Open Access Short Communication

Impact of Climate Change on Worlds Economy and Hydrological System

Sajid Ali, Inayatullah Jan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 78-84
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130342

The Mediterranean region appears to be particularly responsive to global and climate change. The global mean temperature has increased by 0.8°C compared with preindustrial levels while Europe has warmed more than the global average, especially in the Mediterranean, the north-east region, and mountain areas. Increasingly drier conditions are observed in the Mediterranean region both in the wet and in the dry season (~20%) with an increasingly irregular precipitation in both seasons (~ 40% in the dry season). The annual river flows have also decreased in the Mediterranean region, a difference projected to exacerbate due to climate and global change, which made the Mediterranean region most prone to an increase in drought hazard and water stress. Iberian Peninsula has been already affected by several major droughts, e.g. the recent one in 2005. These driving forces of global change impacts on water availability, water quality, and ecosystem services in Mediterranean river basins of the Iberian Peninsula, as well as their impacts on the human society and economy, makes it an important issue on the EU agenda. This thesis is an approach to quantify and analyze the water quantity, hydrological ecosystem services, and water supply in temperate regions under environmental changes. A hydrological model is developed for a low flow Mediterranean river (Francolí River) to assess the water allocation situation in the river basin using MIKE BASIN. Since the Mediterranean regions are hard hit by the changes in the global climatic patterns, the hydrological model focuses on the water distribution system & flow in the region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Study of Charcoal Savings Achieved by an Insulated Oven with Terracotta Bricks: Implications for the Protection of Forest Resources

Serge Wendsida Igo, Gaël Lassina Sawadogo, Drissa Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye Compaoré, David Namoano, Joseph Dieudonné Bathiébo

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130323

This work is devoted to an experimental study of charcoal savings achieved by an isolated barbecue oven with terracotta bricks compared to the same non-insulated oven. The methodology is based on the simultaneous monitoring of ovens temperatures at the grills level using thermocouples and an infrared imaging camera. The results show that for the same quantity of charcoal used, the temperatures reached in the grill of the insulated oven are above those of the non-insulated oven and the energy losses to the outside environment are very significant in the non-insulated oven. As a result, with a reduction in the amount of charcoal by 35%, the insulated oven achieves the same performance as the non-insulated one. These results highlight the importance of insulating barbecue ovens, particularly with terracotta bricks in reducing of charcoal consumption in Burkina Faso, and consequently in the safeguard of forest resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Farmers on Maize as a Potential Crop for Climate Change Adaptation in Northern Bangladesh

Muhiyadin Abdilahi Ali, Md. Rezaul Karim, Kawsar Ahmed, Md. Abu Sayed Mondol

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130324

The main purposes of this research study was to determine the perception of farmers on maize as a potential crop for climate change adaptation and to access problems faced by the farmers in maize production. Maize cultivation is getting importance in Bangladesh, with economic efficiency of production estimated at 87%. Data were collected from the farmers of four villages of Biral Upazila under Dinajpur district in the Northern Bangladesh during 28 March to April 28 2018 from the 90 randomly sleeted farmers. Both descriptive and correlation coefficients test was performed for statistical analysis. Results revealed that almost three-fifths (61.10 percent) of the farmers had medium, while 20.00 percent of them had low and 18.90 percent had high perception of maize as a potential crop for climate change adaption. Correlation analysis indicated that age, education, cosmopoliteness, training received, knowledge on climate change and extension media contact of the farmers had significant positive relationships with their perception of maize as a potential crop for climate change adaption. On the contrary, farm size, maize cultivation area, farming experience and annual income had no significant relationship with their perception of maize as a potential crop for climate change adaption. ‘Non-availability of storage facilities’ was ranked as the 1st or top problems for maize production.  Other problems (in descending order) included ‘getting fair price problem due to interfere of middleman’, ‘non-availability of farm labour’, ‘lack of /or inadequate access to weather forecast technologies’, ‘no hybrid maize seed availability, ‘non-habit of human for consumption as food’, ‘poor information access regarding climate change adaptation strategies by maize farmers’, ‘lack of inputs in time’, ‘non-suitability of land for maize cultivation’, as well as ‘poor agricultural extension service delivery’. Further, it might be recommended that necessary support should be provided for the maize growers to minimize their problems on prioritize basis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Vegetation Destruction on the Socio-Economic Well-being of Households within the Soapstone Quarrying Areas of Gucha South Sub-County, Kenya

