Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Pollution Status of Lagos Coastal Waters and Sediments, using Physicochemical Characteristics, Contamination Factor, Nemerow Pollution Index, Ecological Risk and Potential Ecological Risk Index

Gloria Ekaete Ajani, Samuel Olatunde Popoola, Otolorin Opeyemi Oyatola

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330371

The heavy metals and physicochemical properties of Lagos coastal waters and sediments, Southwestern Nigeria were investigated in 5 stations (station 1-5), to determine their levels, distributions and pollution index. The observed ranges of physicochemical characteristics from the study area are: dissolved oxygen (DO): 2.15-11.3 mg/L; pH: 6-7.7; temperature (Temp): 28.05-29.25°C; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): 1.6-110.1 mg/L; electrical conductivity (EC): 1.8-29.8 mS/cm; salinity (SAL): 0.02-2.05ppt; total dissolved solids (TDS): 211.8-1210.2 mg/L and total suspended solids (TSS): 12.13-117.95 mg/L. The analyzed physicochemical properties from all the stations are within the desired values for healthy marine ecosystems when compared with Federal ministry of environment (FMENV) Nigeria and World Health organization permissible limits (DO:>5 mg/L; pH:6.5-9; TEMP:<40°C; BOD: 50 mg/L; EC:900 mS/cm; TDS:1000mg/L and TSS:600 mg/L), with the exception of low DO at station 1 and station 5; and high BOD at; station 2 and station 3 respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals present in the water samples followed the sequence: Fe > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd, and showed high values for Pb, Cd and Cr, relative to the standard permissible limits according to FMENV (Pb 0.001; Zn 50 mg/L; Cd < 0.0018; Cu 2-4 mg/L and Cr 0.02-2.0 mg/L). The calculated contamination factor (CF) in the sediment samples showed low-moderate contamination for the analyzed heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Cu and Pb), except for cadmium (Cd) that showed extremely severe contamination (CF > 6) values across the sampling stations. The calculated Nemerow pollution index (NPI) and ecological risk index (RI) showed heavily polluted (NPI > 10) values and very high ecological risk (RI > 380) values at Apapa (location 1), Iddo (location 2) and Makoko (location 3). The potential ecological risk factor (Eir) confirmed Cd as the highest polluted heavy metals (Eir >320), with the greatest potential threat to the marine ecosystems in the Lagos coastal waters. The study highlights the impacts of anthropogenic pollutions on the coastal ecosystems and human health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantifying the Nitrogen Requirement of Castor Cultivars in Post Monsoon Season on Alfisols

A. V. Ramanjaneyulu, A. Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, M. V. Nagesh Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 17-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330373

Aim: The experiment is aimed at quantifying the nitrogen requirement and identifying suitable hybrids and varieties of castor to be grown during post monsoon season on Alfisols in          Telangana

Study Design: Split plot design.

Place and Duration of Study: Regional Agricultural Research Station, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Palem, Telangana state, India during post monsoon season of 2010-11 and 2011-12.

Methodology: The study consisted of four N levels (0, 40, 80 kg and 120 kg N ha-1) in main plots and five cultivars (DCH-177, PCH-111, GCH-4, Haritha and 48-1)in sub plots. The growth parameters, yield attributes, seed yield, water use efficiency, economic returns, correlation and regression were studied.

Results: The pooled data indicated that significantly taller plants with more no. of branchesplant-1, longer and effective spikes thus seed yield of castor were observed due to application of 80 kg Nha-1 and 120 kg Nha-1. However, application of 120 kg N ha-1 resulted in greater net returns (USD 1049 ha-1) and also returns per rupee invested (1.66). The results further showed that the castor hybrids PCH-111 (1900 kg/ha) and DCH-177 (1809 kg/ha) produced similar yield, but, both significantly outyielded over other cultivars. The performance of hybrids was superior to the varieties. A highly significant positive correlation was observed for seed yield with no. of branches/plant, total and effective spike length.

