these measures that can help strengthen farmers and institutional adaptation mechanisms towards climate change for improved crop production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Comparable Crops to Maize in Rain Fed Alfisols of Telangana State

Y. Siva Lakshmi, D. Sravanthi, R. Susheela, A. V. Ramanjaneyulu, P. Raghu Rami Reddy

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 183-192
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230295

Tornala village of Siddipet District (Previously part of Medak district) in Telangana State comes under low rainfall area with an average annual rainfall of 787.6 mm and experiences extreme seasonal variation in rainfall. A new Agricultural Research Station was established in 2014 to meet the agricultural needs of adjoining areas of Siddipet District. Maize is one of the principal crops of the Siddipet District grown in light soils under rain fed situation. Erratic behaviour of rainfall results in moisture stress of both kinds (excess and deficit) during maize growing season which is leading to frequent crop failures. Millets and pulses are gaining importance which can be grown very well under rainfed situation. To create awareness among the farmers about the importance of other drought tolerant crops suitable for the situation and also to promote drought resistant and short duration, nutritional rich pulse crops in place of maize was the primary objective in conducting this trial. Keeping the above in view, a field experiment was conducted to identify a suitable crop comparable/ alternative to maize with a view to reduce the risk of crop failure under rain fed conditions and to realize the nutritive value of millets. Nine crops viz. Bajra, Ragi, Korra, Maize, Green gram, Pigeon pea, Cotton, Castor Hybrid (PCH 111) and Castor variety (Kranthi) were evaluated for three years. Yields of all the crops were converted into maize equivalent yields and economics was worked out. Pooled means were worked out for yield as well as for economic returns. Results showed that higher maize equivalent yield was recorded in Pigeon pea (4354 kg ha-1) followed by Bajra (2804 kg ha-1), ragi (2604 kg ha-1), cotton (2344 kg ha-1) and green gram (2075 kg ha-1).  In terms of net returns pigeon pea recorded highest mean net returns (39080 Rs ha-1) followed by bajra (25553 Rs ha-1) and ragi (20614 Rs ha-1) whereas highest mean benefit cost ratio was with bajra (2.44) followed by pigeon pea (2.41) and ragi (2.05) compared to maize (2297 Rs ha-1 and 1.08 respectively). Hence, from the study it can be recommended that Bajra, Pigeon pea and Ragi can be grown in place of maize in low rain fall areas of Siddipet (Dt) under rain fed situation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eco-Friendly Management Practices on Quality Characteristics of Transplanted Rice (Oryza sativa L.) as Influenced by Organic Manures

R. Ajaykumar, K. Sivasabari

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 193-201
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230296

A field experiment was conducted at the farm of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during kharif season (Spring) to study the effect of eco-friendly management practices on quality characteristics of transplanted lowland rice. Rice CO(R) 48 was used as a test variety. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with three replications and nine treatments which are T1 –100 % N through dhaincha + balance P and K through inorganic fertilizers, T2 – 50 % N through dhaincha + balance N, P and K through inorganic fertilizers, T3 –100 % N through vermicompost + balance P & K through inorganic fertilizers, T4 –50 % N through vermicompost + balance N, P and K through inorganic fertilizers, T5 –100 % NPK (150 : 50 : 50 kg ha-1) through inorganic fertilizers, T6 –100 % NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 12.5 t farmyard manure, T7 – 100 % NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 6.25 t dhaincha, T8 – 100 % NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 5 t vermicompost, T9 – Control. The results revealed that higher quality characteristics of rice including physical parameters (grain length, grain breadth and L/B ratio), chemical parameters (moisture, protein, carbohydrate, amylose, fat and fibre) and cooking quality were obtained with application of 100 % N through dhaincha + balance P & K through inorganic fertilizers followed by application of 100 % NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 6.25 t dhaincha and it was par with application of 100 per cent NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 5 t ha-1 vermicompost and 100 per cent NPK through inorganic fertilizers + 12.5 t farmyard manure. Lower quality characteristics of rice were registered in absolute control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Solar Operated Walking Type Power Weeder

A. R. Kachhot, M. S. Dulawat, J. M. Makavana, U. D. Dobariya, A. L. Vadher

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 211-223
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230298

Power weeders are most commonly used machines for removing weeds, to prevent them from competing with main crops. However, these power weeders are power by either petrol or diesel engine. With the shortage of fossil fuel, its unavailability in rural areas and for reducing emission due to burning of fossil fuel, an alternative energy powered weeder is very much required. As solar energy was very available and weeding usually carried out during daytime, hence an attempt made to develop a solar energy operated weeder for dryland. It comprised of a powering system and a blade assembly. The power source included solar photovoltaic panel, solar charge controller, battery, motor charge controller and BLDC motor. The sweep type blade was used, which is mounted behind the main frame and power was given to the rear wheels by 750 watt 48 volt BLDC motor using a chain and sprocket drive. The performance of weeder was evaluated at three different forward speed of S1, S2 and S3 is 1.0 - 1.5, 1.5 - 2.0 and 2.0 – 2.5 km/h respectively. Total weight of weeder is 88 kg and total force required to push the weeder at 2.5 km/h was 107 kg (730 watt).  Four batteries, each of size 12 V, 12 amp, powered the motor. Two solar panels were use to charge the battery, each with a power of 150 watts, and it takes 2 h to completely charge the battery while weeder is in steady state. The battery was discharge in 1.3 h in field when solar panel disconnected. With simultaneous charging and discharging of battery, this solar power system could run the weeder for 7.3 h. The developed weeder was teste in groundnut crop having 600 mm row-to-row spacing up to 30 to 40 mm depth with a field capacity of S1, S2 and S3 was 0.042, 0.059 and 0.075 ha/h. The weeding and field efficiency for S1, S2 and S3 were found to be 90.94, 84.69, 83.50% and 79.21, 83.97, 85.68% respectively. The effect of forward speed S1, S2 and S3 on Energy expenditure rate and heart rate was found to be 8.23, 9.27 and 10.34 kJ/min or 94, 98 and 50 bpm respectively. The plant damage increased with increasing forward speed of operation, Hence the developed solar operated walking type power weeder could be used successfully by the a small scale farmer for carrying out weeding operations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimum Allocation of Water and Land Resource for Maximizing Farm Income of Jabalpur District, Madhya Pradesh

Vinay Kumar Gautam, M. K. Awasthi, Ayushi Trivedi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 224-232
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230299

