Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Integration of MSMEs and CSA into Livestock Red Meat Value Chain: A Case Study of Kajiado County, Kenya

Mary W. Thongoh, H. M. Mutembei, J. Mburu, B. E. Kathambi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430387

The livestock sector is a major contributor to food security, livelihoods, and is most affected by climate change, but is also a major contributor of GHGs. While climate-smart agriculture (CSA) has been adopted to mitigate the effects of climate change it has focused more on smallholder food crop producers with little attention to livestock production, and or entire food chains. MSMEs play a pivotal role in enhancing the ability of producers to engage with value chains, integrate women and marginalized groups, innovate, and are key drivers of community resilience, social adaptation, poverty reduction, and protection of livelihoods due to MSMEs’ greater adaptability and flexibility. Linking CSA to MSMEs within the livestock red meat value chains will strengthen the chains, improve incomes, reduce climate risks and increase resilience for pastoralists in ASALs. This study reveals that the red meat value chains in ASALs are still underdeveloped and fragmented, have little application of modern technologies and practices, unsustainable, and largely nomadic. Further, there is low integration of MSMEs and CSA due to actors’ low awareness of the concept of CSA, limited capacity building on CSA, incentives, and policy instruments to integrate MSMEs thus leaving the value chains weak, inefficient, vulnerable to climate risks, and unsustainable. Adaption of sustainable practices can only come after the integration of actors, therefore there is a need to invest in context-based integration approaches, such as awareness and knowledge, affordable relevant modern technologies and practices, relevant policy instruments, and incentives to realize the CSA triple wins, and develop climate-resilient red meat value chains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Relationship between Cerebrospinal Meningitis and Climate Variables in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Joyce Imara Nchom, A. S. Abubakar, F. O. Arimoro, B. Y. Mohammed

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 33-41
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430389

This study examines the relationship between Meningitis and weather parameters (air temperature, maximum temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) in Kaduna state, Nigeria on a weekly basis from 2007–2019. Meningitis data was acquired weekly from Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Bureau of Statistics and weather parameters were sourced from daily satellite data set National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI). The daily data were aggregated weekly to suit the study. The data were analysed using linear trend and Pearson correlation for relationship. The linear trend results revealed a weekly decline in Cerebro Spinal Meningitis (CSM), wind speed, maximum and air temperature and an increase in relative humidity and rainfall. Generally, results reveal that the most important explanatory weather variables influencing CSM amongst the five (5) are the weekly maximum temperature and air temperature with a positive correlation of 0.768 and 0.773. This study recommends that keen interest be placed on temperature as they play an essential role in the transmission of this disease and most times aggravate the patients' condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation and Identification of Rabi Castor Based Profitable Cropping Systems on Alfisols in Southern Telangana

A. V. Ramanjaneyulu, A. Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, M. V. Nagesh Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 60-69
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430391

Aim: The experiment was aimed at identifying the rabi castor based profitable cropping systems for Alfisols of Southern Telangana Zone.

Study design: Split plot design with three replications

Place and duration of study: Regional Agricultural Research Station, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Palem, Telangana state, India during rabi season of 2010-11 and 2011-12.

Methodology: The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with five preceding crops (mung bean, fodder jowar, corn, pearlmillet and sesame) in main plots and four nitrogen levels of rabi castor in sub plots (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1). The growth parameters, yield attributes, seed yield, water use efficiency and economics were studied.

Results: The results showed that among different proceeding crops evaluated that significantly higher castor seed yield and castor equivalent yield were obtained when rabi castor was preceded by corn (1973 and 2931 and kg ha-1) and mung bean (1868 and 2696 kg ha-1) as compared to that of sesame (1672 and 2207 kg ha-1), pearl millet (1823 and 2199 kg ha-1) and fodder jowar (1783 and 2154 kg ha-1). However, higher total system gross returns (Rs. 1,04,118 ha-1) and net returns (Rs. 52,462 ha-1) were accrued when rabi castor was grown after corn only, but, a higher B:C ratio was realized due to mung bean as a preceding crop (2.12). Though castor during rabi season responded similarly to 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 in terms of castor seed yield (2275 and 2381 kg ha-1) and castor equivalent yield (2887 and 3013 kg ha-1), application of 120 kg N ha-1to castor resulted in accruing of higher system net returns (Rs. 60,638 ha-1) and B:C ratio (2.27). However, the results of interaction further showed that rabi castor preceded by mung bean with the application of 80 kg N ha-1 was found profitable (Rs. 75,573 ha-1). It was closely followed by corn-castor system (Rs. 73,289 ha-1).

