Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Pollution Status of Lagos Coastal Waters and Sediments, using Physicochemical Characteristics, Contamination Factor, Nemerow Pollution Index, Ecological Risk and Potential Ecological Risk Index

Gloria Ekaete Ajani, Samuel Olatunde Popoola, Otolorin Opeyemi Oyatola

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330371

The heavy metals and physicochemical properties of Lagos coastal waters and sediments, Southwestern Nigeria were investigated in 5 stations (station 1-5), to determine their levels, distributions and pollution index. The observed ranges of physicochemical characteristics from the study area are: dissolved oxygen (DO): 2.15-11.3 mg/L; pH: 6-7.7; temperature (Temp): 28.05-29.25°C; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): 1.6-110.1 mg/L; electrical conductivity (EC): 1.8-29.8 mS/cm; salinity (SAL): 0.02-2.05ppt; total dissolved solids (TDS): 211.8-1210.2 mg/L and total suspended solids (TSS): 12.13-117.95 mg/L. The analyzed physicochemical properties from all the stations are within the desired values for healthy marine ecosystems when compared with Federal ministry of environment (FMENV) Nigeria and World Health organization permissible limits (DO:>5 mg/L; pH:6.5-9; TEMP:<40°C; BOD: 50 mg/L; EC:900 mS/cm; TDS:1000mg/L and TSS:600 mg/L), with the exception of low DO at station 1 and station 5; and high BOD at; station 2 and station 3 respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals present in the water samples followed the sequence: Fe > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd, and showed high values for Pb, Cd and Cr, relative to the standard permissible limits according to FMENV (Pb 0.001; Zn 50 mg/L; Cd < 0.0018; Cu 2-4 mg/L and Cr 0.02-2.0 mg/L). The calculated contamination factor (CF) in the sediment samples showed low-moderate contamination for the analyzed heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Cu and Pb), except for cadmium (Cd) that showed extremely severe contamination (CF > 6) values across the sampling stations. The calculated Nemerow pollution index (NPI) and ecological risk index (RI) showed heavily polluted (NPI > 10) values and very high ecological risk (RI > 380) values at Apapa (location 1), Iddo (location 2) and Makoko (location 3). The potential ecological risk factor (Eir) confirmed Cd as the highest polluted heavy metals (Eir >320), with the greatest potential threat to the marine ecosystems in the Lagos coastal waters. The study highlights the impacts of anthropogenic pollutions on the coastal ecosystems and human health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantifying the Nitrogen Requirement of Castor Cultivars in Post Monsoon Season on Alfisols

A. V. Ramanjaneyulu, A. Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, M. V. Nagesh Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 17-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330373

Aim: The experiment is aimed at quantifying the nitrogen requirement and identifying suitable hybrids and varieties of castor to be grown during post monsoon season on Alfisols in          Telangana

Study Design: Split plot design.

Place and Duration of Study: Regional Agricultural Research Station, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Palem, Telangana state, India during post monsoon season of 2010-11 and 2011-12.

Methodology: The study consisted of four N levels (0, 40, 80 kg and 120 kg N ha-1) in main plots and five cultivars (DCH-177, PCH-111, GCH-4, Haritha and 48-1)in sub plots. The growth parameters, yield attributes, seed yield, water use efficiency, economic returns, correlation and regression were studied.

Results: The pooled data indicated that significantly taller plants with more no. of branchesplant-1, longer and effective spikes thus seed yield of castor were observed due to application of 80 kg Nha-1 and 120 kg Nha-1. However, application of 120 kg N ha-1 resulted in greater net returns (USD 1049 ha-1) and also returns per rupee invested (1.66). The results further showed that the castor hybrids PCH-111 (1900 kg/ha) and DCH-177 (1809 kg/ha) produced similar yield, but, both significantly outyielded over other cultivars. The performance of hybrids was superior to the varieties. A highly significant positive correlation was observed for seed yield with no. of branches/plant, total and effective spike length.

