Open Access Original Research Article

Economical Efficacy of Weed Management Options in Groundnut + Pigeonpea Relay Intercropping System

Varsha Nakala, R. K. Mathukia

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630418

Aims: To evaluate the effect of different weed management options on the economics in groundnut + pigeonpea relay intercropping on medium black clayey soils of Junagadh .

Study Design: Field experiment was conducted at Junagadh during kharif 2019-20 and 2020-21 in Randomized Block Design with three replications to evaluate the effect of different weed management options on the economics in groundnut + pigeonpea relay intercropping on medium black clayey soils. The treatments comprised of: pendimethalin 0.9 kg ha-1 as PE fb interculturing and hand weeding at 45 DAS, pendimethalin 0.45 kg ha-1 + oxyfluorfen 0.09 kg ha-1 as PE fb interculturing and hand weeding at 45 DAS), interculturing and hand weeding at 15 DAS fb sodium acifluorfen 16.5% + clodinafop propargyl 8% (ready mix) 1 kg ha-1 at 45 DAS as POE, interculturing and hand weeding at 15 DAS fb quizalofop p ethyl 40 g ha-1 at 45 DAS as POE,  interculturing and hand weeding at 15 DAS fb propaquizafop 70 g ha-1 at 45 DAS as POE, pendimethalin 0.9 kg ha-1 as PE fb sodium acifluorfen 16.5% + clodinafop propargyl 8% (ready mix) 1 kg ha-1 at 45 DAS as POE, pendimethalin 0.9 kg ha-1 as PE fb quizalofop p ethyl 40 g ha-1 at 45 DAS as POE, pendimethalin 0.9 kg ha-1 as PE fb propaquizafop 70 g ha-1 at 45 DAS as POE (T8), weed free, and unweeded control (T10).

Place and duration of the study: Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during kharif seasons of 2019-20 and 2020-21.

Methodology: on the basis of prevailing local charges. The gross realization in terms of rupees per hectare. A net return of each treatment was calculated by deducting the total cost of cultivation from the gross returns.

Result: Significantly higher amount of gross returns were recorded with the weed free treatment (T9), which was closely followed by interculturing and hand weeding at 15 DAS fb sodium acifluorfen 16.5% + clodinafop propargyl 8% (ready mix) 1 kg ha-1 at 45 DAS as PoE (T3). Statistically higher net returns and higher net returns and B:C ratio were registered with interculture and hand weeding at 15 DAS fb sodium acifluorfen 16.5% + clodinafop propargyl 8% (ready mix) 1 kg ha-1 at 45 DAS as PoE (T3).

Open Access Original Research Article

Net Carbon Flux of a Higher Education Institute: Faculty of Agriculture, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka

N. M. K. C. Premarathne, A. M. K. R. Bandara, H. M. T. R. Herath, H. T. O. P. De Silva

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630419

Aims: To account the synthesis of carbon sequestration, carbon emissions, and net carbon flux with respect to an agricultural higher education institute in a tropical region.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Agriculture, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, between May 2019 and August 2019.

Methodology: The onsite carbon flux estimated for emissions and fixations by considering the Faculty of Agriculture (FoA) and the farm premises as a closed system. Net carbon flux is the difference between CO2 sequestered and the total CO2 emissions. The carbon flux was calculated as Δ CO2 = ET +RH + EF- ST. Where; ET is CO2 emission from vehicles, RH is CO2 emission from human respiration, EF is CO2 emission from farm operations and ST is sequestered carbon in trees and turfs. As the carbon sinks; all palm trees, turf and large trees were used. The tillage methods, land-use practices, crop management practices in the farm were considered as carbon sources. And also, the respiration of faculty staff and students and transportation within the faculty were considered as sources of carbon. All the measurements in data collection, estimations of carbon storage and emissions were estimated as per the available methods and equations used in similar studies.

Results: The total CO2 equivalent was 771.82 Mg. The total CO2 emission was 164.9 Mg. Therefore, the Net carbon flux was found as 606.92 Mg for the faculty in 2019.