The continuous decrease and irrational use of water resources is the key issue for the proper application of water resources in tribal areas of Jabalpur district. This study attempts to propose a new aspect of optimum allocation of land & water resources in Jabalpur District. The minimum cultivated area that ensures food requirement and land constraint have a direct impact on water resources allocation. To conduct an accurate program for land and water resource allocation for water deficit area a multi- constraint linear programming model (LPM) was developed by implanting land resource as a constraint on water resources allocation which has to be considered by the demand of water resources in the agriculture sector. The result shows that increase in major crops area like rice, wheat, gram, maize and oilseeds crop areas against the reduction in sorghum, lentil, and sugarcane. Existing cropping intensity of the district was 150 %. To achieve the maximum profit per unit of land i.e. cropping intensity more than 200% for district, therefore an extensive measures was made for district to fix out the water demand supply gap for agriculture. In this study a user friendly Linear programming software was used to develop a model for optimum allocation of resources under seasonal and multi-crop condition for Jabalpur district. The net annual profit is increased by 9.1% under optimal allocation conditions. The sensitivity analysis of model parameter shows that the superior price of crop is the most sensitive parameter followed by the crop area. The results obtained from this study will definitely help policy makers to decide how to properly utilize and promote the water and land resources for the available area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Infestation of Ostracoda Vargula tsujii (Myodocopa: Cypridinidae) in Lethrinus ornatus and Carangoides gymnostethus from Pamban, Southeast Coast India and Its Variation in Prevalence and Abundance with Respect to Seasonality

S. Jayapraba, A. Gopalakrishnan, M. Yosuva

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 233-246
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230300

Ostracoda is a diverse group of aquatic crustacean and often infest the fishes and cause huge economic losses. In the present study, the infestation of Ostracoda Vargula tsuji in major food fishes Lethrinus ornatus and Carangoides gymnostethus was studied. A detailed investigation by using biotechnological and molecular tools, it was identified that Ostracoda present in these fishes was Vargula tsujii and the sample was deposited with GeneBank (NCBI MN889442).  An attempt was also made to study the abundance and degree of infestation for different seasonality viz post-monsoon, monsoon, presmonson and summer during 2019.  Weekly samples were made from Pamban (9.27°N, 79.22°E), Gulf of Mannar, fish landing center and reported the monthly average values.  Total 1405 ± 296.5 of L. ornatus were examined during Jan-Dec 2019, of which 285.5 ±70.2 (20.31%) were found infested with Ostracoda  and in the case of Carangoides gymnostethus, out of total 1235.9 ± 205.2 fishes examined, 201.4 ± 47.2 fishes were found with infestation i.e. 16.30% but varying with seasonality.  Both L. ornatus and C.  gymnostethuse fishes had V. tsujii attacked to their gills at a significant level (p < 0.05),  was an incidence of occurrence of infestation of V. tsujii in their buccal cavity of the intestinal track but not to the significant level.  The infestation of V. tsujii in fishes from Indian water is reported for the first time and its prevalence and abundance level for seasonality are presented in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Air Pollution Tolerance Index for Selected Species of Plants in Roadside Highways at Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

Rahul Nishad, Harsh Bodh Paliwal, Makhan Singh Karada, Dheer Agnihotri

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 247-254
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230301

In recent years air pollution is one of the biggest problems in the world. Owing to the transboundary dispersion of contaminants around the world, air pollution has its own peculiarities. In a much planned urban setup industrial pollution takes a backseat and cooler admission takes the president's as the major cause of urban air pollution in the present investigation your pollution torrents index was calculated for various plant species growing around the Allahabad Highway. Five plants available commonly in all locations were selected for the present research namely Azadirachta indica (Neem), Delonix regia (Gulmohar), Saraca asoca (Ashok), Ficus benghalensis (Bargad), Ficus religiosa (Pepal). Using normal procedures, ascorbic acid, leaf extract pH, overall chlorophyll, relative water content and air quality tolerance index were analysed. Both plants tested in both areas have been shown to be pollution-sensitive, varying from 02.29 to 12.53. No pollution tolerant organisms studied were found. The maximum value of pH was 7.8 found in Neem tree spp. (Azadirachta indica) in Rewa Road (NH-35) and the minimum value of pH was 5.9 found in Gulmohar tree spp. (Delonix regia) in Varanasi Road (NH-19), The maximum value of RWC (89.99 %) found in Ashok tree spp. (Saraca asoca) and the minimum value of RWC (58.64 %) found in Neem tree spp. (Azadirachta indica) in Mirzapur Road site (NH-76). The maximum value of Total Chlorophyll Content was 1.55 mg/g found in Ashok tree spp. (Saraca asoca) in Mirzapur Road (NH-76) and the minimum value of Total Chlorophyll Content was 0.71 mg/g found in Bargad tree spp. (Ficus benghalensis) in Control Site and Rewa Road (NH-35). The maximum value of Ascorbic Acid (1.07 mg/g) found in Ashok tree spp. (Saraca asoca) in Rewa Road site (NH-35) and the minimum value of Ascorbic Acid (0.39 mg/g) found in Pepal tree spp. (Ficus religiosa) in Mirzapur Road site (NH-76) The variance may be due to alternative biochemical parameters being reflected. Plant can filter the air through aerial elements especially through their twigs stem leaves air pollution management is the better manage by the afforestation program. Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) is an intrinsic quality of tree to control air pollution problem which is currently of major concern of local urban locality. The trees having higher tolerance index rate or tolerant towards air pollution and can be used as a major component to reduce air pollution whereas the tree having less tolerance index can be an indicator to know the rate of air pollution. Hence, it is essential to protect the plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield and Economics of Brinjal (Solanum melongena) as Affected by Different Mulching Types and Its Effect on Soil Moisture Content and Weed Dynamics in Post Flood Situation of Coastal Odisha, India

P. Mishra, T. R. Sahoo, F. H. Rahman, L. M. Garnayak, A. Phonglosa, N. Mohapatra, R. Bhattacharya, S. N. Mishra

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 264-270
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230303

A field experiment was conducted at the farmer’s field at Ratanpur village of Marshaghai block of Kendrapara, Odisha, India to evaluate effect of different mulching practices on weed population, moisture content in soil and yield of brinjal. The village is an adopted village by Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kendrapara, in which various activities in agriculture are going on under National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) programme to combat the flood-affected area of the locality. The experiment consists of five mulching treatments like Black polythene mulch, Black and silver polythene mulch, Transparent mulch, Organic mulch (rice straw) and No mulch. Results revealed that black with silver colour polythene mulch was recorded with significantly higher yield per plant (2.59 kg) and yield per ha (62.1 t/ha) which was at par with black colour polythene mulch. Organic mulch was found to be next best treatment with respect to yield per plant (2.40 kg) and yield per ha (53.5 t/ha). The same treatment also resulted in the higher gross return (Rs. 434700/ha), net return (Rs. 274150/ha) and B:C ratio (2.71) which was followed by black polythene mulching and organic mulching practices. Weed suppression and moisture retention was higher with black polythene mulch.