George Okong’o, Mark Ndunda Mutinda, Isaiah Gitonga Imaita

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 22-32
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130326

Soapstone quarrying and carving has taken place at the Tabaka region of Gucha South Sub-County for many decades. The activities associated with soapstone quarrying include clearing of vegetation, removal of top soil, earth moving, excavation of the stones and chopping off the unwanted parts of the soapstone. These activities have caused serious environmental impacts in the quarrying areas. This study focused on the effects of vegetation destruction as a result of soapstone quarrying on the socio-economic well-being of households within the quarrying areas of Gucha South Sub-County, Kenya. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of vegetation destruction (loss of cover and biodiversity erosion) by quarrying on the socio-economic well-being of households within the quarry areas. A cross-sectional survey research design was adopted. Purposive sampling procedure was utilized where 102 households were purposively selected based on their nearness to the soapstone quarries. Data collection was done using a questionnaire, recording observations and taking photographs. Descriptive (Frequency distribution, percentages, means, median and mode) and Inferential (Regression, Chi-square and ANOVA) statistics were used to analyze the data. The findings of this study indicate that vegetation destruction as a result of soapstone quarrying activities has negative effects on the socio-economic wellbeing of the households found within the soapstone quarrying areas. Thus, there is need to regulate the soapstone quarrying activities. There is also an urgent need for an Environmental Impact Assessment and audit to be carried out to determine the state of the environment in the soapstone quarrying areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling the Propagation of Flood Waves at the Mouth of the Comoé River in Grand-Bassam (South East of Côte d’Ivoire)

Kouakou Hervé Kouassi, Zilé Alex Kouadio, Yao Alexis N’go, Berenger Koffi, Gla Blaise Ouédé

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 33-42
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130328

This study was carried out in order to determine the areas at risk of flooding during high water periods at the mouth of the Comoé River in Grand-Bassam. The database is essentially made up of hydro-climatic data, satellite images and topographic data. According to the various criteria, the Weibull law was selected to estimate the maximum frequency flows. According to this law, the flows at the return periods of 2, 10, 50 and 100 years are respectively 634, 733, 781 and 797 m3 / s. The modeling results showed that the areas exposed to the risk of flooding are located near the Ouladine lagoon and the Ebrié lagoon at the mouth of the Comoé river. The extent of the floodplains varies with flooded areas of the order of 85.63 km²; 89.42 km²; 101.67 km²; 107.10 km² for the return periods of 2; 10; 50 and 100 years old.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Climate Factors Influencing Rice Production in Bangladesh

Mahmuda Akter, Md. Mizanur Rahman Sarker

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 43-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130336

This study aims to study the climate change pattern, assess the situation of climate change, finding the influences of climate change on the production of rice, estimating a model between climate change and rice production in Bangladesh. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Generalized Least Squares (GLS), Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) were used in this study to compare the results. This study included all 64 districts of Bangladesh with a time span from 2011 to 2018. It included panel data of the production of Aus rice, Aman rice, Boro rice as well as HYV of each rice (Aus, Aman, Boro) of 64 districts of Bangladesh for agricultural data, temperature, rainfall and humidity of 64 districts for climate data. This study estimates the stochastic production function formulated by Just and Pope (1978, 1979), which allows the effect of inputs on the mean yield to differ from that on yield variance. The results showed that increased climate variability, climate extremes; in particular, exacerbate risk on Rice production in Bangladesh. Rice yields are sensitive to rainfall extremes, with both deficient and surplus rainfall increasing variability. For 1% increase in annual total rainfall, Mean Yield will decrease by 0.139%, 0.141%, 0.132% in OLS, GLS and FGLS method respectively, if other variables remaining the same. For 1% increase in annual average percentage of humidity, Mean Yield increases by 1.352%, 1.340%, 1.362% in OLS, GLS and FGLS method respectively, if other variables remaining the same. for 1% increase in HYV area, Mean Yield increases by 0.831% in OLS, GLS and FGLS method, if other variables remaining the same. Additionally, climate inputs, non-climate input, high yielding variety seeds are found to increase average yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Croplands’ Exposure to Climate Variability in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria

Dada Ibilewa, Samaila K. Ishaya, Joshua I. Magaji

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 53-77
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130340