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation Studies of Soil Properties with Yield of Rice in a Calciorthents

Amit Kumar Pandey, Ashutosh Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 70-74
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430393

Imbalanced use of nutrients through fertilizer have a deleterious effects on soil health, leading to unsustainable productivity. The present investigation was carried out to study the comparative effectiveness of compost and crop residue either alone or in combination of chemical fertilizer on physico chemical properties of soil, soil microbial biomass and crop yield in rice-wheat cropping system in Calciorthents at experimental farm of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar in light texture and medium fertile soil. There were sixteen treatments which were replicated thrice in split plot design. Four level of NPK viz., no NPK, 50% NPK, 100% NPK and 150% NPK were kept as main plot treatments whereas four levels of organics viz., no manure, compost @ 10 t ha-1, crop residue and compost + crop residue were treated as sub-plot treatments. The correlation between rice yield and some physico-chemical and microbial attributes of soil were evaluated. Most of soil physical, chemical and microbiological parameters were positively correlated with grain and straw yield of rice. Thus the results suggest that integrated use of balanced inorganic fertilizers in combination with organic manure sustains a soil physico-chemical and microbiological environment of soil that is better for enhancing higher crop productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chemical to Herb Control on Performance of Sesame (Sesamum indicum) under Irrigated Conditions

Lipsa Patnaik, Rahul Adhikary, M. Devender Reddy

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 75-81
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430394

Weed management greatly influences on weed infestation and yield of sesame under irrigated condition. An experiment was conducted at Bagusala farm, M.S. Swaminathan School of Agriculture, CUTM, Paralakhemundi, Odisha to find out the effectiveness of pre and post emergence herbicides on performance of summer sesame under irrigated conditions. The soil of experimental site was sandy clay loam in texture, slightly acidic in reaction with pH of 6.4. The experiment was laid out in randomize block design with three replications, assigning twelve treatments combinations of chemical application irrigated sesamum cultivation. The yield with hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS was comparable with Pendimethalin @ 500 g a.i ha-1 3 DAS + Imazethapyr @ 60g a.i ha-1 at 20 DAS, Imazethapyr @ 60g a.i ha-1 at 20 DAS, Oxadiargyl 80wp @ 60g a.i ha-1 3 DAS and Oxadiagyl @ 40 g a.i ha-1 3 DAS + Imazethapyr @ 60 g a.i ha-1 20 DAS and significantly superior over all other treatments. The weed number observed in all chemical weed control treatments was significantly lower than un-weeded control. Application of herbicides was found to be effective in reduction of weed population in summer sesamum under irrigated conditions. The weeds can be effectively controlled through application herbicides in sesame grown under irrigated conditions during summer season.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield and Quality of Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk) as Influenced by Planting Geometry and Nutrient Levels under Eastern Dry Zone of Karnataka

M. Eragegowda, A. P. Mallikarjuna Gowda, B. N. Maruthiprasad, T. N. Pushpa, M. N. Thimmegowda, G. R. Smitha

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 82-87
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430395

The experiment was laid out in a Factorial Randomized Block Design with sixteen treatments and replicated three times. The result indicated that the spacing of 22.5cm recorded significantly maximum number of spikes (36.50), seed yield (1221 kg /ha), husk yield (305 kg/ha), swelling factor (13.70 cc /g) and protein content (11.91%) in the seeds. Among the different nutrient levels, maximum number of spikes (35.79), seed yield (904 kg /ha), husk yield (225 kg/ha), swelling factor (13.93 cc /g) and protein content (12.24 %) of seeds were obtained with the application of 75 % RDF (37.5:18.75:22.50 + 7.5 t FYM.) and the interaction of row spacing of 22.5 cm and 75% RDF recorded maximum yiled and quality parameters found non significant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Red Edge Position (REP), an Indicator for Crop Stress Detection: Implication on Rice (Oryza sativa L)

