Open Access Case Study

Characterization of Organic, Inorganic and Integrated Farming Practices for Livelihood Assessment in Jammu Region – A Case Study of Sambha District

Sunil Kumar, G. Chethan Kumar, Lalit Krishan Meena, Amrit Lal Meena, Vijay Khajuria, Jairam Chaudhary, R. K. Naresh, Peyush Punia, Poonam Kashyap

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 108-124
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730447

Aim: Organic farming is considered as a solution to environmental ills associated with modern agriculture.  Survey covered crop, livestock, homestead, agro forestry systems with data pertaining to 120 farmers from 06 villages of Sambha district in Jammu division. Data refer to the input output details and other socio-economic characteristics of farm households in the crop year 2019-2020.

Study Design: Descriptive statistics like sum, average, percentage and ratio were calculated to examine the socioeconomic characteristics of the sample farmers.

Place and Duration of Study: Survey covered crop, livestock, homestead, agro forestry systems with data pertaining to 120 farmers from 06 villages of Sambha district in Jammu division.

Methodology:  Random sampling technique has been used for collecting data. A combination of descriptive statistics, mathematical and statistical techniques was used to analyse the data collected.

Results:  Out of 120 sample farmers, the highest percentage of farmers was in small farm category followed by marginal, landless, medium and large. Average farm size for landless, marginal, small, medium and large were 0.02 ha, 0.71 ha, 1.43 ha, 2.65 ha and 4.80 ha, respectively. All the five categories of farmers showed little variation in terms of the age of households of the farmer. Farmer’s age, literacy and farm size are factors having impact on decision making processes in farming. Own cultivated land for marginal, small, medium and large were 0.53 ha, 1.21 ha, 2.23 ha and 4.21 ha, respectively whereas using above formula total cultivated land for marginal, small, medium and large were 0.71ha, 1.43ha, 2.65ha, and 4.80 ha respectively. Among the six major farming systems, the highest number of farmers practiced Crop+Livestock+Poultry (C-L-P) system. C-L-P was followed by Crop+Livestock+Poultry+Agroforestry (C-L-P-A), Crop+Livestock+Kitchen gardening (C-L-K), Crop +Vegetables (C-V), Crops+Horticulture (C-H) and Vegetable+Horticulture (V-H) systems. Cereals were major crops of the region followed by pulses in high land areas and horticultural crops. Out of five cropping patterns, net returns was the highest in Rice-maize-vegetable cultivation (Rs.120344 ha-1) followed by Maize-Potato-Wheat (Rs.103380 ha-1), Pulse-Mustard-Wheat (Rs.101100ha-1), Rice-Pulses-Wheat (Rs. 98000 ha-1) and Rice-Wheat system (Rs.88950 ha-1). The overall food security index in case of integrated farming practicing households was 1.13. However, food security indices of food secure households and food insecure households were 1.37 and 0.87, respectively. From the index it can be seen that even though the farmers are practicing integrated farming

Conclusion: The study reveals that crop–livestock–poultry–homestead farming system was the most popular in integrated farming systems. Integrated farming has the potential of increasing farmers’ income and employment creation over the mixed and traditional farming practices in the study areas. The extent of food security situation was much better among the integrated farm households when compared to others. Farm households practicing organic in integrated farming were more economically self-sustainable having different modules comprising of livestock, horticulture, poultry  and crop. In UT of Jammu where land is scarce, effort should be taken to increase production through integration of various production components in agriculture for efficient utilization of resources. It would result in production of diversified products from minimum area and help in increasing the income of the farmers

Open Access Original Research Article

Grain Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Rice as Influenced by the Nano Forms of Nitrogen and Zinc

Shagam Lahari, S. A. Hussain, Y. S. Parameswari, S. Harish Kumar Sharma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730434

An experiment was conducted at college farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, in Sandy loam soils during rabi, 2020 to study the effect of nano nitrogen and nano zinc on the yield and nutrient uptake of rice (Oryza sativa. L). The experiment was carried out in randomised block design with 10 treatments and 3 replications. Results revealed that application of 50% conventional nitrogen fertilizer + foliar spray of 4 ml L-1 nano nitrogen at tillering and before panicle initiation stage + foliar spray of 2 ml L-1 nano zinc at tillering and before panicle initiation stage (T10) significantly increased the  grain yield (6810 kg ha-1) and uptake of nitrogen (147.7 kg ha-1), phosphorous (30.0 kg ha-1), potassium (137.9 kg ha-1) and zinc (367 kg ha-1) which were on par with (T9) application of 50% conventional nitrogen fertilizer + foliar spray of 4 ml L-1 nano nitrogen at tillering and before panicle initiation stage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Human Health Risk Assessment of Crude Oil Polluted Soil, Surface & Groundwater Sources in Emohua, Rivers State, Nigeria