Open Access Original Research Article

Smallholder Farmers’ Vulnerability to Impact of Climate Change in Central Bhutan

Pema Rinzin, Thubten Sonam, Sangay Tshering, Purna Prasad Chapagai

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 286-299
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230305

Climate change carries immense threat to the livelihood and food security of smallholder farmers in Bhutan and it is therefore crucial to enhance their adaptive capacity.  However, building resiliency to climate impact require information on vulnerability of the system of interest. Therefore, this study assessed smallholder farmers’ vulnerability to impacts of climate change and variability in central regions (Bumthang and Trongsa) of Bhutan. Data was collected from 247 randomly selected households by administering a pre-tested survey questionnaire. Data was analyzed using composite index approach (LVI) and IPCC framework approach (LVI-IPCC). The LVI analysis revealed that Bumthang was more vulnerable in terms of Socio-demographic profile (0.55), social networks (0.45), health (0.31) and natural disasters and climate variability (0.47) compared to Trongsa. Whereas, Trongsa was more vulnerable in terms of livelihood strategies (0.31) and water (0.13). Vulnerability score on the food component was same for both the districts (0.27). Overall, Bumthang was more vulnerable compared to Trongsa on both LVI (Bumthang: 0.36, Trongsa: 0.34) and LVI-IPCC (Bumthang: 0.24, Trongsa: 0.13) analysis. The findings could be used for designing micro-level context specific interventions to enhance smallholder farmers’ adaptive capacity to impacts of climate change in central Bhutan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Investigation on Energy Recovery System for Continuous Biochar Production System

Laleet Jawale, N. L. Panwar, B. L. Salvi, Sudhir Jain, Deepak Sharma, N. K. Jain

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 300-310
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230306

Fossilfuel requirement is the necessity for fulfilling the global energy needs, which is increasing day by day due to this it will drain in future. Bio-energy became as one of the vital alternatives to replace fossil fuel. Thermochemical conversion of biomass for obtaining the bioenergy is getting more popular in the recent time. In the present study, slow pyrolysis is used for bio-energy production from the waste biomass available in the form of crop residues of Groundnut Shell (GS), Chana Straw (CS) and Wheat Straw (WS) using the developed continuous biochar production system (Pratap Kiln) to produce biochar. An energy recovery system consisting of cooling chamber was developed to recover the bio-oil from the waste flue gas (syngas). The pyrolysis of selected biomass was carried out at 450°C and residence time of about 4 min. The yield of biochar and bio-oil and syngas properties were determined. The maximum biochar yield was found in CS feedstock as 35% followed by WS and GS, i.e. 33% and 29%, respectively. The bio-oil recovery in GS, CS and WS was 31%, 26% and 30% respectively, whereas the syngas production was 40%, 39% and 37% respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield and Yield Attributing Parameters of Toria (Brassica campestries) under Real Time Rainfall Situation in an Inceptisols of Assam, India

R. Borah, N. Baruah, P. K. Sarma, R. Borah, A. Sonowal, P. Borah, R. Kalita, B. Borkotoki, P. Neog

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 311-321
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230307

A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2018-19 and 2019-20 in Dryland experimental field belong to soil order Inceptisols, Biswanath college of Agriculture, Assam Agricultural University, Biswanath chariali, Assam to study the ‘‘Yield and yield attributing parameters of toria (Brassica campestries) under real time rainfall situation in an Inceptisols of Assam, India’’ under AICRPDA, NICRA. The treatments consisting of 4 different dates of sowing i.e. S1-41th SMW, S2-44th SMW, S3-46th SMW, and S4- 48th SMW, & three variety i.e. V1-JT-90-1(Jeuti), V2-Yellow sarson (Benoy) and V3- TS-38. Growth, yield and yield attributing characters of toria varieties were influenced by different dates of sowing. S1 registered higher plant height (43.2 cm, 92.9 cm and 106.6 cm & 40.2 cm, 89.8 cm and 101.5 cm) and number of branch (3.8, 5.3 and 7.2 & 3.4, 5.1 and 6.9) at 30 DAS, 45 DAS and 60 DAS, respectively, during 2018-19 and 2019-20. Yield attributing characters like number of siliqua, number of seed per siliqua, 1000 seed weight (g) were gradually decreased with advancement of sowing dates. Among the three varieties V1 (Jeuti) recorded highest seed yield (8.9 q ha-1 and 8.1 q ha-1) and stover yield (23.4 q ha-1 and 22.2 q ha-1) in 2018-19 and 2019-20, respectively. Highest HI (28.5% and 25.8%) was recorded in S1 and lowest was recorded in S4 (20.7% and 14.6%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Hydro-Meteorological Variables and Runoff Characteristics in the Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zone of Nigeria

Samsideen Ojoye, I. P. Ifabiyi, Ishiaku Ibrahim

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 331-341
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230309

This study examines the impact of climate change on hydrologic resources of selected rivers and lakes in the Sudano- Sahelian Ecological Zone of Nigeria. Climatologically data acquired were rainfall, temperature and evaporation from Nigeria Meteorological Agency, Oshodi, Lagos. Similarly, the hydrological data of river discharge and lake levels were obtained from Nigeria Hydrological Services, Kaduna. We used the Standardised Anomaly Index to test for fluctuations in rainfall, temperature, runoff and water level in lakes. Mann Kendall statistics were used to examine the trends in the climate variables. Pearman correlation was adopted to test the relationship between runoff and the rainfall variables. The findings revealed a general downward trend in rainfall amounts in the 1970s and 1980s. The findings also detected an upward trend in the amount of rainfall from 1990 to 2019. The correlation results of rainfall attributes and runoff showed significant relationships in annual rainfall (r= 0.61), annual rain-days (r=0.61), rain days of heavy rainfall (r= 0.57) and wet season rainfall (r=0.54). These attributed when combined, revealed a 51% contribution to the overall regression with (r=0.51) at 95% probability level. The study concluded that the Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zone of Nigeria experiencing an increase in the annual rainfall. The increase in rainfall point to the recovery of the rainfall from the great Sahelian drought of the 1970s and 1980s. The rise in the annual rainfall is a possible influencing factor to the frequent occurrences of flooding in recent time across the ecological zone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Sweetcorn with Different Levels of Irrigation and Nitrogen through Drip during Post Monsoon Season at Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India

Y. Siva Lakshmi, D. Sreelatha, T. Pradeep

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 362-372
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230311