Jonali Goswami, Ranjan Das, K. K. Sarma, P. L. N. Raju

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 88-96
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430396

Crop stresses due to both biotic and abiotic are the major factors affecting crop productivity. The need of the hour is to minimize the yield losses due to these stresses. Early detection can help to reduce the impact of stresses on crop growth and yield. Remote sensing techniques have been shown to be timely, non-destructive and provide spatial estimates for quantifying and monitoring crop stress as compared to direct field techniques. In this study we tested the possibility of detecting impact of abiotic stresses, mainly Nitrogen (N) and elevated CO2 and Temperature on growth and yield of rice crops based on the spectral reflectance data in the red edge position (REP). Spectral reflectances of crop canopyi from 350 to 2500 nm acquired using SVC spectroradiometer under clear sky condition between 11:00 and 13:00 IST. The results thus obtained indicate that REP is a good indicator of crop stress detection as healthy crops always are at longer wavelength as compared to crop under stress. The research work done also elucidates that REP can lead to the development of real-time management tool for crop stress detection, thereby reducing the yield losses due these stresses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Crop Geometry for Drip Irrigated Rice Cultivation

S. Vallal Kannan, V. Ravikumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 97-105
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430397

Aims: To determine the effectiveness of the selected dripper spacing and dripper discharge rate on crop growth and yield parameters of rice crop and to determine the suitable variety and crop geometry for higher productivity and use efficiency of drip irrigations system.

Study design: Experiment was conducted in strip plot design, method of establishment as main plot treatment viz., Direct seeded under raised bed (M1) and Transplanting under raised bed, varieties as sub-plot treatment viz., ‘ADT 54’, ‘TKM 13’ and‘ CR 1009 sub-1’(medium and long duration variety)and spacing as sub- sub-plot treatment viz., 20 x 10 cm , 20 x 20 cm , 25 x 25 cm and 20 x 40 x 10 cm (Paired row) .

Place and duration of the study: Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Kumulur, Tiruchirapalli district of Tamil Nadu during 2019-2021(two years) in sandy clay loam soil during Samba season

Methodology: The growth and yield parameters viz., plant height, number of tillers and productivity tillers, number of filled grains, test weight and grain and straw yield was observed and economics on cost of cultivation, gross return, net return and BCR were calculated and water use efficiency and water productivity were calculated.

Results: Studies showed that 90 cm lateral and 60 cm dripper spacing with 4lph is the optimum for rice cultivation under sandy clay loam soil. Combination of direct seeded rice in raised bed with medium duration variety ‘TKM 13’ in the spacing of 20x40x10 cm(paired row)was recorded higher grain yield(7075 kg/ha) and net return(Rs. 82526/ha), BCR (2.76 )and higher water use efficiency (7.69 kg./ha-mm) in drip irrigated paddy cultivation during Samba season.

Conclusion: Direct seeding in raised bed with medium duration variety at the spacing of 20x40x10 cm along with other agronomic practices is the best for getting higher yield parameters, yield, net return, higher water use efficiency and water productivity in Samba (Rabi) season under drip irrigated rice cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decolorisation of Azo Dye Congo Red (CR) by Termitomyces sp. Biomass

Kavitha Mary Jackson, Velu Gomathi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 118-127
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430399

Aims: A study was conducted to evaluate decoloration of azo dye, Congo Red (CR) using fungal hyphal mat of beneficial bacidiomycete Termitomyces sp. TMS7 (MW694830) as bio sorbent material.

Study design:  Completely randomized block design (CRD).

Place and duration of study: Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, between September 2019 and January 2020.

Methodology: Isolation of white rot fungus from basidiocarb was done and screened based on their ligninolytic enzyme activity and Isolate TMS 7 was selected as best isolate and identified through ITS 1 and ITS 4 primers. Efficiency of fungal biomass to decolorize Congo red was assessed and per cent decoloration and kinetics were calculated.