Nnamdi M. Ahiamadu, Ify L. Nwaogazie, Yussuf O. L. Momoh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 7-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730435

This study was carried out to assess the human health risk associated with a crude oil spill site in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State,  Niger Delta. The Total Content and Fraction’s approaches were adopted to assess the human health risk. Total Content approach was carried out by comparing the concentration of various contaminants in the environmental media studied with the Intervention Values prescribed while the Fractions approach was carried out using RBCA Toolkit for Chemical Releases version 2.6. The results indicate that concentration indices for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) were greater than the acceptable limit of 1.0 for both the maximum and mean concentrations in soil and groundwater, indicating unacceptable risk at this site. The result from the Fraction’s approach showed that carcinogenic risks are identified for the site through the soil and grounwater exposure pathways as the Total Risk Values for soil (1.7 x10-3) and groundwater (5.6 x 10-1) are higher than the target risk of 1.0 x 10-5 while toxic effects risks are identified for all pathways in the site with Total Health Risk Index for all four pathways greater than the applicable limit of 1.0. Ingestion of groundwater for carcinogenic risk with risk value 5.6 x 10-1 and inhalation of indoor air for non-carcinogenic risk Health Risk Index of 1.0 x104 are identified as the major contributing exposure pathways at this study site. It was therefore concluded that the study site poses unacceptable risk to human health and needs immediate intervention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Disaster Risk Management: The Exercise of Power, Legitimacy and Urgency in Stakeholder Role in Ghana

Esther Owusu, James Antwi, Stephen B. Kendie

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 17-33
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730436

Aim: Disasters continue to wreck both developed and developing countries, causing high mortality and suffering and damage to local economies and also impede development. Ghana is exposed to natural hazards, and the country’s susceptibility to these disasters has increased in both frequency and complexity over the years. This requires an understanding of disaster planning and resource allocation, legitimised in stakeholders who exercise power and urgency to manage and mitigate external uncertainties and internal complexities. The study aimed to examine the exercise of power, legitimacy, and urgency of stakeholders in disaster risk management in the Accra Metropolitan Area.

Study Design: Qualitative case study design involving respondents purposively selected from Accra Metropolitan Area and local communities was employed. We used in-depth interviews and desk reviews of policy documents to assess stakeholder role in disaster risk management. We analysed the data using the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis technique based on three principles of the stakeholder theory; power, legitimacy, and urgency, to advance our discussions on stakeholder role in disaster risk management.

Results: The findings show that central government exercises high effective power, which serves as a strong basis for policy decisions but low precision and low urgency in responding to disaster risk management. At the local government level, the exercise of power and urgency to act appear ineffective despite a strong policy framework to guide disaster management. In addition, the exercise of power and legitimacy role appears low in the local communities. Conversely, urgency in addressing disaster risk management appears to be high among community members.

Conclusion: This study contributes to the existing literature by suggesting structural and administrative reforms to stakeholder role in the management of disasters; central government remains a dominant stakeholder; local government agencies restructured to have a definitive role and the communities maintain their demanding role to hold local government agencies accountable. These reforms will establish a sharp, clear roadmap for the future and set into motion scenario planning for unanticipated disasters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nutrients on Flowering of Hybrid Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii B.) cv. Shimmer in Open Field Condition

Bishnupada Giri, Sashikala Beura

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 34-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730437

The present investigation on Effect of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on flowering of hybrid gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii B.) cv. Shimmer in open field condition was conducted at Biotechnology cum Tissue Culture Centre, OUAT Bhubaneswar during 2015-16 and 2016-17. The aim of the study was to find out suitable organic and inorganic sources of nutrients for cut flower production of gerbera in open field condition. There were eight treatment combinations consisting of 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), Vermicompost, 75% RDF, PSB, Azospirillum, Azotobacter and foliar spray of macro and micro elements. Application of 75% RDF (15:10:30 g NPK/10 plants) + Vermicompost (25 g/10 plants) + Azospirillum/ Azotobacter (20 g/10 plants) + PSB (20 g/10 plants) + macro and micro element spray recorded earlier flower bud initiation and flowering. The same treatments conducted to maximum length of flower stalk, thickness of flower stalk, flower diameter, number of flowers/plant and bloom life. It can be concluded that reduced dose of chemical fertilizer (75% RDF) along with application of vermicompost and biofertiizer can improve flower yield of gerbera in open field condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Small Scale Indoor Hydroponic Fodder Production System

Adarsha Gopalakrishna Bhat, A. Jinu, K. K. Sathian

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 47-51
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730438

