Open Access Original Research Article

Genotypic × Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Attributes in Taramira (Eruca sativa Mill.)

Mahaveer Prasad Ola, Mohan Lal Jakhar, D. K. Gothwal, Sarfraz Ahmadmad, Manohar Ram

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i230354

Aims: To identify the stable genotypes across the different environments for yield and its           attributing traits.

Study Design: Field experimental design was applied.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at Research Farm, SKN College of Agriculture, S.K.N. Agriculture University, Jobner (Rajasthan), India in different environments during rabi 2018-19.

Methodology: An experiment was conducted on thirty genotypes of taramira (Eruca Sativa Mill.) in three environments created by three dates of sowing during rabi 2018-2019 in randomized block design with three replications to estimate genotypic × environment interaction and stability parameters for various yield and yield attributing traits. The stability analysis was carried out according to Eberhart and Russell model.

Results: The highest yielding genotypes were RTM-1351, RTM-1810, RTM-1315 and RTM-314. Genotypes RTM-314, RTM-1800, RTM-1810 and RTM-1815 were found relatively stable for seed yield per plant. Genotypes RTM-1795, RTM-1798 and RTM-1799 had below average stability for seed yield per plant and suitable for better environmental conditions. Genotypes RTM-1791, RTM-1815 and RTM-1351 were showed above average stability for seed yield per plant and suitable for poor environmental condition. Further, these genotypes can be utilized in the development of stable cultivar taramira.

Conclusion: Pooled analysis of variance indicated significant differences among environments and genotypes. Genotypes RTM-314, RTM-1800, RTM-1805 and RTM-1810 were found most stable for most of the characters, which can be grown in wide range of environments (all three dates of sowing).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic Amendments on Soil Carbon Stock, Yield and Quality of Sugarcane Ratoon

Rashmi Priyadarshi, S. K. Thakur, C. K. Jha, S. K. Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 12-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i230355

A field experiment was conducted during 2018-20 to evaluate the effect of different organic amendments on yield and quality of sugarcane ratoon in calcareous soil at Crop Research Centre, farm at Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with 8 treatments viz. control, FYM (farmyard manure) @ 20 t ha-1, biocompost (BC) @ 20 t ha-1, vermicompost (VC) @ 5.0 t ha-1, green manure with moong, sugarcane trash @ 10 t ha-1, FYM + BC+ VC (1: 1: 0.5) @ 20 t ha-1 and recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) as NPK (170: 50: 60 kg ha-1) and replicated thrice in sugarcane plant-ratoon system. The sugarcane plant crop was taken and after harvest of plant, the ratoon crop was initiated. Addition of organic amendments significantly increased the number of tillers, millable cane and ratoon cane yield which was at par with recommended dose of fertilizer. The cane juice quality was not affected due to different treatments. The mean cane yield (61.7 - 77.1 t ha-1) and sugar yield (4.06-10.56 t ha-1) varied significantly in organic added plots t ha-1 which was found at par with RDF. The sugar yield followed the similar trends of cane yield. The SMBC (soil microbial biomass carbon), CO2 evolution and carbon stocks were significantly higher in organic amendment added plots indicating improvement in soil carbon status. The highest value of CO2 evolution, SMBC and carbon stocks were observed in the treatment receiving FYM+BC+VC in combination (1: 1: 0.5). Organic amendments had beneficial impact on restoration of soil carbon status, cane and sugar yield of ratoon crop of sugarcane in calcareous soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Pollution Load: Heavy Metal Contents and Physiochemical Properties of the Great Kwa River, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Paul Bassey Ekpo, Anthony John Umoyen, Nseobong Godwin Akpan, Inyang Paul Ekpo, Gabriel Abu, Cecilia James Sunday

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 19-31
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i230356

Background and Objectives: Human activities can increase the amount of pollutants in the environment leading to water pollution. The contamination of surface water and sediments by heavy metals can result in adverse health conditions of humans, due to the bioaccumulation of metals. This study seeks to assess the pollution load of some heavy metals and physiochemical properties in Great Kwa River.

Methods: Water samples were collected once a month from three stations within four selected months in wet and dry seasons. Samples were preserved by adding 10 ml of 6 N Nitric acid and stored at 5oC. Laboratory investigations were conducted and data analyzed statistically.

Findings: The mean pH, dissolved O2, biological O2 demand, conductivity, NO3, NH4 and temperature were 7.44±1.24, 5.58±0.92, 0.957±0.002, 32.84±2.941, 0.1030±0.1701, 0.113±0.018 and 28.2±1.48, respectively during wet season. Mean concentration of Cu, Fe, Cr, Mn, Zn, Ni are 0.225±0.003, 0.489±0.009, 0.068±0.016, 0.102±0.006, 0.794±0.003, 0.031±0.001, respectively during the wet season. Mean concentration of metals in the river during the wet season were ranked in descending order as Zn > Fe > Cu > Mn > Cr > Ni. Iron (0.489±0.009 mg/l and 0.438±0.003 mg/l), chromium (0.068±0.016 mg/l and 0.055±0.008 mg/l), nickel (0.031±0.001 mg/l and 0.025±0.002 mg/l) were higher than Nigerian standard for drinking water in both seasons. The contamination factor of heavy metals in station 3 were 2.14, 1.56, 1.09, 0.89 for Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, respectively, indicating moderate contamination. The pollution load index in stations 1, 2, 3 were 0.262, 0.537, 0.981, respectively.

Conclusion: The present study provided base-line information on the pollution levels and physiochemical properties of the river. The river was not highly polluted by heavy metals except iron, chromium and nickel that were found above the recommended standards. However, drinking of water from the river over one’s lifetime is not advisable due to detrimental health hazards.