Conclusion: The faculty is a green one which has a positive net carbon flux. The methodology used in the study can be applied for assessment of carbon stock in other educational institutes in Sri Lankan context with special reference to agricultural education.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analyzing the Role of Increasing Water Pollution on Species-Richness, Interspecific-Competition and Abundance-Unevenness in Reef-Associated Fish Communities, off Jakarta Bay (Indonesia)

Jean Béguinot

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 18-43
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630420

Not far from the exceptionally rich ‘Coral Triangle’ on the one hand but, on the other hand, exposed to strongly varying degree of anthropogenic environmental stresses, the reef-associated fish assemblages all along ‘Seribu Islands’ (off Jakarta Bay) are, thus, confronted to both positive and negative ecological influences. As such, these fish assemblages offer especially interesting opportunities to analyze these opposite ecological influences, at both the descriptive and the functional points of views. The least-biased numerical extrapolation of a series of recently reported – yet incomplete – samplings has allowed a sub-exhaustive account of both the estimated total species-richness and the completed distribution of species abundances – including the set of those rarer species which had remained unrecorded. Thanks to this numerically completed information, it became possible to tackle some important issues – which otherwise would have remained difficult to address properly. First, a remarkably good correlation was highlighted between the distance of fish assemblages to Jakarta Bay (distance considered as a reliable surrogate to the improvement of environmental conditions for fish assemblages) and a theoretically derived index characterizing the accommodation capacity of sites for fish assemblages. This good correlation suggests that this index offer a way to reliably accounts for the “environmental quality” of marine waters, as appreciated by fish communities. In quite another respect, comparing primary and secondary-feeding guilds, provides still further empirical support to a seemingly common trend according to which the guild of secondary-feeders features usually more species-rich, while exhibiting less interspecific competition intensity at niche overlaps, than does the primary-feeders guild.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydrochemical Evaluation of the Tigris River from Mosul to South of Baghdad Cities, Iraq

Alyaa Shakir Oleiwi, Moutaz Al-Dabbas

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 44-58
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630421

Aims of this Study: To investigate the climate change{effects in Iraq on the quality and quantity of the water of the Tigris River from {Mosul” city to South of Baghdad city.00 This paper provides a review of the observed and the predicted impacts of climate change on the water quality in the Tigris River in Iraq.

Study Design: Cross-Sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study area is starting {from Mosul city which is located in {the north part of Iraq to the Al-Azziziyah city located in the south of Baghdad (2005-2012) .

Methodology: The current study was include the available historical data which are the discharge and hydrochemical analysis includes (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4, HCO3, TDS,NO3, and EC) were taken from 6 stations along the Tigris’ River from Mosul to the south of Baghdad’ cities for the years 2005 to 20112. The available historical climate data’ includes (Rainfall and Temperature) for the period 1990-2012. In this paper also, used some of pervious studies and compared them with the current results.

Results: The average annual flow of the Tigris River in Mosul station for the period (1990-2012) ranged between’ (193.8-906) m3/sec and for Sammarra station ranged between’ (366-977) m3/sec. Then, between south of Sammarra’city and north of Baghdad city, Canal of Dijla’joins the Tigris River has a discharge ranges between’ (9-217) m3/sec. After that, the ’Tigris River inter to Baghdad city, the discharge value range between’ (392-1173) m3/sec’and continue his flow to the south of Baghdad city and Diyala River joins it with discharge’range between (55-193) m3/sec. Finally, the Tigris River reaches to’Al-Azizziyah city station with’discharge ranges between (134-769) m3/sec.

Conclusion: In general the water quality of the Tigris River are sulfates, calcium, and magnesium. But in Canal of Dijla the most dominant ion is sodium due to agricultural activities and geology of the area consist of gypsum rocks and this can be effects on water quality of Tigris River in the next station (Baghdad). In Al-Azizziyah city the sulfates, calcium, and Sodium is high level due to drainage from irrigation, industrial“and domestic activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Bottle Gourd Germplasm Based on Phenotypic Characters for Yield and Yield Associated Traits

Muzeev Ahmad, Bijendra Singh, Khursheed Alam, Satya Prakash, Archi Gupta, . Mohit

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 59-63
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630422