Results: Twelve fungal isolates were obtained and Isolate TMS 7 was selected as best isolate based on enzymatic activity. TMS 7 was identified as Termitomyces sp. using ITS 1 and ITS 4 primer. Ligninolytic enzymes i.e. cellulase (9.97 µ mol of glucose released/min/mg protein), and xylanase (9.55 µ mol of xylose released/min/mg protein) were quantified from the crude fungal extract of TMS 7, which was higher than standard (Termitomyces albuminosus -MTCC 1366). Decolorisation efficiency of termitomyces fungal biomass (1 g/100 ml) against different concentration of congo red dye (50-250 mg/L) was assessed. About 100 % (99.9) degradation was recorded in the minimum dye concentration of 50 mg/L within 3 days and 8 % decoloration was achieved at the highest dye concentration (250 mg/L) within 5 days.

Conclusion: Possible mechanism of degradation is the presence of lignolytic enzyme especially cellulase, xylanase in the culture filtrate and bio sorption of degraded product by the fungal cell wall components viz., chitin, glucan other complex polymers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Stress Tolerant Rice Varieties under Rain Fed Condition in North Eastern Ghat of Odisha

S. Mangaraj, S. Sahu, P. K. Panda, F. H. Rahman, R. Bhattacharya, D. Patri, P. J. Mishra, A. Phonglosa, S. K. Satapathy

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 128-134
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430400

A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2019 at NICRA villages viz. Nada, Chikili and Chopara of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ganjam1 through technology demonstration to analyse the performance of stress tolerant rice varieties under rainfed condition. Three different drought tolerant rice varieties i.e. MTU-1010, Sahabhagidhan and Swarna Shreya with ten replications were taken in random block design with improved package of practices compared to farmers’ practice. The results of technology demonstration revealed that growing of Swarna Shreya recorded higher growth parameters compared to other treatments with ten days delayed maturity. Improved practice of Swarna Shreya (T3) recorded higher number of filled grains panicle-1 (135.4±5.41), spikelet fertility (95.0±0.33 %), panicle length (24.8±1.45 cm) and 1000 grain weight (25.7±0.52 g) compared to other two treatments. Significantly higher grain yield (3588±169.5 kg   ha-1) and straw yield (7591±236.9 kg ha-1) were recorded compared to farmers’ practice (2632±125.1 kg ha-1 and 5934±366.4 kg ha-1, respectively). Swarna Shreya recorded higher gross return (Rs 67037±2980.2 ha-1), net return (Rs 37037±2980.2 ha-1), B: C ratio (2.23±0.20) and profitability (Rs. 101.5±8.16 ha-1 days) with as compared to farmers’ practice of growing MTU 1010.

Open Access Original Research Article

Own Grown Food Concept - Perception of Urbanites of Twin Cities of Telangana State

B. Savitha, T. Mahesh Kumar, G. Ravi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 135-141
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430401

The present study entitled ‘Own Grown Food Concept - Perception of Urbanites of Twin Cities about Urban Farming’ has been conducted to assess the perception of the urbanites about the urban farming and its relationship with profile characteristics. An Ex-post facto research design was followed for the study. The investigation was carried out in twin cities of Telangana namely, Hyderabad and Secunderabad comprising Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, because twin cities have large number of active urban farming practitioners compared to all other towns and cities in Telangana, in addition to this, Urban Farming Division, Department of Horticulture, Telangana organized trainings in urban farm management and distributed urban farming kits to urbanites in twin cities. All the six zones comprising twin cities (L.B Nagar, Charminar, Khairatabad, Secunderabad, Serilingampally and Kukatpally) having large number of urban farming practitioners was selected purposively. 120 urban farming practitioners having more than three years experience was selected from above six zones randomly at the rate of 20 respondents from each zone. The data were collected by a personal interview method with the help of structured interview schedule and data was analyzed by employing suitable statistical methods. The findings of the study revealed that, majority of the respondents (58.33%) had medium perception level, followed by high (21.67%), and low (20.00%) level of perception about urban farming. Correlation analysis between perception and profile of the urbanites revealed that there was a positive and significant relationship between perception and independent variables viz., education and family support. Whereas, the variables namely, preference of crops, cropping intensity and innovativeness had a significant correlation with perception about urban farming. A negative and non-significant relationship was observed between perception and age, experience in urban farming and annual income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic Manures and Chemical Fertilizers on the Growth, Yield and Quality Traits of Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)” cv. Punjab ChappanKaddu

