Open Access Original Research Article

Pond Renovation for Harvesting and Recycling of Rain Water: An Experimental Trial in Sub Himalayan Terai Region of India

Ganesh Das, F. H. Rahman, Sankar Saha, Sandip Hembram, Sujan Biswas, Samima Sultana, Suraj Sarkar, Augustina Saha, R. Bhattacharya, Bablu Ganguly, Rahul Deb Mukherjee, Bikash Roy, Prabhat Kumar Pal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530403

Sub Himalayan Terai region of India falls under heavy rainfall zone and significant amount of rainfall occurs during Kharif season. Whereas in rabi season farmers struggle to cultivated crops due to shortage of water following minimum to no rainfall. To overcome the difficulty, Krishi Vigyan Kendra of this region had taken a initiative in the year 2011 to conserve rain water by renovating ponds so as to harvest and recycle the rain water under the project ‘National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture’ (NICRA). Information on different aspect of livelihood status of farmers was collected from Khagribari village, Cooch Behar, West Bengal before and after renovating of the pond. Information collected before initiation and after implementation of the NICRA programme was statistically analyzed separately for pond owners and adjacent farmers to find out whether pond renovation programme has any significant effect in changing the livelihood status of pond owner and adjacent farmers. It is found from the study that renovation of pond had significantly impact on increasing potato, wheat and fish production and farmers net income generation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Different Mulch Materials on Soil Parameters and Weed Control in Guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. VNR Bihi under Tarai Region of Uttarakhand

Ravinder Singh, Vijay P. Singh, Rajkumar Jat, Rajesh Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530404

The impact of different mulches on soil properties and weed control efficiency on Six-year-old guava cv. VNR Bihi orchard was studied during the year 2018-19. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) using twelve treatments each replicated thrice. Different mulching treatments showed non-significant effect on soil pH, electrical conductivity and soil organic carbon. However, this effect was found significant with respect to available N, P and K content where mulching with plastic film of silver-black colour (T­4) showed maximum increase (5.75, 2.76 and 1.48 Kg ha-1, respectively). Highest average weekly temperature (23.70oC) was obtained in the plots mulched with transparent film without herbicide application (T6). Maximum weed control was found under black plastic mulch (T5) which registered minimum weed population (10.50 m-2), fresh weight (7.17 g m-2) and dry weight (2.48 g m-2). The experimental results revealed that application of mulches is one of the easiest and cheapest methods for orchard soil management which can be successfully employed for improving physico-chemical properties of soil with efficient weed control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Training Needs of Rural Youth towards Agri-Enterprises

. Mubeena, T. Lakshmi, P. L. R. J. Praveena, A. V. Nagavani, B. Ramana Murthy

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 16-22
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530405

The study is an attempt to understand training needs in areas of agrienterprises. Investigation was carried out in three regions of Andhra Pradesh. Exploratory research design was used. The respondents (n=240) were the youth residing in the villages at the time of investigation. Simple random sampling technique was used for sample collection from twenty four villages. Pre-tested interview schedule was used for data collection. The inferential statistical tools like mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentage were used for analysis of data. An attempt was made to assess the areas of training needs to be focused mainly for agripreneurs to run their agri-enterprises smoothly. Manufacturing techniques (2.69) ranked first among the list of areas training needs for agripreneurs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Spacing and dosage of Nitrogen against the Maydis Leaf Blight Disease of Maize

Chandan Kumar, Phool Chand, C. S. Choudhary, Miss N. S. Akhtar, Bimla Rai

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530406

Maize is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. It belongs to family, "Poaceae". It has wider adaptability under different agro-climatic conditions. Its productivity per unit area is very high, so it is called “queen of cereals” globally. Though, Crop has high food and economic value, its production is limited by many constraints including the diseases also. Maydis leaf blight (MLB) is found almost everywhere maize is grown. It is caused by fungus Helminthosporium maydis. This disease is highly destructive in hot, humid and tropical climates of the world. In present investigation field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Spacing and Nitrogen dosages thereby managing the disease. The layout of this field experiment was in split plot design and conducted for the year 2019 and 2020 Kharif comprising of spacing: 45x20 cm, 60x20 cm and 75x20 cm and nitrogen dosages: 120, 160, 200 and 240 kg/ha as treatment with three replications. Results show that during 2019, the lowest PDI was obtained with the spacing of S3 (75x20 cm), which was significantly superior to all the spacing thereby reducing disease severity. The PDI was significantly influenced by nitrogen levels too. Lowest PDI (54.06 %) was obtained with the N3 (200 kg/ha), significantly superior to N2 and N1 levels of nitrogen fertilizer. There was also a significant interaction between spacing and nitrogen levels. Similar results were obtained during 2020 and for pool data that has also been calculated for the year Kharif 2019-2020. During the year, 2019 and 2020 grain yield was significantly influenced by spacing and nitrogen level too but the interaction was not significant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Gibberellic Acid (GA3) on the Yield Attributing Traits during a Cold Period in Rice