The experiment was conducted during Kharif season 2018 at Horticulture Research Centre, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology; Modipuram, Meerut (U.P.) assess the genetic diversity among fifteen genotypes of bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.]. The genetic diversity analysis according to that the formation of five clusters suggesting the presence of wide genetic diversity. The clustering pattern showed that geographical diversity wasn't related to genetic diversity. The analysis of % contribution of assorted characters toward the expression of total genetic divergence showed that the Days to 50% flowering (14.48%) followed Days of fruit set (12.95%), Vine length (m) (11.67%), Number of fruits per plant (10.93%), Number of the primary branches (10.37%), Days to first fruit harvest (10.16%), Average fruit weight (g) (9.44%), Fruit diameter (cm) (6.63%) contributed maximum towards total genetic divergence. Based on the maximum genetic distance. It is advisable to attempt a crossing of the genotype from cluster II (GP-7) with the genotype of cluster I (GP-5), cluster IV (GP-2) and cluster III (GP-1), which may cause to the generation of a broad spectrum of favorable genetic variability for yield improvement in bottle gourd.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Resource Inventory (LRI) for Sustainable Watershed Development-A Case Study of Bisarahalli-1 Microwatershed of Semiarid Region of Koppal District, Karnataka, India

K. V. Niranjana, M. B. Mahendra Kumar, Rajendra Hegde, K. V. Seema, B. A. Dhanorkar, S. Srinivas, R. Srinivasan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 64-81
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630423

A land resource inventory (LRI) of Bisarahalli-1 microwatershed was located in the central part of northern Karnataka in semiarid region of Koppal taluk and district. A case study was taken under Sujala III project sponsored by the Watershed Development Department of Karnataka and funded by the World Bank. The analysis and interpretation of the spatial and non-spatial database generated has revealed that most of the areas suffer from major problems. In most of the areas, very gently sloping and alkalinity affected even up to 80% of the microwatershed area followed by gravelly and low available water capacity, thus reducing the production potential and crop choices. The soils are either moderately or marginally suited for growing most of the agricultural and horticultural crops. By interfacing land resource data with Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS, different management scenarios were analysed to arrive at the best management alternatives (optimum land use plans) that would be most suitable. This data handling system will be useful for making land use decisions and providing proactive advice to farmers on a real time basis protecting the health of natural resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Mulches on the Biometric Performance of Cucumber Crop under Polyhouse

B. Mukesh Goud, Y. Siva Lakshmi, N. Prathyusha, B. Jayasri

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 82-89
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630424

The present study entitled “Effect of different mulches on the biometric performance of cucumber crop under polyhouse” was conducted during summer, 2019 at polyhouse, College of Agricultural Engineering, Kandi. Sangareddy, Telangana. Treatments consisted of five different mulches (White transparent, Black and silver, Black, Organic (paddy straw) and without mulch). The experiment was laid out in a randomized block with four replications. Growth parameters visually vine length and the number of leaves plant-1 differed significantly with different mulches and cucumber without mulch gave significantly higher growth parameters, followed by black and silver, black, white transparent whereas significantly lower growth parameters were recorded with organic mulch. The yield attributes visually the number of fruits plant-1, fruit length and fruit circumferences were significantly superior with cucumber without mulch whereas significantly lower yield attributes were observed in organic mulch. Fruit yield ha-1 was significantly higher with cucumber without mulch. Organic mulch recorded significantly lower fruit yield ha-1. Gross and net returns were higher with cucumber without mulch whereas significantly lower gross and net returns were observed in organic mulch. The highest benefit-cost ratio was observed with cucumber without mulch whereas the lowest benefit-cost ratio was observed with white transparent mulch. The study has shown that cucumber can be grown without any mulch during the summer season under polyhouse at Central Telangana Zone of Telangana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Water and Fishes in Bodo/Bonny River Nigeria

David N. Ogbonna, Matthew E. Origbe

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 90-99
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630425