Conclusion: The cultivation of castor hybrids either PCH-111 or DCH-177 under N supply of 120 kg N ha-1 would help to realize higher yields, water use efficiency and income from post monsoon season castor on Alfisols.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Nutrigenetic Traits of Silkworm, Bombyxmori L. for Determining Growth and Development for Identifying Parental Breeds for Breeding under Subtropical Region of North West India

S. Murali, Sardar Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 26-37
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330374

Study was conducted during spring and autumn season (2018 & 2019) to screen and identify rich nutrigenetic breeds from the selected breed’s for their nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, BombyxmoriL.(Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds under Subtropical condition of Jammu based on the breeds which shows less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion based on leaf to cocoon and leaf to shell ratio. Highly significant variations were found among all nutrigenetic traits of bivoltine silkworm breeds in the study. The nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds were shortlisted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency for conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index for selection of highly promising breeds. Furthermore, based on the average of data from both the seasons, the overall rearing nutrigenetic traits utilized as index, eight bivoltine silkworm breeds (B.con 1, B.con 4, BHR 2, ATR 16, BHR 3, CSR 50, RSJ 14 and NB4D2) were identified as havingthe potential for nutrition efficiency conversion and can be utilized for further breeding programme. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Strategic Environmental Assessment: Current Status, Practices and Challenges in Bangladesh

Md. Sahadat Hossan, Md. Shafiqul Bari, Md. Shoaibur Rahman, Md. Abu Hanif, Md. Manik Ali

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330375

Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is an appraisal device of policies, plans, and programs and has evolved from an alternative of environmental impact assessment (EIA) to a potential environmental policy integration tool in national policy planning. Bangladesh has likewise rendered SEA in its environmental evaluation framework to consider environmental and social outcomes of policies, plans, and programs(PPPs), but the practice and current situation of SEA in Bangladesh is unknown to all. Considering this crisis the study was carried out to analyze the present status of SEA as well as to find out the constraints for successful SEA implementation in Bangladesh as an approach to integrate environmental considerations in the PPPs. The data were collected through multiple methodological techniques including document review as well as survey by standard questionnaire and key informant interviews (KIIs) with different stakeholders of the various backgrounds of Bangladesh related to policymaking. The study showed that SEA first appeared in Bangladesh in 2006 with the support of the World Bank as a donor agency and the first SEA was done in Bangladesh on the Dhaka metropolitan development plan in 2007. But through the enactment of the National Environmental Policy 2018, SEA gained formal status in the country. Now, This study also revealed that most of the organizations (government and non-government) i.e. 55.77 percent never practice SEA whereas only 15.38 percent of organizations of Bangladesh practice SEA on regular basis, and 28.85 percent of organizations practiced partially for assessing SEA in their proposed PPPs. A diverse list of constraints such as lack of political will, lacking awareness of SEA, inadequate finance, weak enforcement of environmental law, and inadequate knowledge of the implementation of SEA in PPPs were identified. Therefore, awareness building, capacity development, and proper training on SEA in Bangladesh are urgently needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extent of Awareness and Various Challenges Faced by the Rural People Due to Pandemic of COVID-19

Biman Maity, Tarun Kumar Das, Kausik Pradhan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 49-54
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330376

COVID-19 is an infectious disease which caused severe pandemic to the whole world. Due to its effect of various agricultural sectors such as crop, livestock and fishery have been smash hard by pandemic. The study was conducted to get perception of extent of awareness and its effect due to pandemic of COVID-19 by the rural people in Cooch Behar district of West Bengal. There were 80 respondents from four villages who experienced the negative impact of lockdown due to COVID-19 were selected for the study. The data were collected through well-structured interview schedule with the help of online google form as well as verbal communication in mobile phone. Collected data were compiled and analyzed with simple statistical tools to draw a specific conclusion. The results show that 41.25 per cent of the respondent had high level of awareness on COVID-19 followed by 20.0 per cent had lower level of awareness on corona virus disease. The finding also said that 82.50 per cent of the respondent had faced challenges of lack of opportunities for earning money followed by 72.50 per cent had scarcity of food materials or insufficient of food items in the locality during pandemic of COVID-19. Due to lockdown, the movement of agriculture produces from its place of production to the ultimate consumer has been also affected. It is suggested that some more specific and need based income generating measure is required to taken by the various existing government and non-government organization to reduce the pandemic situation among rural communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sources, Split and Foliar Application of KCl and KClO3 on Availability and Uptake of Nitrogen in Aerobic Rice