The knowledge of exposure of croplands to climate variability is of paramount importance in adaptive capacity planning to boost food production for the world’s growing population. The study assessed the exposure of croplands to climate variability in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria using Geo-informatics. This was achieved by examining the distribution pattern of climate indices in FCT from 1981-2017, determining the exposure index of croplands in FCT Area Councils and production of exposure map of FCT Area Councils, The spatial scope of this study is the entire arable land in FCT which is made up of six Area Councils. The research is contextually restricted to exposure of croplands to climate variables while other variables remain constant. The selected climatic variables are rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and potential evapotranspiration (exposure indicators). The arable crops in focus are yam, beans and maize while the soil variables selected for the study are: soil erosion, organic carbon content of the soil, clay content of the soil and percentage of arable land available for crop production. The temporal scope of the examined exposure indicators (climate variables) was limited to a period of thirty (37) years from 1981- 2017. The result indicates that Bwari has the highest exposure (0.1671) to climate variables while Abaji has the least (0.0868) exposure. AMAC is high (0.1371), Kuje (0.1304) is moderate while Gwagwalada (0.1132) and Kwali (0.1154) have low exposures to climate variability. The implication of this on the referenced crops is that crop yield will be highly reduced in Bwari and optimum in Abaji Area Councils due to their climatic requirement. The power of Geo-Spatial Technology in combining different indices of exposure to produce exposure map was demonstrated in the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Atlantic and Pacific Ocean Teleconnections on Corn Yield East of Puebla, Mexico: Case Studies

Ma De Los Ángeles Velasco-Hernández, Tomás Morales-Acoltzi, Miguel Ángel García-Castro, Rogelio Bernal-morales, Joaquín Zagoya-Martínez, José Pedro Juárez-Sánchez, Benito Ramírez-Valverde

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 85-99
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130346

Ocean-atmospheric interactions have effects at different scales; forming microclimates, which can explain variations with climatic or natural anomalies, between meteorological processes. This research analyzes and identifies the relationship of the teleconnection hydrometeorological effects, which determine the distribution of precipitation in corn yield. The data were used from a semi-structured interview directed to corn producers, where seven years of case studies were identified for the eastern region of the state of Puebla, Mexico. The Graphics were made with “pentad scale distribution”. The results show the importance of geographical location for agricultural activities in relation to a valley with altitudinal gradient. In addition, the corn growth cycle is associated with tropical disturbances from east Puebla region as well as Hurricane activity. It was identified that the relationship of teleconnections and the distribution of rainfall are main factors that influence in the development good or bad of corn, showed in the yields, where the different phases of ENSO (EL NIÑO Southern Oscillation) have a differentiated impact on the availability of precipitation in this case studies of the present investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictive Performance Analysis of PDF – IDF Model Types Using Rainfall Observations from Fourteen Gauged Stations

Ify L. Nwaogazie, M. G. Sam, A. O. David

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 125-143
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130349

The design of structures for flood mitigation depends on the adequate estimation of rainfall intensity over a given catchment which is achieved by the rainfall intensity duration frequency modelling. In this study, an extensive comparative analyses were carried out on the predictive performance of three PDF – IDF model types, namely: Gumbel Extreme Value Type 1 (GEVT – 1), Log-Pearson Type 3 (LPT – 3) and Normal Distribution (ND) in 14 selected cities in Southern Nigeria. This is to rank the order of best performance. The principle of general model development was adopted in which rainfall intensities at different durations and specified return periods were used as input data set. This is not same as return period specific model that involves rainfall intensities for various durations and a given return period. The predicted rainfall intensity values with the PDF – IDF model types indicate high goodness of fit (R2) and Mean Squared Errors (MSE) ranging from: (a) R2 = 0.875 – 0.992; MSE = 33.17 – 224.6 for GEVT – 1; (b) R2 = 0.849 – 0.990; MSE = 65.34 – 405.5 for LPT – 3 and (c) R2 = 0.839 – 0.992; MSE = 29.23 – 200.2 for ND. The comparative analysis of all the 42 general models (14 locations versus 3 model types) considered showed that the order of best performance is LPT – 3 1st, GEVT - 1 2nd and ND 3rd for each return period (10, 50 and 100 years). The Kruskal Wallis test of significance indicates that no significant difference exists in the predictive performance of the three General models across the board. This may be due to the fact that the fourteen locations of the study area are bordering with the Atlantic Ocean and seems to have similar climatology. These developed General models are recommended for the computation of intensities in the fourteen locations for the design of flood control structures; and the order of preference should be LPT – 3 > GEVT – 1 > ND.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Attitude towards Green Products among the Urban and Rural Consumers