The present study on Performance evaluation of Sweetcorn with different levels of Irrigation and nitrogen through drip during post monsoon season at Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India was conducted for two years at Maize Research Centre, Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to assess the influence of different levels of irrigation and nitrogen on performance of sweetcorn hybrid. Randomized block design with factorial concept was used in the study and the experiment was replicated thrice. The treatments used were two factors. Factor I was five irrigation levels viz., I1: Drip irrigation at 60% E pan, I2: Drip irrigation at 80% E pan, I3: Drip irrigation at 100% E pan, I4:Drip irrigation at 120% E pan andI5: Surface irrigation at IW/CPE- 1.0 and Factor II was four nitrogen levels in kg ha-1 viz., N1: 120, N2: 160 N3: 200 N4: 240. Pooled mean of two years revealed that, drip irrigation with 120% E pan which was on par with 100% E pan showed significantly better crop performance in terms of growth characteristics like plant height, Leaf Area Index and dry matter production and both were superior to drip irrigation of 80 and 60% E pan as well as surface irrigation method. Among the yield attributes, cob girth and 100 seed weight were not influenced either with irrigation or nitrogen and their interaction. Cob length, number of seeds row-1, green cob and fodder yield were higher with drip irrigation of 120% E pan but were on par with 100% E pan. Among the different nitrogen levels, nitrogen at the rate of 240 kg ha-1recorded significantly higher growth parameters, yield attributes, green cob and fodder yield but it was on par with 200 kg ha-1 and both were superior over 160 and 120 kg N ha-1. Drip irrigation of 100% E pan and a nitrogen level of 200 kg ha-1 resulted in higher gross and net returns and benefit cost ratio compared to other irrigation and nitrogen treatments. From the study, drip irrigation of 100% E pan with 200 kg N ha-1is recommended for getting higher yields and net income in sweetcorn hybrid grown in Southern Agro climatic zone of Telangana, India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Growth Characteristics of Some Brassica Species under Moisture Stress and Elevated Carbondioxide

Ranjan Das

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 373-389
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230313

Brassica juncea and Brassica campestries is two important oil seed crop of North-West India experiences intermittent moisture stress during its growing period. Thus a study was carried out to ameliorate the moisture stress through elevated CO2 applying Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) technology. The consequences of CO2 enrichment were related to the rate of accelerated photosynthesis under both irrigated and moisture stress situation with significant decreases in stomatal conductance. The elevated CO2 brought about a significant enhancement in all the plant growth parameters studied, and also ameliorates the of moisture stress. The carbon dioxide enrichment improves the productivity of Brassica cultivars viz. ‘Pusa Gold’ and ‘RH-30’ through changes in various yield attributes and also nullifying the adverse effect of moisture stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aerosol Black Carbon Measurement at High Altitude Western Ghats Location of Ooty, Tami Nadu

M. Kowsalya, S. Paul Sebastian, R. M. Jayabalakrishnan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 390-396
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230314

The aerosol Black Carbon (BC) are particles formed from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuel and biomass combustion which was collected from high altitude location in Western Ghats, Ooty, Tamil Nadu using Aethalometer Instrument (model AE-31 of Magee Scientific, USA) during 2017. The monthly averaged BC concentration shows highest value of 1.88 ± 0.44 µg m-3 during April with the annual mean of 0.83 ± 0.20 µg m-3. The diurnal variation shows higher seasonality especially in winter and summer with highest peak in 17:00 to 22:00 hr. The aerosol optical depth derived from MERRA 2 model showed annual mean of 0.29 and it is in line with BC concentration. The results showed that the concentrations are varying within a day, month and season depends on the local meteorological conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sensitivity of Soil Water in Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3) for Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM)

Sukanta Kumar Das

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 397-410
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230317

The study has been attempted to investigate the relationship between the soil-water and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall through the simulation of a global climate model named Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3). Two sets of simulation have been done during monsoon season for the years 2009 to 2012 using the pre-monsoon (May) and the previous winter season (December of previous year) state of soil-water as the model initial conditions. The control simulation and four sensitivity cases assuming 25% and 50% dryer and wetter soil-water respectively have been considered for all the aforesaid four years and for both the set of experiments. It has been observed that the impact of upper level soil-water persist for 15 to 20 days of simulation during the summer monsoon; the middle and lower layer soil state persist for a longer period of time due to its slow-varying nature with time. The daily surface temperature shows strong coupling with the upper layer of soil-water. When taken into comparison with the wet soil conditions, the dry soil state in most of the circumstances causes less rainfall.  The Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and partial correlation technique have been implied to demonstrate the relationship between the daily soil-water columns, subsequent 30-days accumulated rainfall and past 21-days accumulated rainfall. Strong negative correlation has been reported between the soil-water and subsequent 30-days accumulated (All-India Rainfall) AIR for different simulation cases with dry soil conditions; however, the relation weakened and turned positive over some parts of the region for the simulations with wet soil conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Arsenic Toxicity on Chlorophyll Content and Antioxidative Enzymes Activities in Rice Seedlings

Dinkar J. Gaikwad, Apurba Pal, Subhasis Mondal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 411-421
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230318

Aims: Arsenic (As) contamination in rice is at alarming level as majority of rice growing regions in India are As contaminated. Present investigation is designed to study the better understanding of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms in the amount of chlorophyll change and antioxidative enzymes activity under arsenic stress on rice variety IET-4786 (Shatabdi).

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in the departmental laboratory of Plant Physiology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Mohanpur, Nadia,West Bengal during the year 2017-18.

Methodology: Two classes of inorganic arsenic- As(V) in the form of Sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4.7H2O, M. W. = 321.01) and As(III) in the form of Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2, M.W. =129.91) were added to the modified Hoagland nutrient solution@ 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5,15.0 mg L-1concentration. After 20 days of treatment, rice seedlings under arsenate/arsenite treatments were analyzed for change in total chlorophyll content and antioxidative enzymes activity such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC1.11.1.11) and peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7).

Results: A noticeable decrease in total chlorophyll content was observed with arsenic treatments as compared to control. Various antioxidative enzymes showed significant variable response upon exposure to As(III) and As(V). SOD activities increased at low arsenic exposure up to 7.5 mg L-1 but decreased with further increase in arsenic treatments.  APX and POD activities were increased with increase in arsenic concentrations while CAT activity displayed decreasing trend.