Amandeep Kaur, Puja Rattan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 142-152
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430402

The present investigation was conducted during 2019 at DAV University, Jalandhar, to find out the effect of organic manures and chemical fertilizers on the growth and yield of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cv. Punjab Chappan Kaddu. The experiment consisted of eleven treatments and three replications. Out of these, an application of 25% of the recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + vermi-compost 15t/ha (T8) had a beneficial effect on minimum days to the first female flower (74.67 days), minimum days to the first fruit set (76.33), minimum days to the first fruit harvest (78.33). The maximum plant height (122.85cm) was recorded in 25% of the recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + FYM 25t/ha (T5). 75% of the recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + EM (Effective Micro-organism) Bokashi 2.5q/ha (T9) resulted in minimum days to male flower appearance. The maximum sex ratio (0.38), was obtained with the application of 50% of the recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + EM Bokashi 3q/ha (T10). The maximum number of pickings (26) and number of fruit per plant (9.85) were obtained with the application of 50% of the recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + EM Bokashi 3q/ha (T10). The maximum fruit yield per plant (2.20 kg), fruit yield per plot (26.26 kg), fruit yield per ha (405.57q) were recorded with the application of 50% of the recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + vermi-compost 15t/ha (T7). The maximum Total Soluble Solids (TSS) (2.40B°) were recorded with the application of 75% of the recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + FYM 20t/ha (T3) while, the ascorbic acid was maximum (52.50 mg/100g) when 25% of the recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + vermi-compost 15t/ha (T8) were applied. The highest net returns and benefit: cost (4.5) were obtained when 50% of recommended dose of chemical fertilizer + FYM 25t/ha (T4) was applied.

Open Access Review Article

Microbial Pesticides for Insect Pest Management: Success and Risk Analysis

Mandla Rajashekhar, Banda Rajashekar, Eetela Sathyanarayana, M. C. Keerthi, Padala Vinod Kumar, K. Ramakrishna, Kalisetti Vanisree, Guptha Neelima, G. Madhuri, Ongole Shaila

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 18-32
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430388

Biotic stress is a major cause for pre and postharvest losses in agriculture. Food crops of the world are damaged by more than of 10,000 species of insects 30,000 species of weeds, 1,00, 000 types of diseases (due to fungi, viruses, bacteria and various microbes) and a 1,000 species of nematodes. Modern day management practices for the above specified stress factors largely depends on the utilization of synthetic pesticides. Pesticide misuse in numerous sectors of agriculture frequently has often linked to health issues and environmental pollution around the world. Thus, there is a growing interest in replacing or possibly supplementing the prevailing control strategies with new and safer techniques. One of the promising management tools in this new state of affairs for crop protection is microbial pesticides. At present, only 3% of plant protectants used globally are covered by bio pesticides, but their growth rate indicates an increasing trend in the past two decades. The discovery of insecticidal property of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) indicated a more extensive part of organism based natural control. Microbial pesticides comprise of a microorganisms (bacterium, fungus, virus or protozoan) or toxins produced by them as the active ingredient. The most commonly used microbial pesticides are entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium, Beauveria and Verticillium), entomopathogenic bacteria (Bt), entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis) and baculoviruses (NPV and GV) which able to cause disease in insects. Microbial insecticides are promising alternative to ecologically disruptive pest control measures as they are no longer harmful to the environment and non target organisms. If deployed appropriately, microbial insecticides have capability to bring sustainability to global agriculture for food and food safety.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Residue Incorporation on Soil Carbon Storage, Soil Organic Fractions, Microbial Community Composition and Carbon Mineralization in Rice-wheat Rotation – A Review