P. Anji Babu, K. Omar Hattab, L. Aruna, R. Mohan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 55-72
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330377

Aim: To investigate the effect of KCl and KClO3 as sources of potassium in aerobic rice with four types of split doses and two levels of foliar applications of potassium.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Karaikal, Puducherry.

Methodology: The rice variety PMK 4 was tested with two sources of potassium viz., Potassium chloride (KCl) and Potassium chlorate (KClO3), four types of split application viz., K control (S1), basal with no split (S2), two splits (S3) and three splits (S4) along with foliar application treatments viz., no foliar (F1) and foliar spray (F2).

Results: The results of field experiment revealed that the N availability in soil was more at all stages of crop growth by two and three split doses of potassium. The KClO3 increased the available N status at active and panicle initiation stages. Whereas in flowering stage, the KCl recorded the higher available N status in soil. The nitrogen uptake at active tillering stage and flowering stage was evidently improved with three split doses of potassium. Whereas in panicle initiation stage, the two split doses registered higher N uptake. The nitrogen uptake by both grain and straw was conspicuously higher in three and two split doses of potassium.

Conclusion: The split applications tested in this investigation influenced the available N status in soil. Almost in all the stages, three split applications retained more available N in soil. This implies the positive interaction of potassium with nitrogen.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Phosphorus Management on Macro and Micronutrient Status of Soil in Bt-Cotton

K. V. S. L. Raj Rushi, P. Prasuna Rani, P. R. K. Prasad, P. Anil Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 73-83
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330378

Aim: To evaluate the impact of integrated use of phosphorus on soil fertility in Bt-Cotton.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications.

Place of Study: At College Farm, Agricultural College, Bapatla, Guntur district.

Methodology: After the preliminary layout, Tulasi-BG II hybrid of cotton was used as a test crop, with a spacing of 90 cm x 60 cm in the experimental site. Farmyard Manure @ 10 t ha-1 was applied 10 days prior to sowing while phosphorus solubilising bacteria @ 5 kg ha-1 was applied one day before sowing. Phosphorus was applied as per the treatments basally at sowing whereas, the recommended dose of nitrogen and potassium (120 and 60 kg ha-1, respectively) were applied in four equal splits at 20, 40, 60, and 80.

Results: The treatments showed no significant influence on available nitrogen and potassium but, comparatively higher values of nitrogen and potassium were observed in organic treated plots. The available phosphorus content was markedly influenced by level of phosphorus as well as components of integration at all the crop growth stages. Highest available phosphorus was recorded on integration of maximum dose of phosphorus with Phosphorus solubilising bacteria (PSB) and Farmyard manure (FYM). The available micronutrient contents in soil did not show any marked difference among the treatments at all the stages of crop growth.

Conclusion: Application of phosphorus along with Phosphorus solubilising bacteria (PSB) and Farmyard manure (FYM) can reduce the phosphorus requirement to crops as well as improves soil health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Direct and Residual Effect of Integrated Nitrogen Management on Physico-Chemical Properties of Soil

D. K. D. Deekshitha, Sujani Rao, Ch, P. V. Subbaiah, M. Martin Luther, V. Srinivasa Rao

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 84-99
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330379

Aim: To find out the direct and residual effect of integrated nitrogen management on physico-chemical properties of soil under rice – maize cropping system.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in randomized block design during kharif season and in split plot design during rabi crop.

Place and Duration of Study: At Agricultural college farm, Bapatla during 2018-19 and 2019-20 in Kharif and rabi seasons.