Several industrial activities around the Niger Delta region have contributed to the widespread contamination of marine ecosystems with organochlorine compounds (OCs), petroleum products that are a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These pollutants tend to be persistent in the environment and are also often highly toxic to the biota. The study was therefore, aimed at determining the concentrations of organic pollutants (PAHS) in the Bodo/Bonny coastal waters and their effect on the marine ecosystems. This is exacerbated by the risks posed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oil spilled environments. Surface water, sediment and fish samples were collected from different sampling stations along the river and analyzed using standard analytical methods. Sampling of surface water was done on Link fish pond which served as control. The results of the value of TPH ranged from 0.31 to 40.85 mg/l, PAHs range from 2.06 to 2.73 mg/l and BTEX ranged from 0.043 to 0.081 mg/l. The Total Petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) values obtained were above DPR permissible Limit of 20 mg/l in all the stations. However, values of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons show that Benzo(a) anthracene had the highest concentration especially in all the surface water stations sampled. Also results showed a presence of carcinogenic PAHs in the fish tissues. This still poses a danger if accumulation was to take place over a long period of time. The values obtained from this study stations also exceeded the WHO quality criteria for drinking, aquatic life support and recreation. This reveals that Bodo/Bonny River is under pollution threat and underscore the need for early remediation if adverse health defects are to be prevented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Change and Climate-Smart Agricultural Practices: Opportunities and Challenges in the Semi-deciduous region of Ghana

E. Oppong, A. Opoku, H. O. Tuffour, Atta Poku P. Snr., C. G. Kyere

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 100-110
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630426

Aim: This study was conducted to investigate small holder farmers’ awareness of climate-smart agricultural practices and challenges to climate change adoption in the semi-deciduous zone of Ghana.

Study Design: A descriptive research design was used for the study.

Place of study: The study was conducted within the Sekyere South district in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

Methodology: Questionnaire was the main tool for data collection. Statistical Package for Social Science [SPSS], version 20 was used for data analysis. Pearson Product Correlation was used to determine the correlation between variables and CSA at 0.05 significant level.

Results: Results from the study revealed that agroforestry (52.0%) and rainwater harvesting techniques (80.0%) were never known among majority of the respondents’ as CSA strategy. Besides, farmers were moderately aware of fire and pest management (48.0%) and crop rotation (36.0%) strategies as CSA approach (48%), as well as, minimum tillage which farmers testify of having a considerable idea on it (52%). Nonetheless, respondents often used improved seed variety (64%) and also resorted to residue management and usage (52%) as CSA options in crop productivity. The study further revealed that a higher segment of the farmers attested that no proper training/education, no governmental support, lack of finance, lack of climate information and non-availability of extension field officers, representing 64%, 76%, 84%, and 76% respectively were the major challenges faced by farmers in adopting and practicing climate-smart agriculture.

Conclusion: Farmers little knowledge on climate change impeded the successful adoption of CSA practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Physiology of Drought and Salinity Stress in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Seedlings

P. Chettri, Kousik Atta, A. K. Pal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 111-119
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630427

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of iso-osmotic potentials of drought and salinity on physiological parameters of grass pea seedlingsas well as to compare varietal responses.

Study Design: Completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: In the years 2017-2018 and 2018-2019, laboratory research on grass pea varieties BK-14 and Pratik was conducted in the Department of Plant Physiology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal, India.

Methodology: The effect of iso-osmotic potential of salinity and drought stress was studied using NaCl (50, 100 and 200 mM ) and PEG 6000 (10, 12 and 18%) solutions with -0.2, -0.4, and -0.8 MPa osmotic potential, and the experiment was carried out in sand culture using modified Hoagland solution under diffused light, at about 80±1% relative humidity (R.H.) and a temperature of 22±1oC. Data on different physiological and biochemical parameters were recorded after ten days of seedling growth in sand culture. Statistical analysis was performed on the mean data in all cases following completely randomized design (CRD) by application of INDOSTAT version 7.1 software.

Results: The germination of grass pea seeds was more severely affected by drought stress than salinity. Both stresses had a negative impact on most of the parameters studied except for leaf proline and sugar The impact became  more pronounced as the severity of the stress increased. The highest intensity of drought stress was found to be more detrimental to leaf protein and relative water content in BK 14, while Pratik was more drastically affected by the highest level of salinity. Drought was found to have a significant negative impact on leaf starch in both the grass pea varieties. The highest concentration of PEG led to a remarkable increase in leaf proline.