R. K. Naresh, M. Sharath Chandra, Aryan Baliyan, Shakti Om Pathak, Pradeep Kumar Kanaujiya, B. Naveen Kumar, O. V. S. Thenua, Pradeep Kumar Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 42-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430390

In agroecosystems, straw return is a useful management strategy for increasing soil fertility and crop productivity. The total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic C (DOC), and microbial biomass C (MBC) contents all increased significantly when compared to the no straw return (N) and straw return (S) treatments, while the easily oxidizable C content remained same. The S treatment resulted in a 28–52 percent increase in soil light fraction, light fraction organic C, and particle organic C over the N treatment. When compared to the N treatment, crop straw return increased total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), bacterial biomass, and actinomycete biomass by 52, 75, and 56 percent, respectively. Under short-term crop straw return, MBC and TOC were the two key determinants determining microbial populations. In comparison to residue removal, residue retention (RR) enhanced SOC storage by 11.3 percent. SOC content and contribution of macro-aggregates in the 0-20 cm depth and micro-aggregates in the 20-40 cm depth rose significantly when no-tillage and straw returns were used together. When no-tillage with straw returning (NTS) was used instead of CT, SOC content, mean weight diameter (MWD), geometric mean diameter (GMD), and fractal dimensions (FD) rose by 25%, 21%, 19%, and 12%, respectively, in the 0-20 cm depth. Soil micro-aggregates were greater in the 20-40 cm depth after CTS treatment. In the 0-20 cm depth, the percentages of macro- and micro-aggregates increased by 60% and 40%, respectively, under NTS. MWD, GMD, > 5, 2-5, 1-2, and 0.25-0.5 mm aggregates all had a positive linear relationship with the SOC. Microbial biomass C (MBC) was considerably enhanced by 20.0 percent when compared to conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT), but total organic C (TOC), dissolved organic C (DOC), readily oxidizable C (EOC), and SOC of aggregates were not affected. MBC increased by 18.3% and SOC content of 2–1-mm aggregate increased by 9.4% when residue was returned. Total PLFAs grew by 9.8%, while fungal biomass increased by 40.8 percent, thanks to NT. Total PLFAs, bacterial biomass, fungal biomass, F/B, and MUFA/STFA were all increased by 31.1, 36.0, 95.9, 42.5, and 58.8 percent, respectively, while microbial stress was reduced by 45.9%. Wheat straw return had a considerable impact on the bacterial community in the soil, but not on the fungus community. It increased the relative abundance of the bacteria phylum Proteobacteria and the fungal phylum Zygomycota, while decreasing the relative richness of the bacterial phylum Acidobacteria and the fungal phylum Ascomycota. It increased the relative abundance of nitrogen-cycling bacterial taxa including Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium, among others. This diversity includes bacteria, cyanobacteria, archaea, planctomycetes, and -proteobacteria, as well as endophytes. The system's intricacy and dynamic nature necessitate in-depth research on the three-part interactions between plants, microorganisms, and the soil-water environment.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Preparation and Characterization of Activated Bio-Char

Deepshikha Azad, R. N. Pateriya, Rajat Kumar Sharma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 106-117
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i430398

Activated charcoal (AC) is a carbonaceous material with high surface area due to high degree of micro-porosity which makes it a very versatile adsorbent for utilization in industrial, medicinal, environmental and other fields. Ligno-cellulosic biomass (eg. pine needles, paddy stubbles, other waste agricultural residue) can be a prominent raw material for activated bio-char due to its abundance, slow decomposition (which lead to fire/ air pollution). The main factors which affect the AC characteristics (surface area, micropore volume, mesopore volume) are biomass properties, impregnation ratio, impregnation time, activation temperature and activation time. The specific surface area, micropore, mesopore decreases after optimum value with continually increase in impregnation ratio and impregnation time. The activation temperature and impregnation ratio also affect the AC yield significantly. Sorption capacity get affected by adsorbent doses, contact time, agitation speed, adsorption temperature due to availability of active binding sites, adsorptive forces/ bonds.