Methodology: After the preliminary layout, paddy was sown in kharif and maize was sown in rabi season. Vermicompost and green leaf manure were applied two weeks before sowing of paddy. Treatments applied for paddy were considered as main plots and each one divided into two sub plots during rabi.

Results: Applications of different treatments did not show any significant difference in physico-chemical properties of soil (pH and EC) at all the growth stages of rice and maize during both the years of study. Application of 75% RDN through green leaf manure + 25% RDN through inorganics (T5) to rice during kharif significantly improved organic carbon in both kharif and rabi seasons whereas different levels of fertilizers applied have not shown an significant influence on soil organic carbon content.

Conclusion: Application of inorganic fertilizers, organic manures and their combination didn’t show marked difference on physico-chemical properties of soil like pH and EC. However substitution of 75% N through GLM in kharif season significantly improved OC content in soil during both kharif and rabi and organic carbon content was not influenced by the level of fertilizers from 50% RDF (S1) to100% RDF (S2).

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Physico-chemical Properties as affected by Long-term Application of Organics and Inorganic NPK Fertilisers under Rice-wheat Cropping System in Calcareous Soil of Bihar

Rajeswari Das, Mukesh Kumar, Santosh Kumar Singh, Shankar Jha, Subhra Sahoo

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 100-107
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330380

A balanced application of organics and inorganic fertilisers could be beneficial to both soil nutrient availability, soil health and crop growth. The experiment was conducted on light textured highly calcareous soil at Research Farm of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa. Four levels of inorganic fertiliser treatments were applied i.e. 50, 100 and 150% of NPK along with no NPK as control as main plot treatments while four levels of organic treatment (i.e. no organics, compost, crop residue and compost+ crop residue) were applied as sub plot treatments in a split plot design with a total sixteen (16) treatments with three replications to investigate the long term effect of application of various doses of recommended fertiliser along with organic amendments on various physico-chemical properties of calcareous soils after 32nd crop cycle . Data was collected on various physico-chemical properties i.e. Soil pH, electrical conductivity (dSm-1), soil organic carbon (g kg-1), free CaCO3 (%), cation exchange capacity [cmol (p+) kg -1], bulk Density (Mg m-3) and water holding capacity (w/w %). The result revealed that soil pH was reduced by 3.9% while electrical conductivity (EC) was reduced by 45% over initial (1988). Both soil pH and EC were reduced by 1.7% and 15.4% respectively in plots receiving combined application of compost and crop residue along with 150% NPK over control. Organic carbon was improves by 33% over initial (1988) which had direct effect on reduction in soil bulk density (32%) and improved water holding capacity (29%) over the control in plots receiving 150% NPK along with combined application of compost and crop residue. Soil cation exchange capacity and free CaCO3 also showed an alternate trend former being enhanced and later being reduced after 32nd crop cycle in rice-wheat cropping system. Application of different levels of NPK along with different organics improved the overall soil physico-chemical properties which further have direct relation with enhanced crop growth and productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sprouting on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Mung Bean Seeds

Manne Hemanth Kumar, Kodidhala Vaishnavi, Surojit Sen, Sunayana Rathi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 108-114
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330381

The physico-chemical properties of seed are significant in designing equipment, marketing for evaluating seed quality. In this context, physico-chemical properties of three varieties of mung bean seeds, physical properties and germination properties during the sprouting period were evaluated. The average length, width and thickness were 4.64 mm, 3.64 mm and 3.26 mm at moisture content 10.70% on a dry weight basis. Hydration capacity ranged from 0.041 to 0.050 g/seed and hydration index ranged from 0.921 to 1.062, whereas swelling capacity ranged from 0.035 to 0.045 ml/seed and swelling index ranged from 0.927 to 1.447. Maximum sprout length and the germination rate were recorded in the variety SGC-20 at 96 h germination period as 45.56 mm and 96.67% respectively followed by the variety SGC-16 while IPM-02-3 reported lower sprout length and germination rate. Hence, the variety SGC-20 is best for consumption as sprouts among the three varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Cladding Material and Mulching on the Growth and Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under Forced Ventilated Greenhouse System