Field experiment was conducted to develop a small scale indoor hydroponic fodder production system (May- June 2021). Green fodder supply to the domestic animals is most important factor to improve their health, body weight, milk yield and thus obtaining maximum economic return. Land degradation and urbanisation reduced the area available for the green fodder production. India has 10.7% of world livestock population but only having 2.29% of its land mass and this is putting a huge pressure on land and water resource. Vertical growing of crop and minimising the usage of water is the best solution to solve this problem. Hydroponic technology helps to achieve very high yield and also provides better control over the crop production. Indoor cultivation eliminates the problem of weeds and pests and the use of pesticides and herbicides. Artificial lighting overcomes the disadvantage of seasonal variation of solar radiation and provides continuous source of energy supply. The study shows that green fodder can be efficiently grown at indoor condition. Hydroponic technique helped to achieve yield of 7.535 kg per day with a water requirement of only 4.78 litres per kg. The combination of red and blue LED lights supplied continuous energy for 12 hours a day for the better growth of crop. Results clearly show that the indoor hydroponic fodder production system with artificial supply of light can be recommended for the farmers to meet their fodder requirement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Vermicompost Enriched with Biofertilizers, Bioagents and Micronutrients on Growth and Yield of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Sarika Donga, R. K. Mathukia

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 52-58
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730439

Aims: To study the response of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to vermicompost enriched with biofertilizers, bioagents and micronutrients.

Study Design: Field experiment was conducted at Junagadh (Gujarat) with ten treatments comprising of vermicompost enriched with biofertilizers, bioagents and micronutrients viz., Absolute Control (T1), 100% Recommended dose of fertilizers (T2), Vermicompost 2 t/ha (T3), Vermicompost 2 t/ha + Biofertilizers (Rhizobium Bradyrhizobium japonicum + Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Bacillus subtilis + Potash Solubilizing Bacteria Frateuria aurantia each at 2 L/ha) (T4), Vermicompost 2 t/ha + Trichoderma harzianum 3 kg/ha + Pseudomonas fluorescens 3 L/ha (T5), Vermicompost 2 t/ha + Beauveria bassiana 3 kg/ha (T6), Vermicompost 2 t/ha + Biofertilizers (Rhizobium + Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria + Potash Solubilizing Bacteria each 2 L/ha) + Trichoderma harzianum 3 kg/ha + Pseudomonas fluorescens 3 L/ha + Beauveria bassiana 3 kg/ha (T7), Micronutrients (Fe + Zn + Cu + Mn) Grade-V at 40 kg/ha (T8), Vermicompost 2 t/ha + Micronutrients (Fe + Zn + Cu + Mn) Grade-V at 40 kg/ha (T9) and Vermicompost 2 t/ha + Biofertilizers (Rhizobium + Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria + Potash Solubilizing Bacteria each 2 L/ha) + Trichoderma harzianum 3 kg/ha + Pseudomonas fluorescens 3 L/ha + Beauveria bassiana 3 kg/ha + Micronutrients (Fe + Zn + Cu + Mn) Grade-V at 40 kg/ha (T10) in Randomized Block Design with three replications.

Place and Duration of the Study: Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat) during kharif seasons of 2019 and 2020.

Methodology: Five plants were selected randomly from each net experimental plot and tagged. Growth parameters viz., plant height, number of branches, SPAD meter reading and number of root nodules, and yield attributes viz., number of mature pods per plant and pods weight per plant were recorded from that tagged plants and their average was considered for final record. Pod yield and haulm yield were recorded from net plot size of each experiment plot and converted in to hectare base. Shelling percentage was counted on the basis of 150 g pod sample taken randomly from net plot produce.

Results: The results indicated that the highest plant height (35.64 cm), number of branches per plant (8.11), number of root nodules per plant (154.5) at 45 days after sowing (DAS), dry weight of root nodules per plant at 45 DAS (0.982 g), Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) meter reading at 45 DAS (39.09), number of mature pods per plant (18.40), pod weight per plant (15.37 g), 100-kernel weight (44.08 g) and shelling percentage (73.16%) with the highest pod yield (2.305 t/ha) and haulm yield (3.889 t/ha) were achieved by application of Vermicompost 2 t/ha + Biofertilizers (Rhizobium + Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria + Potash Solubilizing Bacteria each 2 L/ha) + Trichoderma harzianum 3 kg/ha + Pseudomonas fluorescens 3 L/ha + Beauveria bassiana 3 kg/ha + Micronutrients (Fe + Zn + Cu + Mn) Grade-V at 40 kg/ha, which is considered the more effective application among all treatments improves growth, pod and haulm yield of groundnut under clay soil conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Agro-met Conditions and Crop Growth Stages on the Progression of Brown Spot Disease in Basmati Rice

H. S. Viswanath, Ramji Singh, Gopal Singh, Prashant Mishra, U. P. Shahi, D. V. Singh, R. S. Sengar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 59-67
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730440