Conclusion: The cultivation of castor hybrids either PCH-111 or DCH-177 under N supply of 120 kg N ha-1 would help to realize higher yields, water use efficiency and income from post monsoon season castor on Alfisols.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Nutrigenetic Traits of Silkworm, Bombyxmori L. for Determining Growth and Development for Identifying Parental Breeds for Breeding under Subtropical Region of North West India

S. Murali, Sardar Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 26-37
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330374

Study was conducted during spring and autumn season (2018 & 2019) to screen and identify rich nutrigenetic breeds from the selected breed’s for their nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, BombyxmoriL.(Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds under Subtropical condition of Jammu based on the breeds which shows less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion based on leaf to cocoon and leaf to shell ratio. Highly significant variations were found among all nutrigenetic traits of bivoltine silkworm breeds in the study. The nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds were shortlisted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency for conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index for selection of highly promising breeds. Furthermore, based on the average of data from both the seasons, the overall rearing nutrigenetic traits utilized as index, eight bivoltine silkworm breeds (B.con 1, B.con 4, BHR 2, ATR 16, BHR 3, CSR 50, RSJ 14 and NB4D2) were identified as havingthe potential for nutrition efficiency conversion and can be utilized for further breeding programme. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Strategic Environmental Assessment: Current Status, Practices and Challenges in Bangladesh

Md. Sahadat Hossan, Md. Shafiqul Bari, Md. Shoaibur Rahman, Md. Abu Hanif, Md. Manik Ali

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330375

Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is an appraisal device of policies, plans, and programs and has evolved from an alternative of environmental impact assessment (EIA) to a potential environmental policy integration tool in national policy planning. Bangladesh has likewise rendered SEA in its environmental evaluation framework to consider environmental and social outcomes of policies, plans, and programs(PPPs), but the practice and current situation of SEA in Bangladesh is unknown to all. Considering this crisis the study was carried out to analyze the present status of SEA as well as to find out the constraints for successful SEA implementation in Bangladesh as an approach to integrate environmental considerations in the PPPs. The data were collected through multiple methodological techniques including document review as well as survey by standard questionnaire and key informant interviews (KIIs) with different stakeholders of the various backgrounds of Bangladesh related to policymaking. The study showed that SEA first appeared in Bangladesh in 2006 with the support of the World Bank as a donor agency and the first SEA was done in Bangladesh on the Dhaka metropolitan development plan in 2007. But through the enactment of the National Environmental Policy 2018, SEA gained formal status in the country. Now, This study also revealed that most of the organizations (government and non-government) i.e. 55.77 percent never practice SEA whereas only 15.38 percent of organizations of Bangladesh practice SEA on regular basis, and 28.85 percent of organizations practiced partially for assessing SEA in their proposed PPPs. A diverse list of constraints such as lack of political will, lacking awareness of SEA, inadequate finance, weak enforcement of environmental law, and inadequate knowledge of the implementation of SEA in PPPs were identified. Therefore, awareness building, capacity development, and proper training on SEA in Bangladesh are urgently needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extent of Awareness and Various Challenges Faced by the Rural People Due to Pandemic of COVID-19

Biman Maity, Tarun Kumar Das, Kausik Pradhan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 49-54
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i330376

COVID-19 is an infectious disease which caused severe pandemic to the whole world. Due to its effect of various agricultural sectors such as crop, livestock and fishery have been smash hard by pandemic. The study was conducted to get perception of extent of awareness and its effect due to pandemic of COVID-19 by the rural people in Cooch Behar district of West Bengal. There were 80 respondents from four villages who experienced the negative impact of lockdown due to COVID-19 were selected for the study. The data were collected through well-structured interview schedule with the help of online google form as well as verbal communication in mobile phone. Collected data were compiled and analyzed with simple statistical tools to draw a specific conclusion. The results show that 41.25 per cent of the respondent had high level of awareness on COVID-19 followed by 20.0 per cent had lower level of awareness on corona virus disease. The finding also said that 82.50 per cent of the respondent had faced challenges of lack of opportunities for earning money followed by 72.50 per cent had scarcity of food materials or insufficient of food items in the locality during pandemic of COVID-19. Due to lockdown, the movement of agriculture produces from its place of production to the ultimate consumer has been also affected. It is suggested that some more specific and need based income generating measure is required to taken by the various existing government and non-government organization to reduce the pandemic situation among rural communities.