D. Mahender Reddy, R. Lalitha, S. Vallal Kannan, A. Raviraj

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 115-125
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330382

The experiment was conducted at Agricultural Engineering College & Research Institute, Kumulur, (TNAU), Tamil Nadu with the objectives to test the performance of different cladding (blue and white colour polyethylene) and plastic mulches (silver on black colour) on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., Fadia F1, hybrid) to find the suitable cultivation practices for obtaining higher yields in semi-arid regions.

The observations of micro climatic parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, light intensity and soil temperature were recorded in each polyhouse and at control (open cultivation). The plant growth parameters like plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of branches, date of first flowering, number of fruits, individual fruit weight and leaf- area were recorded among all the treatments.

Among the blue and white polyhouse conditions, favourable solar incidental radiation and light intensity was observed in the white polyhouse as compared to blue polyhouse. Among the plastic mulch and without mulch treatments, the plastic mulch showed negative results under polyhouse cultivation where as positive results on growth and yield parameters at open condition (control).  Significant differences were found among the treatments combinations of white poly house condition without mulch treatment on higher fruit size, fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, number of leaves per plant, leaf area and higher yield might be due to higher photosynthetic active radiation than blue polyhouse. The microclimatic condition recorded in blue polyhouse found to be detrimental to the pathogens under certain wave lengths and resulted in lower incidences of pest and diseases but not supported for higher yield due to low light intensity compared to white polyhouse. White polythene film as cladding material for construction of poly house and without mulching is important to achieve higher growth and yield of Cucumber under semi-arid regions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Meteorological Drought with Application of Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) for Tripura, Northeast India

Aribam Priya Mahanta Sharma, D. Jhajharia, G. S. Yurembam, S. Gupta

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 126-135
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330383

Drought is one of the major water-related natural hazards. Understanding the spatial and temporal variation of rainfall is of great importance in water resources planning and management as it is related with food security and management of scarce water resource, which becomes critical in case of drought events. The advent of GIS to produce spatially interpolated drought map helps the water managers to undertake appropriate measures in drought relief and prioritization of drought mitigation works. Limitation of literature on Tripura suggests that study of drought over Tripura could help in strengthening of mitigation planes and rationalization of disaster management policies. Hence, the present study is focused to investigate the drought persistence and severity in the Tripura state of India during the period 1980-2013, using Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Three time scale i.e., 3, 6 and 12 month time scales were opted for the study. Gridded monthly precipitation data distributed over the four districts of Tripura was used for drought analysis. Significant drought events were detected over the study area during the selected period. Annual analysis of SPI time series showed that the study area received the intense drought during the year 1985. Geospatial technique was used to generate the SPEI drought map for the year 1985.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physio-Biochemical and Yield Response of Chickpea Genotypes under Salinity and High Temperature Stress

Trisha Sinha, Shailesh Kumar, Ajay Kumar Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 136-147
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330384

A pot experiment was carried out with six chickpea genotypes viz. KPG-59, IPC-2013-74 and NDG-15-6 (tolerant group); and KWR-108, BG-3075 and BG-3076 (susceptible group) to study the responses of these genotypes under salinity stress (4.20 dSm-1) with normal sowing, high temperature (HT) stress with late sowing and their combination (saline soil + late sowing), and compared with control (non-stress) condition based on several physio-biochemical traits such as malondialdehyde content (MDA), membrane stability index (MSI), relative water content (RWC) and proline in leaf at reproductive stage; and seed yield after harvesting. Both salinity and HT individually and in combination significantly affected the traits studied. Among the parameters, MDA increased under stress treatments over control, while MSI and RWC decreased for the same. However, combined stress exhibited hypo-additive effects for these parameters which might be due to developed cross-tolerance while facing salinity and HT stress in sequence. Increase in proline content under stress over control is an indication of osmotic adjustment in response to stress. These results might be good criteria in development of genotypes with improved response in terms of physio-biochemical traits and yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rainfall-Runoff Analysis using Runoff Coefficient and SCS-CN Methods under GIS Approach