Bhavini B. Patil, Suma Hasalkar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 144-159
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130350

The growing environmental concern amongst the public has demanded organizations, businesses and individuals to be responsible and conscious in their everyday activity not to cause any harm to the environment. Most environmental problems are caused by the way people living and continuously damaging the environment. The study was conducted with the aim to assess the awareness and knowledge among the consumers about green products. The exploratory research design was adopted to conduct the study. The data was collected from 600 educated consumers from the urban and rural areas of Dharwad and Belagavi district. The data was analyzed by using frequency, percentage, mean,‘t’ test and correlation coefficient.  The results revealed that Both in urban and rural the areas majority of the consumers belonged 22-29 years of age group and more than half of the consumers selected for study were graduates in urban area and studied upto 12th standard in rural area. With regard to occupation one third of the consumers selected for the study were students, followed by unemployed and self employed consumers. Majority of the consumers had medium family income of rupees 7,380-51,780 per month. Maximum number of the selected consumers belonged to upper middle socio economic category. Maximum number of the selected consumers belonged to upper middle socio economic category. The female consumers in both the locality had favourable attitude towards green products compared to male consumers. There was highly significant difference between the gender and between the locations at 0.01 level. There was significant difference between the gender and location at 0.05 level of significance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Rural Entrepreneurship with Value Added Regram (Cajanus cajan) Using Mini Dal Mill

Afifa Jahan, R. Arunjyothi, M. Jagan Mohan Reddy, T. Prabhakar Reddy, A. Shankar, K. RamaKrishna, B. Rajasheker, L. Shravika, M. Rajasheker

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 160-165
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130351

Pulses processing is a very huge business in India. In India, split of pulses are prepared called as “Dal” or “Dhal”. Regdram cultivating farmers are demotivated as there net returns are low due to continuous market fluctuation in prices of Redgram and this is becoming the reason for decrease in area of cultivation under Redgram. Milling pulses improves bio-availability of nutrients and Partial or complete removal of antinutritional and toxic compounds making it nutritive for human consumption. Mini dal mill is low investment enterprise to improve the net income of farmers. The present study concluded that the average gross income through sale of Redgram is Rs 41.3/KG without processing and Rs 63/KG with processing. The profitability is more with the processing of Redgram. The cost benefit ratio is 1:1.18 without processing and 1:1.80 with processing. Hence farmers must be educated to develop entrepreneurship and promote value added Redgram using mini dal mill.

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Quality of Streams and Springs around a Municipal Landfill Surrounded by Intense Agricultural Activities in a Tropical Environment

B. A. Fonge, E. N. Nkoleka, F. Z. Asong

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 166-181
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130352

In Cameroon waste disposal by open dumping and landfilling are the most practised options. The siting, operation and after-care of landfills remain a challenging task. In this study we assessed water quality of stream, spring and leachate samples around/from the Mussaka landfill through physicochemical, heavy metal, microbial, phytoplankton, and benthic algae analyses. HCO3-, NH4-, NO3- concentrations are all above permissible limits EPA and WHO standards for freshwater systems. Concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in stream samples were far below standards but far greater (>480 mg/L) in spring and leachate samples. Nickel, lead and cadmium concentrations were above required standards. Contamination factors of all stream samples (CF<3) imply low to moderate contamination but pollution load index for spring sample (PLI>1) imply the spring is polluted. Generally, the obtained concentrations of most of these parameters were far higher for leachate than water samples. Total coliform counts ranged from 3.5 MPN/100mL to 1.1x103 MPN/100 mL. Five E. coli species were detected in all samples in counts ranging from 3.0x102 to 1.0x103CFU/mL. Thirty phytoplankton species belonging to 5 divisions were identified with Bacillariophyta (19 species) having the highest abundance and Euglenophyta (1 species) with least. Ten genera were identified as pollution indicator species. Results of this study justify the assertion that if upgrading options are not sought for the Mussaka landfill, it will become a major source of pollution of aquatic and soil ecosystems within the landfill area and downstream.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geophysical Investigation Using 3-Dimensional Grid-Formation for Subsurface Lithology Characterization (A Case Study of Ovia North East, Edo State, South South Nigeria)

O. J. Airen, P. S. Iyere

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 182-194
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130353