Conclusion: The mild to moderate levels (-0.2 and -0.4 MPa)  of stress did not produce much severe effects on the grass pea seedlings, but the highest intensity of stress with an osmotic potential of -0.8 MPa mostly produced drastic effects. There were varietal differences in response to two abiotic stresses. In general, drought stress was found to cause more negative effects on seedling than iso-osmotic potential of salinity stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Dynamic Land System in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Using MODIS Derived Temporal Data Sets during 2001 to 2018

K. Srinivasan, Sebastian Anand, H. Bilyaminu, S. Haritha

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 132-149
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630430

The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR) is one of the largest protected ecologically sensitive areas in India. This study examined the land use/land cover (LULC) changes in NBR for past 18 years from 2001 to 2018 to figure out the LULC changed within a protected area using datasets in 2001, 2010, and 2018 with the help of pertinent geospatial techniques. MODIS Land Cover Type Product (MCD12Q1) accuracy was quantitatively analyzed based on ground truth data and Google Earth imagery. Validation of data were assessed using and overall 635 locations for its accuracy assessment. The obtained kappa coefficient of 0.75, denotes the classification has moderate accuracy. The results showed that in the past 18 years, woody savannas and grasslands were reduced by 299.47 sq.km and 155.32 sq.km respectively. The areas of croplands and cropland/natural vegetation mosaics were also increased by 34.84 sq.km and 54.41 sq.km, respectively. These results showed anthropogenic influences through agricultural practices within the NBR buffer zones. The mixed forests were increased by 266.01 sq.km. One of the significant changes was seen in closed shrublands, which were absent in 2018, that covered 1.50 sq.km in 2001. In addition, A gradual decrease in the area were noticed in woody savannas. From the outcomes, it is recommended that the LULC classes that cover minimal area may be unstable, so measures should be taken for their conservation. The study proved the usefulness of MODIS land cover type data in monitoring large areas periodically for quick decision-making.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aerosol Optical Depths during Two Harmattan Seasons in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Omodara E. Obisesan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 150-161
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630431

Aim: To quantify the atmospheric aerosol loading in order to predict the severity and accompanying consequences of aerosols at a tropical location in Ile-Ife, southwest Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between November 2017 and March 2019.

Methodology: Daily measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at about the local noon (12:30 pm–1:30 pm) for two consecutive Harmattan seasons (November 2017–March 2018; and November 2018 – March 2019) were carried out at three different wavelengths, 465 nm, 540 nm and 619 nm using a manually operated hand-held sun photometer (model Calitoo).

Results: The mean values of AOD were 0.98, 0.87 and 0.83 in the 465 nm, 540 nm and 619 nm wavelengths respectively for November 2017 – March 2018; and 0.94, 0.83 and 0.78 in the 465 nm, 540 nm and 619 nm wavelengths respectively for November 2018 – March 2019. The values assume high levels of haziness at the study location. Intense Harmattan dust storm was experienced on some typical days with AOD values > 2. The resulting elevated level of atmospheric haziness led to visibility deterioration and visibility values greatly reduced to 1 km on such days. December, January and February months were the peak of the Harmattan. The distribution of the particle size indicated that the dominated aerosol is the coarse mode Harmattan dust during the period of study.

Conclusion: The study location experiences a polluted atmosphere during the Harmattan season.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Drip Irrigation and Fertigation on Fruit Yield and Water Productivity of Cucumber under Naturally Ventilated Poly House

S. Padmaja, Md. Latheef Pasha, M. Umadevi, S. A. Hussain, A. Nirmala

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 162-168
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630432