Conclusion: The results are suggestive of differential metabolism of As(III) and As(V) in rice and could exert harmfulness in the early development stage of rice at inappropriate concentrations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Livelihood Interactions on Farmers' Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change: Insight from Medenine Governorate, Southeast Tunisia

Fatma Aribi, Mongi Sghaier

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 422-430
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230319

The Sustainable Livelihood Approach (SLA) assumes that all capitals are complementary and that more capital assets would lead to greater adaptive capacity. However, the SLA neglects the interactions and transformations between different livelihood capitals. This paper suggests a methodological approach to understand how different capitals may be structured, transformed, and used to improve the farm households’ adaptive capacity to climatic stresses. Data for this study were gathered by means of a questionnaire survey during 2018 from 100 farm households representing the main farming systems of Medenine governorate, Southeast of Tunisia. The analyses were carried out using three tools following a stepwise approach. First, to understand the interactions that exist between the different capitals, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was carried out. Then, the adaptive capacity was calculated using the PCA results. Finally, using the Pearson's correlation index, the impact of livelihood assets on adaptive capacity was tested. The results demonstrated that households are trying to compensate for the lack of certain assets through interactions with others in order to improve their adaptive capacity. Moreover, human, natural and financial capital seem to better influence the adaptive capacity of farmers, while the impacts of physical and social capital are relatively less important. These results have improved our comprehension of the livelihood capital purpose for strengthening the existing approaches that enhance the adaptive capacity. Finally, this study has demonstrated that exploring the interactions between livelihood capitals is a first concern, which should be incorporated into adaptive capacity planning and policy development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Noon-Time Temperature in Selected Cities in Sudan Savanna and Tropical Rainforest Zones of Nigeria

I. M. Sule, G. N. Nsofor, A. A. Okhimamhe, J. Mayaki, M. Muhammed

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 451-464
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230321

Urban centres in Sub-Saharan Africa have been undergoing unprecedented urbanization in the past decades at annual rates of almost 4%; with attendant impacts on the cities’ thermal conditions. This study aimed at characterizing the noon-time maximum temperature of two selected cities each in the Sudan and Tropical Rainforest zones of Nigeria. The study utilized daily ERA Interim (European Reanalysis) grid-based 2 meter above ground daily noontime maximum temperature (°C) data of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) from 1990 to 2019. R Statistical package version 3.6.1 was employed to detect the trend and seasonality in the maximum noon-time temperature of the four cities using non-parametric Mann-Kendall trend and seasonal trend tests. The statistical properties of the data were first analyzed by graphical examination of the data, using time plots, and boxplots. Also, the normality test of Shapiro-Wilk (S-W test) was applied. Pettitt test was then employed to test for single change-point detection in the temperature series. The study revealed higher mean temperature values of 27.49°C and 25.56°C respectively for Birnin Kebbi and Kano both in the Sudan, and lower temperature values of 24.08°C and 23.17°C respectively for Ibadan and Owerri located in the Tropical rainforest. The Tau statistics for Kano, Ibadan and Owerri are 0.07084, 0.09848 and 0.09113 and the corresponding p-values are 0.0447, 0.0053 and 0.0098 which are less than 0.05 alpha value; indicating significant trends for the three cities. The results also show significant seasonal increase at 0.05 significant levels in the maximum noon-time temperature series for all the locations. The study recommends urban landscape planning and design for optimization of outdoor thermal comfort and creation of heathier urban environments for the city dwellers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement of Social Capital in Water Users Association through Analytical Hierarchy Process

M. Rajeshwaran, K. Mahandrakumar, K. Prabakaran

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 483-489
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230325

This study aims to construct by using the social capital index through the identified major components and subcomponents in the watershed context by using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). It was introduced by Satty, for decision making by considering the complex elements involved in the process. This was done through pairwise comparison of the judgments of experts. The empirical findings indicate that among the six major components the level of derived benefits was assigned with high weightage as a contributing component in the social capital index followed by the level of involvement, level of collective management, level of trust.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Yield and Quality Attributes of Grafted Brinjal under Treated Paperboard Mill Effluent Irrigation and Sludge Application

M. Anushya, G. Balasubramanian, P. Thangavel, T. Saraswathi, M. Maheswari, M. Priyadharshini

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 490-497
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230327

Field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of paperboard mill sludge compost and treated paperboard mill effluent irrigation on growth and yield of grafted brinjal. Among the different treatment combinations, application of phosphorus enriched ETP sludge compost at 5 t ha-1 along with treated effluent through drip irrigation and recommended level of NPK (200:150:100 kg NPK ha-1) resulted the highest brinjal yield of 42.7 t ha-1. There were no adverse effects on soil properties due to sludge compost application and treated effluent irrigation. Quality attributes of the fruits which include anthocyanin content, total phenol content, ascorbic acid content, titrable acidity and protein content were not affected due to the composted sludge application along with treated effluent irrigation. Thus, the treated effluent and the composted sludge which complies with the state pollution control board norms can be used as a viable alternative source of irrigation and nutrients for grafted brinjal cultivation without adversely affecting on crop quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drought Characterization Over Periyar Vaigai Command Area in Tamil Nadu

N. K. Sathyamoorthy, A. P. Ramaraj, K. Senthilraja, R. Jagannathan, S. P. Ramanathan, V. Geethalakshmi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 498-510
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230332

India encountered numerous drought years in the decades. It is a matter of concern with increased frequency as well as intensity, mainly due to factors related to changing climate in recent years. In India livelihoods of more than 75% of the population are directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture sectors. The strong and recurrent link between drought and farmer's livelihoods has highlighted the importance to understand the drought scenario of a place for designing coping strategies. To address the issue, this paper was formulated to characterize the drought scenario over Periyar Vaigai Command (PVC) area. To summarize the results, the locations Edayapatti and Periaaruvi had the highest number of annual drought occurrence (8) while the location Madurai airport had the lowest (2) based on the analysis of 30 years. On comparing the monsoons, there are no wide variations in drought characteristics between Southwest monsoon (SWM) and Northeast monsoon (NEM). Anomalies in rainfall during the monsoon seasons were studied through SPI, consecutive drought years were well presented through SPI, which gives relevant information for crop planning. In both the monsoons, the locations Viraganur, Pulipatti and Usilampatti witness consecutive droughts. The highest of three consecutive years (1999, 2000 and 2001) were witnessed in Usilampatti during the major NEM season.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of WRF’S Microphysics Options to Increase the Medium Range Rainfall Forecast Accuracy in Tamil Nadu Cauvery Delta Zone

S. Poorani Selvi, G. A. Dheebakaran, S. Kokilavani, V. Geethalakshmi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 511-518
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230333

Weather plays a significant role in agricultural sector and the favourable weather enhance the opportunities and sustainability for crop production. Agriculture oriented Medium Range Weather Forecasts (3 – 10 days), particularly rainfall information in a week advance helps the farmers to overcome the aberrant weather conditions, reduces both input and output loss, thereby warranted higher benefit – cost ratio and net income. An attempt was made to improve the accuracy of medium range rainfall forecast (6 days) at Cauvery Delta Zone, the rice bowl of Tamil Nadu state, during South West Monsoon (June – Sep. 2020) and North East Monsoon (Oct. – Dec. 2020). The performance study of four microphysics schemes in WRF viz., Kessler, WSM3, WSM5 and WSM6 concluded that the WSM3 scheme produced more accurate forecast in Tamil Nadu's Cauvery Delta Zone (CDZ) during both the South West Monsoon (SWM) and North East Monsoon (NEM). The 2nd better choice was the Kessler scheme, where the WSM5 and WSM6 were bad performers in CDZ. The forecast usability was decreased with increasing lead time, irrespective of season and microphysics. Among the seasons forecast accuracy and usability were higher in NEM than SWM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Conservation Tillage on Yield and Economics of Fodder Crops