Geophysical investigations using three-dimensional (3D) grid formation was carried out in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria for subsurface lithology characterisation so as to generate a comprehensive basemap of the study area. Twelve (12) traverses in form of a rectangular grid were occupied for the 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) using the Wenner array. The 2D were all collated to form the 3D grid. The 2D Electrical Resistivity data was processed by the inversion of the 2D apparent resistivity data using the DIPRO software to generate the 2D inverted resistivity section while the 3D inverted resistivity model was done by inverting all the twelve traverses using 3DEarthimager software to model the 3D cube. The results of the 2D ERI revealed three (03) to five (05) resistivity structures across the twelve traverses indicating clay/clayey sand, sand and sandstone on a 200 and 300 m lateral distance and corresponding depth of 39.6 and 57.3 m across each traverses. Resistivity values generally varies from 16.8 – 45302 Ωm across Traverse 1 – 12. The layer horizontal depth slices of the 3D inverted resistivity distribution are in six layers, which are; 0 - 5 m, 5 – 10.8 m, 10.8 – 17.4 m, 17.4 – 25 m, 25 – 33.7 m and 33.7 – 43.8 m. The 3D inverted resistivity model within the study area covered lateral plane (the roll axis), 300 m, in the x plane (the pitch axis), 200 m lateral distance was covered and in the depth plane (the yaw axis), a maximum depth of 66 m is imaged. The inverted 3D Resistivity values generally vary from 189 - 6149 Ωm across the study area. The resistivity structures delineated from the 3D model are clayey sand and sand.

Open Access Review Article

Alternative Uses, in and off-Field Managements to Reduce Adverse Impact of Crop Residue Burning on Environment: A Review

R. K. Naresh, S. S. Dhaliwal, M. S. Chandra, S. K. Malhotra, J. Harish, P. K. Singh, V. Kumar, A. Baliyan, S. Gawdiya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 100-118
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130347

Residues of various crops are considered nuisance but they can be helpful in increasing organic matter in soil and better cycling of nutrients in soil if managed properly. Better management and utilization of crop residues (CR) is necessary for better productivity and quality of crops. Sowing into loose residues is the major issue in adapting the drill sowing method. Apart from the higher quantity of rice (192.82 mt) and wheat residue (120.70 mt), the residue of sorghum, maize, barley, chickpea, groundnut, rapeseed, mustard, sugarcane trash, potato, soybean, sunflower and some other minor cereals also contribute substantially towards total amount of about 462.93 million tonnes in India in 1997-98. Three quarters of the total residue is produced by rice, wheat and oil seed crops with remaining quarter coming from sugarcane and sorghum. Crop residue is important component of low external input for sustainable agriculture without sacrificing productivity. The crop residues left behind is considered as burden forcing farmers to burn them as cheap and easiest method with mistaken belief that it enhances the soil fertility and helps in controlling weeds, insects and pests. Different studies revealed that burning of residues causes air pollution and nutrient loss in soil. Improvements in soil properties and the sustainability in crop productivity could be achieved if CR are proper managed. Long-term field studies at sites carefully selected with variations in temperature, moisture, soil mineralogy and management of agricultural residues representing various cropping systems across regions should be identified and sustained. The possible benefits of crop residues for the improvement of degrading soil fertility would be completely understood only then. Owing to the competing requirements for such biomass for feed, fuel or building material, smallholder farmers typically find it difficult to maintain a soil cover for crop residue or a cover crop.

Open Access Review Article

Use of GIS and Remote Sensing as Risk Reduction Techniques in Disasters with Special Reference of India

Sohel Mohammad, Praveen Bishnoi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 119-124
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i130348

Management in Disaster may be a dynamic method. It includes the classical management functions of turning out with, organizing staffing, leading and dominant. A hazard involves several organizations, that should work along to prevent mitigate, inure, answer, and recover from the results of disaster. Disaster management would so embrace immediate response, recovery, prevention, mitigation, state, the cycle goes on. Asian country is that the country wherever varied varieties of natural disasters overrun once a year, eg. Floods, drought, earthquakes, cyclones and landslides etc. In Asian country uncountable folks are affected every year and additionally the economic losses caused by varied disasters quantity to a big share of the Gross National Product. Natural Disasters are large economic burdens particularly on economically developing countries as Asian country. Every year, large quantities of resources are mobilized for rescue, relief and rehabilitation works following natural disaster occurrences. In India, a far better analysis of what transforms an event into somebody's and economic disaster reveals that the essential issues of development that the country faces are the precise same issues that contribute to its vulnerability to the harmful effects of natural hazards. This text aims to focus on the importance of GIS and remote sensing that how to boost the presently practiced disaster management programs victimization these techniques.