D. Mahender Reddy, R. Lalitha

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 148-157
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330385

Estimation of runoff in a watershed is very important to manage the water resources efficiently. In this regard, surface runoff quantification is an essential study. The main objective of this study is to quantify the surface runoff of the catchment area of a well located in AEC & RI, TNAU, Kumulur, Trichy District of Tamil Nadu State, India. An attempt also made to analyze the surface runoff by SCS-CN event and annual basis as well as by modified runoff-coefficient method. This study identified the variation of runoff volume within different approaches of SCS-CN method and runoff coefficient method. By using GPS and GIS techniques catchment area of a well and slope direction was delineated. With the help of GIS tools and remote sensing technology with ground truth verifications, the land use/ land cover and soil maps were delineated for the study area. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam type of soils are predominating and HSG ‘C’ was identified for the study area. The highest CN value is 92 and the maximum runoff coefficient value is 0.95 for the Built-up land, the lowest CN value is 71 and the lowest runoff coefficient is 0.11 for the area covered with trees. Three AMC conditions were considered while estimating runoff volume by SCS-CN event approach. Among 15 years of rainfall data from 2004 to 2018, the highest runoff 38452.36 m3 was generated in the year 2005 and the lowest runoff 8718.29 m3 was generated in 2018 by SCS-CN event basis method. From this study between two concepts of SCS-CN and runoff coefficient models, the SCS-CN model with an event basis approach is yielding productive results. For quantifying surface runoff and for planning water conservation structures event basis calculations are more effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Interactive Effects of Row Arrangement, Plant Geometry and Mulching on Yield of Early Maturity Maize Hybrid under Traditional Rainfed Conditions

G. Manjulatha, E. Rajanikanth, K. Sumalini, D. Sravani, G. Usharani, B. Mallaiah

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 158-164
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330386

Aim: To study the grain yield performance of early maturity maize hybrid under rainfed conditions in relation to row arrangement, plant geometry and mulching.

Place of Study: A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural research station, Karimnagar during kharif 2011-12.

Methodology: The experiment was carried out in red sandy loam soils, in a split- split plot design with main plots as row arrangement (2) i.) Equal rows at 67cm ii). Paired row at 84: 50cm (Between and within paired rows), Sub plots as plant geometry (3) i.) with 40000 Plants/ha (intra row spacing of 37 cm) ii.) with 50000 Plants /ha (intra spacing of 30cm) iii.) with 60000 Plants/ha (intra row spacing of 25cm) and Sub- sub plots as mulching treatments (2) i.) without mulching ii.) with surface mulch @ 5 t/ha. The results indicated that there is no significant difference in grain yield of early maturity maize hybrid, when the crop is grown in equal row spacing of 67cm (5148 kg/ha) or paired row spacing of 84:50cm (4962 kg/ha). The grain yield of maize crop with 60000 Plants /ha (i.e., 25 cm intra row spacing) recorded higher grain yield of 5339 kg/ha followed by maize crop with 50000 Plant /ha (i.e., 30 cm intra row spacing) with 5097 kg/ha grain yield and 4729 kg/ha with 40000 Plant/ha (i.e., 37 cm intra row spacing). When crop rows were mulched with grass and dried weed material @ 5t/ha significantly increased the maize grain yield (5724 kg/ha) by 23 % than compared to the crop kept without mulch (4386 kg/ha). Consequently, the maize crop with surface mulching resulted in higher net returns (Rs.31770/ha) and benefit cost ratio of 1.7 over no mulching. While, the interaction for all parameters was non significant.

Results: It can be concluded that farmers can either follow equal row spacing or paired row spacing based on situation, as there is no significant difference in terms of yield by either method. Mulching of inter row of maize crop under rainfed conditions has resulted in 23% increased yield than that of crop kept without mulch.