The experiment on cucumber was conducted in naturally ventilated polyhouse at Horticulture garden, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana during rabi 2020-2021. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with 12 treatments consist of three irrigation regimes viz.,drip irrigation scheduled at 0.8 Epan (I1), 1.0 Epan (I2) and 1.2 Epan (I3) as main plots and four NK fertigation levels of 75% recommended dose of NK (F1- N112.5 K75), 100% recommended dose of NK (F2- N150 K100), 125% recommended dose of NK (F3- N187.5 K125) and 150% recommended dose of NK (F4- N225 K150) as sub plot and replicated thrice. yield attributes were significantly higher in irrigation scheduled at 1.2 Epan than 1.0 and 0.8 Epan. Fruit yield was significantly higher in drip irrigation scheduled at 1.2 Epan (83.90 t ha-1) than 1.0 Epan (68.80 t ha-1) and 0.8 Epan (59.50 t ha-1). Yield attributes were significantly higher at 150% recommended dose of NK than 75% recommended dose of NK. Fruit yield was significantly higher at 150 % recommended dose of NK (76.70 t ha-1) than 75% recommended dose of NK (60.30 t ha-1) and onpar with both 125% and 100% recommended dose of NK. Water use efficiency was higher in drip irrigation scheduled at 0.8 Epan (28.6 kg m-3) followed by 1.2 Epan (27.2 kg m-3) and 1.0 Epan (26.6 kg m-3). 150 % recommended dose of NK registered significantly higher water use efficiency (30.1 kg m-3) than 75% recommended dose of NK (23.5 kg m-3). It was recommended that application of 1.2 Epan irrigation and 150 kg N, 100 kg K2O ha-1 by fertigation for maximization of yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Productivity and Economics of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L)

Golla Ravi Varma, P. Satish, S. A. Hussain, S. Harish Kumar Sharma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 169-176
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630433

An experiment was carried out at College farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, in sandy loam soils during rabi 2020 to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on productivity and economics of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). The treatments comprised were: T1- Control (100% RDF -80:40:40 kg NPK ha-1), T2 (25% RDN through Vermicompost + 75% RDF), T3 (25% RDN through Farm Yard Manure + 75% RDF), T4 (25% RDN through Sheep manure + 75% RDF), T5 (25% RDN through Neem cake + 75% RDF),T6 (50% RDN through Vermicompost + 50% RDF), T7 (50% RDN through FYM + 50% RDF), T8 (50% RDN through Sheep manure + 50% RDF), T9 (50% RDN through Neem cake + 50% RDF). The results indicated that application of 25% RDN through farm yard manure + 75% RDF (T3) recorded significantly higher yield attributes viz., number of branches plant-1, number of siliqua plant-1, length of siliqua,  number of seed siliqua -1 which was at par with T2 (25% RDN through Vermicompost + 75% RDF). Higher values of gross returns, net returns and benefit cost (B:C) ratio were obtained with application of 25% RDN through FYM + 75% RDF (T3) as the cost of cultivation of T3 was lesser compared to other treatments.

Open Access Review Article

Impression of COVID-19 Pandemic on Food Systems, Natural Environmental Resources and Agriculture in India: A Review

R. K. Naresh, Saurabh Tyagi, M. Sharath Chandra, B. Chandra Shekar, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Aryan Baliyan, Prashant Ahlawat, Polepaka Shalini

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 120-131
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i630429

The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting food and nutrition security through economic and social systems shocks, food system disruptions and gaps in coverage of essential health and nutrition services. Food systems in low- and middle-income groups must adapt and strengthen food and nutrition security in the wake of COVID-19. Smallholder farmers are a crucial part of the food value chain in India, as well as a critical element of the global food system. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought new risks that threaten livelihoods as well as food security. Post the rabi harvest in April, farmers prepare for the next (kharif) season in May. However, the COVID-19 induced disruptions have reduced production capacity for farm inputs and have led to an increase in price, making these resources inaccessible to smallholder and marginal farmers in the country. The corona-virus pandemic has caused a global reduction in economic activity and although this is major cause for concern, the ramping down of human activity appears to have had a positive impact on the environment. The COVID-19 lockdown has several social and economic effects. Additionally, COVID-19 has caused several impacts on global migration. Carbon emissions have dropped, and the COVID-19 lockdown has led to an improvement in air quality and a reduction in water pollution in many cities around the globe. We found that the COVID-19 lockdown in India has primarily impacted farmers’ ability to sell their crops and livestock products and decreased daily wages and dietary diversity. In this context, we aim to synthesize the early evidence of the COVID-19 impact on the Indian agricultural system viz., production, marketing and consumption followed by a set of potential strategies to recover and prosper post-pandemic. Findings indicate that the pandemic has affected production and marketing through labour and logistical constraints, while the negative income shock restricted access to markets and increased prices of food commodities affecting the consumption pattern.