D. Shshaibhushan, M. Ashish Reddy, D. Bhadru, T. Pradeep

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 34-38
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530407

Gibberellic acid is an essential growth promoter that aids in the systematic plant growth. Studies on the impact of GA3 during cold period discovered a positive effect on the growth of rice plants. The current study evaluated the impact of various concentrations of GA3 on the yielding attributes of rice during cold stress in the rice varities, JGL 18047, BPT 5204, and RNR 15048. All the quantitative traits showed significant variation among the genotypes and treatments. Gibberellins applied at low concentrations during seedling stage (1, 2 or 3 gm/200 m2 of nursery area) revealed higher quantitative trait values compared to higher concnetartions (5 and 10  gm). Among all the three varities, RNR 15048 was found to be the best variety than the others in terms of yielding triats. Therefore, GA3 applied at a concentration of 1gm, 2gm or 3gm promotes the rice plant growth during cold periods and results in higher yield. Among these, 2 gm of GA3 for 200 m2 of nurcessary area was found to be the best in aiding the crop growth during cold phase.

Open Access Original Research Article

Calibration and Validation of HEC-HMS Model for Chalakudy River Basin

Gudidha Gopi, K. P. Rema

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 91-104
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530410

Prediction of flood prone areas in a basin and evolution of the impact of climate change on water resources needs a correct estimation of the availability of water which will solely be achieved by hydrological modelling of the basin. However, modelling the hydrology of a basin is a complex task and models should be well calibrated to increase user confidence in its predictive ability which in turn makes the application of the model effective. In this study rainfall-runoff simulation model viz., Hydrologic Modelling System, developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Centre USA (HEC-HMS) has been calibrated and validated for Chalakduy river basin in Kerala, in Sothern India for prediction of its hydrologic response. The result shows Curve Number (CN), Lag time and initial abstraction (Ia) to be the sensitive parameters for the simulated stream flow. The statistical analysis of Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency criteria, the percentage error in peak, percentage error in volume, and net difference of observed and simulated time to peak, which were used for performance evaluation, have been found to range from (0.70 to 0.87), (4.39 to 19.47%), (1.9 to 19%) and (0 to 1day) respectively, indicating a very good performance of the model for simulation of stream flow.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pesticide Use Practices and Effects on the Wetland Biodiversity of Ndop, North West Region of Cameroon

Nkwatoh Therese Ncheuveu, Patricia Bi Asanga Fai, Martin Ngankam Tchamba, Francis Ngealekeloeh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 105-116
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530411

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate farmer’s pesticide use practices and their effects in the wetland of Ndop.

Study Design: A cross sectional study was carried out from January to August 2019 in Ndop, North West Region of Cameroon.

Methodology: Questionnaires were administered separately to 382 rice and 100 vegetable farmers, and descriptive statistics was used in analyzing the results. Specifically, the Chi-squared statistic was used to determine the nature of the relationship between the variables.

Results: The results showed that most of the crop fields (95.6%) lack a buffer zone since most farms were adjacent to water bodies (0 ≥farm ≥1 m). Farmers (100%) washed and rinsed knapsack sprayers in nearby water bodies. A majority of the farmers (71.3%) burnt or threw empty pesticide containers in open fields, water bodies, or nearby bushes. Both rice farmers (83.5%) and vegetable farmers (100%) reported that pesticides kill non-target organisms (fish, frogs, toad, snakes, birds, etc.) resulting into a drastic population decline in the wetland. A majority of the farmers (85.2%) no longer do fishing in the paddy fields because of the frequent fish decline caused by pesticide usage. Clarias gariepinus constituted 56% of the fish species harvested from the paddy fields and a drastic population decline was observed by the farmers. The average fish catch per month was low (12.22 kg ± 7.47 SD) relative to the past when pesticides were not used during cultivation.  There was a significant difference between training and environmental awareness of pesticides (X2 = 28.98, p = 0.001).