Rajesh Khan, Saikat Biswas, Champak Kumar Kundu, Kalyan Jana

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 529-539
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230335

In order to find out the efficacy of conservation tillage on yield and economics of fodder crops over conventional tillage in new alluvial zone of West Bengal, a field experiment was conducted at Central Research Farm, Gayeshpur, West Bengal, India during summer season of 2016 and 2017 comprising 3 tillage practices (T1: zero tillage, T2: minimum tillage, T3: conventional tillage) in main plot and 4 fodder crops (C1: maize, C2: sorghum, C3: rice bean, C4: cowpea) in subplot and replicated thrice in a split plot design. Mean data confirmed the superiority of conservation tillage over conventional tillage in improving soil status and thereby, crop performance. Cereal crop maize when grown under zero tillage produced highest green forage yield (42.33 t/ha), dry matter yield (7.84 t/ha). However, regarding crude protein yield, cowpea showed superiority over others specially when grown under zero tillage condition (1.071 t/ha). Mean data also stated that legume crops under conservation tillage remained economically more viable than cereal crops. Specifically, cultivation of cowpea under zero tillage condition was economically most profitable (B:C of 2.21) and therefore can be recommended in this region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dust Accumulation, Heavy Metal Content and Stomata Morphology of Some Medicinal Plants at Rock Quarrying Locations at Lokpaukwu, Nigeria

C. E. Ogbonna, F. I. Nwafor, O. O. Ogbonnaya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 540-549
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230331

Aims: This study evaluated the effect of rock quarrying on dust accumulation, heavy metal content and stomata features of some medicinal plants at Lokpaukwu, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample collection was carried out at the quarry sites in Lokpaukwu, followed by laboratory analyses which were conducted in the Department of Pharmacognosy and Environmental Medicines and Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), University of Nigeria, Nsukka between January and March, 2019.

Methodology: Five (5) commonly used medicinal plants were selected and collected from the two pollution sites (A and B). Same species collected 20 km away from the sites served as control. Clearing method was employed in foliar micro-analysis while heavy metal accumulation in the samples was estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS).

Results: The study showed considerable variation in dust load among the plants from each study site. This led to some observed physiological anomalies– occlusion of stomata pores, plasmolysis, and shrunk epidermal cells. Quantitative stomata parameters were also affected as plants from polluted sites had narrower pores and more number of stomata than the control. Concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Cu) in plants collected from dust polluted sites were also higher than those from the control location. For example, lead and cadmium concentration in most of the plants were in this order: site A > site B > site C.

Conclusion: These findings have further validated reports of earlier researchers on the deleterious effects of dust pollution as a result of quarrying activities on plant health. Strict compliance to precautionary and mitigation measures by both the inhabitants and quarry companies are recommended for safer environment and good health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Attributes and Yields of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.) and Lathyrus (Lathyrus sativus L.) in Sequence as Influenced by Seed Priming under Rainfed Situation

Subhajit Banerjee, Kalyan Jana, Ramyajit Mondal, Krishnendu Mondal, Awindrila Mondal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 550-560
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230337

Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most versatile crop grown throughout the tropical as well as temperate regions of the world. On the other hand, the lathyrus or grass pea or chickling pea is also called ‘khesari’ and is a very hardy crop that thrives well under adverse climatic conditions. It can fix biological nitrogen in their roots through symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium leguminoseram. The field experiment was conducted on seed priming of hybrid maize and lathyrus at Central Research Farm, BCKV, Nadia under new alluvial zone of West Bengal, India in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications during kharif season of 2016 and 2017 and rabi season of 2016-17 and 2017-18. Experimental results reveal that seed priming methods significantly influenced the germination, growth parameters, yield attributes and yield of hybrid maize-lathyrus grown in sequence under rainfed situation. Seed priming with ZnSO4 @ 0.5% for 12 hours recorded the highest number of grains per cob (319.9) and highest plant height (262.10 cm) at harvest of hybrid maize. Grain yield and stover yield of hybrid maize showed positive and highly significant (P = 0.01) with each other (r = 0.945). The maximum number of pods per plant (50.28) was observed in seed priming with ZnSO4 @ 0.5% for 12 hours and was statistically at par with seed priming with KNO3 @ 0.5% for 12 hours (48.33) in case of lathyrus. Number of pods/ plants showed positive and highly significant (P = 0.01) correlation with grain yield (r = 0.986) of lathyrus. On the basis of pooled values of 2 years of experimentation, seed priming with ZnSO4 @ 0.5% for 12 hours could be recommended due to higher yield (7.94 t ha-1 of kharif hybrid maize and 1682 kg ha-1 of lathyrus) and higher net return (Rs.69,904/-ha-1 for maize, Rs.40,327/- ha-1 for lathyrus) as well as highest B:C ratio (2.74 of kharif hybrid maize and 2.94 of lathyrus) for maize-lathyrus in sequence under rainfed situation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Social Learning in Integrated Land and Water Resource Management through Indigenous “Zabo System”: A Study from India Tribal State

Priti Priyadarshni, R. N. Padaria, R. R. Burman, Rashmi Singh, Sanjoy Bandyopadhyay (Rtd.), Pramod Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 589-601
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230341

Social learning has been cited as essential process for sustainable ecosystem management and enhancement of desirable behavioral change. The present study has focused on an integrated land water resource management through locally developed “zabo system” by the collective action of community. Focus discussion, PRA tools and personal interview methods were used to gather the data. The result reflected that farmers were co-acting together which highly enhanced their occupational capacity (53.3%), adaptive capacity (50%) and knowledge level (69.5%). This system provides 133% more yield of paddy than average yield of the Nagaland state under Jhum cultivation. The study showed that social learning could be an effective tool for bringing sustainability when ecosystem management is at stake.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of IBA and Rooting Media on Hardwood Cuttings of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) CV. Bhagwa

Dinesh Raj Tanwar, H. L. Bairwa, S. S. Lakhawat, L. N. Mahawer, Raj kumar Jat, Ramesh Chand Choudhary

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 609-617
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230344

An experiment was carried out during at Horticulture Farm, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur, Rajasthan during 2018 (February to May) to work out the most suitable growing media and Indole-3 Butyric Acid concentration for producing the best quality cutting of Pomegranate. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with a total of sixteen treatments replicated thrice. Result showed that the treatment combination (T13) comprising Coco peat : Perlite : Vermiculite with 2000 ppm IBA recorded highest values in terms of length of cutting after survival (81.08 cm), percentage of rooted cuttings (97.78%), survival of rooted cuttings (93.78%), number of roots per cutting (41.50), length of longest roots per cutting (32.03 cm), fresh weight of root (2.25 g), sprouts per cutting (2.59), shoots per cutting (9.87), length of shoots per cutting  (32.33 cm), leaves per rooted cuttings (145.40), leaves per longest shoot (29.99), fresh weight of shoot (16.67 g), root to shoot ratio (0.15) and survival percentage after shifting in poly bags (82.22).