Conclusion: These results indicate an urgent need for a post-pesticide registration management strategy to ensure a sustainable management and conservation of the wetland resources of Ndop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiognomies and Strength Investigation of Concrete Part Blended by Wood Ash

Smruti Saswati Dash, Siba Prasad Mishra, Sagarika Panda

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 143-155
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530416

Introduction: Cement during its manufacture emits enormous CO2, and heat to the atmosphere and deteriorate the environment affecting its sustainability. Wood ashes (WA) are the by-products wood based power plants, timber mills as wood dust, barks from forestry, paper industry, and forest fire are simple wastes and are noxious to atmosphere. Present study is investigating the strength and durability of concrete when blended with 0%, 10%, 30%, and 40% wood ash replacing cement to have these wastes effective waste management.

Methodology: The process of investigation is to find the chemical constituents of fly ash, and its suitability to part substitute cement by using X-ray fluorescent spectrometer (XRF), and digital compressive testing machine (CTM) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM) to verify the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties to assess appropriate strength of wood ash blended concrete (WABC).

Results: Strength characteristic at various proportion of mix of (WABC) on testing exhibited decreasing trend on increasing WA percent. The blended concrete exhibited the required compressive strength at 10% addition of WA and after curing for 28days. By utilizing wood ash as cement substitute the environment can be saved from black carbon and further deterioration. 

Open Access Original Research Article

A GIS Based Methodology to Obtain the Hydrological Response to Storm Events of Small Coastal Basins, Prone to Flash Flooding

V. A. Kotinas

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 163-171
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530417

The present study aims to investigate the hydrological response of small coastal watersheds to storm events. Areas around the Mediterranean Sea are usually characterized by streams with intermittent flows and flash floods are common. Firstly, we analyze the geomorphological, soil and land cover characteristics of the watershed in order to estimate their effect on surface runoff. Furthermore, the rainfall characteristics of an extreme event that caused flash flooding in the past are analyzed. By combining these factors, we are able to predict the response of this basin to severe storm events. The study area is located in the island of Samos, in Eastern Greece, where flash flood events are usual and pose a risk to areas located around rivers. In this area runoff is intermittent, occurring mainly during storm events and there is a lack of discharge or other instrumental measurements. By applying the SCS-CN method we estimate the response of two of the largest watersheds in Samos Island, through the construction of a Synthetic Unit Hydrograph (SUH). Firstly, we examined the record of historic floods in the area, selecting a large flash flood event (November 2001) and then obtained the daily rainfall data, which are used by the SCS method for the calculations. We applied the SCS methodology in order to estimate various parameters (e.g. lag time, time of concentration, maximum discharge), which also required the calculation of the Curve Number (CN) for each watershed. During this event (136 mm rainfall), we calculated a direct runoff (excess rainfall) of 44%-48% for these watersheds. This methodology can be particularly useful in simulating the hydrological response of small Mediterranean watersheds and to introduce better strategies for the management of the whole drainage basin.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Assess the Impact of Insecticidal Spray on Leaf Curling Caused Due to Sucking Pest and Phytotoxic Effect of Higher Doses of Insecticides in Chilli

Deepak Thakur, V. R. Upadhyay, Sumit Mukati

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 138-142
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530413

The investigation was carried out at Samajik Vigyan Kendra, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Bordi, Sehore (M.P.)-INDIA during kharif 2018-19. To assess the impact of  insecticidal spray on leaf curling caused due to sucking pest and phytotoxic effect of higher doses of insecticides in chilli.The bio-efficacy of three different insecticides, namely (i) Chlorfenapyr 240 SC - spray four time with different-different doses, (ii) Fipronil 5% SC and (iii) Imidacloprid 17.8 SL. One untreated plot was also used to   investigate against leaf curl and  phytotoxic effect on chilli. Among these insecticides, Chlorfenapyr 240SC doses 288 g.a.i/hac (gram active ingredient per hactare) has least leaf curl indications (9.68%). It’s most effective  insecticides in chilli. The least impact  of leaf curl recorded in treatment T4- (9.68%) followed by T3- chlorofenapyr (11.88%),T5- Fipronil 5% SC (14.46%), T6- Imidacloprid (16.68%),  T2- chlorofenapyr (17.69%) and the most elevated twisting  in T7- untreated control (56.29). Further, the  phytotoxic effect of treatment T1 - chlorfenapyr and T2 - chlorfenapyr were connected contrasting and T3 - untreated control. In these tried portions no phytotoxic impact likes chlorosis, Epinasty, Necrosis, Scorching , wilting and hyponasty were seen at various interim of perceptions against Chilli crop. The chilli yield was also noted highest in highest dose of T4 (16.0 tonnes ha-1) followed by second highest dose of T3 (15.4 tonnes ha-1), however, it was recorded lowest in untreated control (8.0 tonnes ha-1). The C:B benefit ratio was noted higher in T5- fipronil 5% SC@ 10 g.a.i ha-1 (3.20) followed by T6- imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 50 g.a.i ha-1 (2.99). 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Performance of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Soil Properties