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Carbon Sequestration Potential of Coconut Plantation in Vellore District of Tamil Nadu, India

K. Boomiraj, R. Jagadeeswaran, S. Karthik, R. Poornima, S. Jothimani, R. Jude Sudhagar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 618-624
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230345

Agriculture, very often falls victim of climate change around the world. Adopting a cost efficient system of agricultural production with minimal environmental impacts, depends on the selection of best cropping system and associated farming practices. The coconut farming and coconut agroecosystem is one of the country’s largest agricultural systems and sectors that could substantially preserve carbon dioxide (CO2) through sequestration. Tamil Nadu state is one of the largest growers of coconut with an area of 443000 ha. In the present investigation the Vellore district was chosen as study area. Coconut data such as tree diameter and tree height were collected from the Tall (Aliyar nagar 1), Dwarf (Chowghat Orange Dwarf (COD)) and Chowghat Green Dwarf (CGD) varieties at different ages (five, fifteen, twenty and twenty-fifth years) at various plantations of Vellore district. The carbon sequestered by five, ten, fifteen, twenty and twenty-five-years old coconut tall variety trees were found to be 1.32, 1.97, 2.11, 3.10 and 3.96 tons per acre per year, respectively. Similarly, five, ten, fifteen, twenty and twenty-five-year-old coconut dwarf variety could able to sequester 1.45, 1.27, 1.58, 2.03 and 2.63 tons per acre per year, respectively in Vellore district. The C sequestration potential of ten year old coconut tree (Tall or Dwarf) were 18 to 28 kg per tree per year approximately. The fifteen years (2003-04 to 2017-18) coconut plantation of both tall and dwarf varieties in Vellore district had sequestered 1.15 million tons of carbon from the atmosphere.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on River Revival

Ayushi Trivedi, Manoj Kumar Awasthi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 202-210
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230297

The noticeable decline of flow and drying of rivers in non-monsoon period is observed by smaller hydrologic units (sub-catchments and watersheds). The flow depletion or drying of rivers is generally observed initially near the origin and then progressively in the larger hydrologic units. Rivers are losing water because of variety of possible reasons, including the installation of dams and the use of water for agriculture. But in many cases the decrease in flow is because of climate change, which is altering rainfall patterns and increasing evaporation because of higher temperatures. Reduced run-off is increasing the pressure on freshwater resources in world as well as in India, especially with more demand for water as population increases. Inspite of the fact that large sums of money have been spent on river rehabilitation across the globe, the understanding of the science of restoration is incoherent. A scientific and global intervention and approach to tackle such challenges to river management in India requires a highly effective approach, which must be process-based, predictive and must be capable of yielding the desired outcome. River restoration is one of the most prominent areas of applied water-resources science, supporting a multibillion dollar industry across many countries and helping to drive fundamental river research to address knowledge gaps that limit successful restoration. A revival strategy should identify a future prospect and long run for the river basin, the desired outcome of the strategy over the planning horizon (goals), and specific, measurable targets to be achieved over the short to medium term (objectives). River restoration can be supported by a combination of policies, strategies and project-level and global-level plans. Keeping this in view this paper presents some of the revival works carried out in India as well as in abroad.

Open Access Review Article

Breeding for Early Flowering in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) – A Key Strategy to Accelerate Chickpea Productivity: A Review

Aswini Nunavath, K. Gopala Krishna Murthy, Venkatraman Hegde, S. Madhusudan Reddy

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 271-285
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230304

Chickpea is one of the most important pulse crop cultivated across the globe which is conventionally a low-input crop that is being cultivated mostly in moisture deficient rainfed environments during post-rainy season. The crop is being severely affected with various biotic and abiotic stresses among which, drought and heat stress are considered as serious constraints limiting chickpea productivity in sub-tropical regions. Several strategies were adopted to enhance the productivity under drought and heat stress environments among which, the development of early flowering varieties is one of the key strategies gaining importance in recent past. Some of the early / super early varieties like ICCV 2, JG 11, JG 14, KAK 2, JAKI 9218, ICCV 96029 and ICCV 96030 were developed during the last three decades. One of the most significant milestones in breeding for early varieties is the identification of four genes efl-1, efl-2, efl-3 and efl-4 governing early flowering by using various lines viz., ICCV 2, ICCV 96029, ICC 5810, BGD 132 and ICC 16641. Several QTLs controlling time of flowering were also mapped on linkage groups LG1, LG2, LG3, LG4, LG5, LG6 and LG8. The information on inheritance of time of flowering, correlation between early flowering with other yield attributing traits like number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, seed size, 100-seed weight, identified QTLs for early flowering and abiotic and biotic stresses tolerance may be useful for developing early maturing varieties that posses tolerance to various abiotic stresses by using different conventional and biotechnological approaches.

Open Access Review Article

Re-Designing Energy-Efficient and Intensively Managed Cereal Based Cropping Systems for Reducing the Environmental Footprints of Production in North-West India: A Review

M. Sharath Chandra, R. K. Naresh, S. S. Dhaliwal, Pradeep Rajput, Jana Harish, Shipra Yadav, Rahul Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 342-361
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230310