Sumit Mukati, Y. M. Kool, Deepak Thakur, Deepak Singune

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 156-162
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530414

Present field experiment was conducted at farmer’s field in Ringondiya village, Madhya Pradesh during rabi season 2018-19 to study the effect of integrated nutrient management practices on performance of chickpea, basic soil properties and nutrient availability. The performance of chickpea (cv. JG-322) was evaluated under seven treatments viz., T1-Control, T2-100% N:P:K (20:50:20), T3-50% N:P:K + FYM @5 t ha-1, T4-50% N:P:K + vermicomposting @2 t ha-1, T5-50% N:P:K + PSB @4 kg ha-1, T6-50% N:P:K + FYM @5 t ha-1 + PSB @4 kg ha-1 and T7-50% N:P:K + vermicomposting @2 t ha-1 +PSB @4 kg ha-1 replicated thrice in a randomized block design. The grain yield, straw yield and harvest index of chickpea were determined at harvest. Similarly, the soil pH, electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon and soil available nutrients (N, P and K) were also determined in post harvest soil samples. The results revealed that the integrated nutrient management practice significantly improved the performance of chickpea. The soil organic carbon and available nutrients were also found increased under INM practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Bio-efficacy of Insecticides against Mites and Thrips Insect Pest of Chilli

Deepak Thakur, V. R. Upadhyay, Annu Ahirwar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 117-121
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530412

A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2018-19 in Samajik Vigyan Kendra, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Bordi, Sehore (M.P.) – INDIA. To assess the bio-efficacy of insecticides against mites and thrips insect pest of chilli pests. The bio-efficacy of three different insecticides, namely (i) Chlorfenapyr 240 SC - spray four time with different-different doses, (ii) Fipronil 5% SC and (iii) Imidacloprid 17.8 SL. One untreated plot was also used to   investigate against Mites and Thrips. Among these insecticides, Chlorfenapyr 240SC doses 288 g.a.i/hac gram active ingredient per hactare) has reduced maximum mites and thrips population and it is most effective  insecticides in chilli. The highest reduction of mites population recorded in treatment T4- (97.17%) followed by T3- chlorofenapyr (95.13%), T6- Imidacloprid (91.67%), T5- Fipronil 5% SC (85.35%), T2- chlorofenapyr (85.27%) and it was least in T1- chlorofenapyr (81.40%. Further, the thrips number  was maximum reduced in treatment T4- chlorofenapyr (90.69%) followed by T3- chlorofenapyr (89.80%), T5- Fipronil 5% SC (89.51%), T6- Imidacloprid (74.18%), T2- chlorofenapyr (69.74%) and T1- chlorofenapyr (68.44 %). Hence, present study was clearly indicated that the treatment T4- chlorofenapyr 240SC@288 proved, the most effective insecticides. The cost benefit ratio was noted higher in Fipronil 5% SC@ 10 g.a.i ha-1 (3.20) followed by imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 50 g.a.i ha-1 (2.99).

Open Access Review Article

Probing the Crisis of Regional Connectivity Instigated by the Natural Disasters, Mizoram, India

Siba Prasad Mishra, Jyoti Prakash Puhan, Saswat Mishra

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 39-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530408

Mizoram, in eastern Himalayas of India, is educated but thinly populous young state of area 21081sq km with hilly forest cover of (≈90.68%) The major connectivity is by roads of length 8912km (2019) that connects India’s mainland, Myanmar and Bangladesh and about no rail tracks. The state is housed in various folds and faults over Indo-Burmese tectonic zone (Indo Eurasian plate tectonics), and housed adjacent to 950 Ridges. The booming craggy state is combatting with its road network progress due to frequent low magnitude tremors, landslides, floods, and heavy rainfalls.

The data of earthquakes, landslides, rainfall, and road progress were collected, and analyzed. The connectivity growth is reported tough and challenging within forests, broken relief, frequent ghats roads, and deep gorges, in topography that hinders the progress in pavement growth. Present study focuses on the ameliorative measures of hill road construction in Mizoram by adhering to the IRC: 52-2019, changing modus operandi of national contract bids, amateurish engineering design, procurement policies, bidder’s expertise and commitment for execution.

The non-availability menial labours and technocrats have stemmed many legal issues & disputes between the government and the contractors. Faulty planning, engineering design, executant’s approach, procurement policies and the contractor’s skill, contract administration and construction management, road safety challenges, contract documentation, and inability of deployed bidders needs to be improved in Mizoram. To cater the  needs  of  up-gradation/  new  constructions, the hurdles warrant cutting edge impulses through EIA, EMP, DPR, amateurish design, and updating procurement policies that should supersede the orthodox practices.

Open Access Review Article

Burning Season: Challenges to Conserve Biodiversity and the Critical Points of a Planet Threatened by the Danger Called Global Warming

Diniz Pereira Leite Júnior, Elisangela Santana de Oliveira Dantas, Roseli de Souza, Marcelo Henrique de Souza, Lucas Hudson Durigon Ramos, Monaliza Sehn, Valmir Silvano Siqueira, Maria Madalena de Oliveira, Anagela Maria Acel Silva

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 60-90
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530409

Aim: Due to their biological richness and threat levels, the Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, along with other regions located in different parts of the planet, are identified a global hotspots and need greater attention due to the problems generated by global warming.

Objective: This article addresses general aspects of the planet's biodiversity, the improvement of ecosystem conservation in Brazil and in the world.

Methodology: We carried out an approach on the environmental situation in relation to global warming, the problems generated to the fauna and flora and the conditions in which the biomes of the Midwest region of Brazil are found.

Results: The State of Mato Grosso, located in the heart of South America, Brazil, encompasses in its territory the biodiversity of three large biomes: the Amazon, the Cerrado and the Pantanal. The cerrado, a savanna mosaic biome with 38.9% of the state's territory, is home to 30% of Brazilian biodiversity and 5% of the planet's species. In Mato Grosso Amazonia, the main anthropic pressure is caused by exploration, deforestation, crops and livestock. In the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, one of the largest continuous wetlands on the planet, it is marked by peculiarities, such as dry and flood seasons, low fertility soils, difficult access, among others, which restricted its occupation and human interference.

Conclusion: Finally, these biomes are areas of relevant interest for conservation and for environmental and ecosystem services, these biomes in the state are under threat and need attention from civil society and government in different spheres. General aspects of the biodiversity of biomes distributed in the territory of Mato Grosso/Brazil, socio-environmental challenges, conservation units and public and private policy initiatives that affect conservation, require active conservation intervention measures to harmonize investment activities with the priorities of biodiversity conservation.

Open Access Review Article

Management of Construction and Demolished Waste as an Aggregate Substitute in Cement Concrete

Jayasmita Mahakud, Siba Prasad Mishra, Ramesh Chandra Mohanty, Sagarika Panda

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 122-137
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i530415

India is in the process of modernization in the construction sector by repairing, renovation, up-gradation. Presently concrete, the universal building materials whose main ingredient is coarse aggregate.  The local natural resources like stone products and sand may exhaust and put the sector deficient of aggregates.  The wise use is to reuse recycled concrete and demolition wastes generated from the construction sectors due to shift from horizontal to vertical growth of urban areas. The replacement of recycled coarse aggregate shall efficiently organize the waste management, moderate the environment degradation, and upsurge sustainability.

Use of recycling material in the construction industry as a recycled concrete is highly challenging. So our project deals about reusing of demolished concrete blocks from C &D wastes by form of Recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) are replacing the Natural coarse aggregate in concrete and use in the construction industry. The replacement of RCA in special concrete of 7 and 28 days of curing and the various physical and mechanical properties of materials and strength test of both concrete such as workability, compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength. The test value are compared both in concrete.

Our project investigates on recycling demolished waste materials in order to reduce construction cost and resolving housing problems faced by the low-income communities of the world. The crushed demolished concrete wastes is segregated by sieving to obtain required sizes of aggregate, several tests were conducted to determine the aggregate properties before recycling it into new concrete.