Agriculture is a major contributor to India's environmental footprint, particularly through greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Sustainable agricultural systems are needed to produce high-quality and affordable food in sufficient quantity to meet the growing population need for food, feed, and fuel, and at the same time, farming systems must have a low impact on the environment. Achieving sustainability of the cereal system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of North West India under progressive climate change and variability necessitates adoption of practices and technologies that increase food production, adaptation and mitigation the environmental footprints of production in a sustainable way. But production is becoming unsustainable due to depletion or degradation of soil and water resources, rising production costs, decreasing input use efficiency, and increasing environmental pollution. In contrast, cereal production systems in the IGP are largely traditional, with low yields and farm income. This review paper mainly focus on the reduction of environmental footprint production in cereal systems such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the adoption of emerging conservation agricultural practices i.e., re-designing energy-efficient, economically sustainable and intensively managed options for cereal systems. Adoption of re-designing energy-efficient, economically sustainable and intensively managed cereal systems could help in reducing the environmental footprints of production (EFP) while maintaining productivity and better resource utilization. In India could reduce its greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture by almost 18 percent through the adoption of mitigation measures. Several studies revealed that conservation agriculture (CA) practices and technologies implemented in the cereal systems of the IGP have positive impacts on crop yields, returns from crop cultivation, input use efficiency (water, nutrient and energy), adaptation to heat stress and reduction of GHGs emissions. Improved conservation technologies or packages of practices from intensive agriculture that reduce environmental impacts, such as laser-aided land leveling, reduced or zero tillage, conservation tillage operation, precise nutrient and water management, crop residues management, crop diversification improves resource use efficiency by decreasing losses of inputs to the surrounding environment. It indicates that the adoption of better soil, water, nutrient management practices, and technologies has enormous potential to reduce environmental foot print, such as GHG emissions from agriculture cereal systems, thereby contributing to the mitigation of climate change.

Open Access Review Article

Effects of Climate Change and Variability in Africa: A Review of Concepts and Evidence

Modise Wiston

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 431-450
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230320

Global climate has been changing for many thousands of years and will continue to do so in the future.  While it is acknowledged that the entire climate change has always been happening even before the start of anthropogenic activities, this is perhaps the most serious problem that the civilized world is facing today. Key important phrases such as ‘climate change’ and ‘global warming’ now form part of our lives and rarely a day goes without being mentioned. There is a serious concern for the state of climate because of the strong consensus that climate change has implications on rainfall, temperature, agriculture and food security and human life styles, although climate change projections are quite diverse and vary widely across the globe. While industrialization has always been viewed as the key to wealth and better living (technological innovations, economic and social transformations of the human society), it has also been acknowledged that it affects the environment and ultimately contributes to climate change. This paper presents a review of the state of climate change and variability in Africa. We describe some common aspects on the African climate system and discuss related factors triggering its dynamics, aiming to determine social and demographic sectors vulnerable to climate change and whether there is evidence of critical thresholds beyond which climate drastically changes. With projected high temperature rise than the rest of the world, increase in the occurrence of droughts, floods and other natural disasters, Africa’s economy, its people and ecosystems are vulnerable to climate change. Immediate changes also impact on global energy budget, water resources, air quality and consequently influence changes in human lifestyles and philosophies, habitat quality and distribution of wildlife and other natural resources.

Open Access Review Article

A Review Study on Stationary and Non-Stationary IDF Models Used in Rainfall Data Analysis around the World from 1951-2020

Ify L. Nwaogazie, M. G. Sam

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 465-482
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230322

This article focuses on an overview of the processes of generating rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) models, the different types and applications. IDF model is an important tool applied in the design of either hydrologic or hydraulic design such as prediction of rainfall intensities to estimate peak runoff volumes for mitigation of flooding. IDF models evolved from stationary – parametric (empirical) and non-parametric (stochastic) models, to non-stationary models in which variables vary with time. Each category controls the ways models predict rainfall intensities, and reveals their strength and weaknesses. IDF models must therefore, be chosen in terms of the project objective, data availability, size of the study, location, output needed, and the desired simplicity. For instance, while the parametric model predicts better for shorter durations and return periods only, the non-parametric models predict better for both shorter and longer durations and return periods. For projects requiring change of input data over time and evaluation of uncertainty bounds, risk assessment, including incorporation of changes in extreme precipitation, the non-stationary model approach must be selected. Also, of importance for catchments without rainfall amount and corresponding duration records but has daily (24-hourly) record of rainfall depth, the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) method of shorter duration disaggregation can be adopted to generate in-put data for the development of IDF curves for such a location. Therefore, each model type has limitations that may make it unsuitable for some projects. Reviewing input data and output requirements, and simplicity are all necessary to decide on which model type should be selected.

Open Access Review Article

Weed Management Strategies in Organic Rice Production System- A Review

Abhinandan Singh, S. Pazhanisamy, Rodda Chandana Devi, Amit Kumar Singh, Chandra Mohan Mehta

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 519-528
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230334

Farmers view weeds as the number one barrier to organic rice production. Also, organic rice-growing farmers feel weed management is their number one priority, so they need more research about weed management under organic conditions from the researchers. Weeds can be considered a significant problem because they have a tendency to decrease crop yields by increasing competition for moisture, sunlight and nutrients also serving as host plants for pests and diseases. Since the development of herbicides, farmers have been used these chemicals to eradicate weeds from their fields. Using herbicides not only increased crop yields as well as reduced the labour required to remove weeds. Today, some farmers have a renewed interest in organic methods of managing weeds since the widespread use of agrochemicals has affected the environment and health. It has also been found that in some cases herbicides use can cause some weed species to dominate fields because the weeds develop resistance to herbicides. Moreover, some herbicides are destroying weeds that are harmless to crops, resulting in a potential decrease biodiversity. It is important to understand that under an organic system of seed control, weeds will never be eliminated but only managed. Consistent methods of weed management can reduce the costs and contribute to economical crop production without endangers the environment.

Open Access Review Article

Factors Influencing Performance of Capsicum under Protected Cultivation: A Review

K. Pramanik, P. P. Mohapatra, J. Pradhan, L. K. Acharya, C. Jena

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 572-588
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2020/v10i1230339

Vegetables as the succulent pot herb are the most vulnerable to vagaries of climate change i.e. extreme weather events, such as elevated temperature, lengthy droughts, untimely rains, heavy rainfalls, violent storms, sea rising and resurgence of biotic stresses such as weeds, pathogens and their vectors, and insect pests. Adjoining to this, shrinking of cultivable land, limited natural resources, lower productivity, higher inputs cost, shortage of man power, low market price, hesitation among youth to choose farming as career etc. endorse the adoption of protected cultivation as the ultimatum to all these troublesome. In recent days, protected or greenhouse cultivation of high value vegetables like capsicum especially during offseason has been witnessed in increasing trends among small and marginal farmers as it is high value and low volume crop and produce higher yield in manifolds with superior quality. Protected structure not only delimits the abiotic and biotic stresses in capsicum cultivation but also accounts for higher economic remuneration to growers and provide a boost to their socio-economic development through adoption of improved package of practice such as mulching, drip irrigation, fertigation, training and pruning, better plant protection management, etc. Though, protected cultivation is remunerative but high initial investment, lack of technical guidance, non-availability of genuine building material for protected structure, torrential flood, cyclone etc. are major constraints and setbacks prevailed in developing counties like India for its adoption and commercialization. Therefore, this review covers all the aspects of protected cultivation in Capsicum to find an amicable solution through improved technologies.