The present study was carried out at Crop Research Centre of SVPUAT Meerut, U.P during three cropping seasons i.e. 2018, 2019 and 2020 using basmati rice as test cultivar. The study was primarily focused upon the combined effect of weather parameters and crop growth stages of rice crop on the progression of brown spot disease. It was noticed that disease was first observed at late vegetative stage in every cropping season viz. 2018, 2019 and 2020 and reached its maximum towards maturity phase of the crop by obtaining total AUDPC’S of 1049.3, 1170.74 and 852.6 respectively. A significant negative correlation between weekly percent disease index (PDI) and T-max & T-min was obtained recording correlation coefficients (r) of (- 0.71 & - 0.98), (- 0.88 & - 0.98) and (- 0.63 & - 0.98) during 2018, 2019 and 2020 respectively indicating decline in maximum and minimum temperatures at the terminal stages of the crop can greatly favor disease progression. A non-significant positive correlation was obtained between weekly m-RH and PDI to the end of every crop season. During the year 2020, a highly significant negative correlation was obtained between weekly a-RH and PDI (r = - 0.803) in contrast with the years 2018 (r = - 0.55) and 2019 (r = -0.477) exhibiting non-significant negative correlation which might be the reason for low PDI during the year 2020 due to greater decline in relative humidity to the end of the crop season. Although, a non-significant negative correlation between weekly PDI and RF (rainfall) and partial positive correlation with weekly bright sunshine hours (BSS) was obtained during all three crop seasons, high intermittent rainfall from late vegetative to reproductive stage during 2018 and 2019 might be responsible for large amount of spore dispersal (high inoculum pressure) leading to greater disease progression. The regression model developed using 2018, 2019 and 2020 meteorological data, which was validated with disease severity data of 2019 yielded significant R2 value of 0.98 using observed and predicted values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Innovation Diffusion in the Utilization of Fish Resources in Bangourain, West Region of Cameroon: Environmental Impact and Sustainability

Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi, Desmond Forbah Tafuh, Sunday Shende Kometa

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 68-79
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730441

Fish is considered a crucial resource for the sustenance of livelihoods in water-dependent communities across the globe. However, geographical studies on innovations in the use of this resource are limited in the Cameroonian context. This study investigates the pattern of innovation diffusion in the utilization of fish resources, drawing from a random sample of 106 fishing households in Bangourain. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that a single unit change in the natural drivers of innovation triggers a 0.164 change in the spatial diffusion of innovation in the utilization of fish resources (p-value > 0.05). With regards to the economic and cultural drivers of innovation, a unit change in their values lead respectively to a 0.538 and 0.424 shift in the diffusion of innovation. The results suggest that while the economic and cultural drivers of innovation are significant (P ˂ 0.05), those of natural drivers are insignificant (P ˃ 0.05). Policy interventions should leverage natural attributes to foster the effective diffusion of innovations – focusing on the tools and methods applied in fish harvesting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Hormones on Yield and Economics of Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) under Southern Telangana Agro-Climatic Conditions

Ganta Harshitha, Ch. Bharat Bhushan Rao, T. Ram Prakash, S. A. Hussain

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 89-94
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730445

An experiment was carried out at student farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, in sandy loam soils during rabi 2020 to study the effect of hormones on growth and yield of mustard under Southern Telangana Agro-climatic conditions. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with ten treatments. The treatments comprised were: T1-Control (RDF 60:40:40 N, P2O5, K2O kg ha-1), T2 (RDF + foliar spray of GA3 @ 45 ppm at flowering), T3 (RDF + foliar spray of GA3 @ 45 ppm at pod development), T4 (RDF + foliar spray of GA3 @ 45 ppm at flowering and pod development), T5 (RDF + foliar spray of humic acid @ 1.5% at flowering), T6 (RDF + foliar spray of humic acid @ 1.5% at pod development), T7 (RDF + foliar spray of humic acid @ 1.5% at flowering and pod development), T8 (RDF + foliar spray of GA3 @ 45 ppm fb humic acid @ 1.5% with 2 days interval at flowering), T9 (RDF + foliar spray of GA3 @ 45 ppm fb humic acid @ 1.5% with 2 days interval at pod development) and T10 (RDF + foliar spray of GA3 @ 45 ppm fb humic acid @ 1.5% with 2 days interval at flowering and pod development). Results indicated that, application of RDF + foliar spray of GA3 @ 45 ppm fb humic acid @ 1.5% with 2 days interval at flowering and pod development (T10) and application only at flowering (T8) gave the similar and higher yields and economic returns. As the cost of cultivation of T10 was higher than T8, BC ratio was higher for T8.

Open Access Original Research Article

Implications of Climate Targets at a Local Level: The Study of Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India

Sonam Sahu, Izuru Saizen

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 95-107
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730446

Paris agreement’s 2°C target has set a goal for the entire World to reduce emissions. Simultaneously, the countries which are a party to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change are also required to set voluntary national climate targets to reduce emissions. For achieving these targets, mitigations efforts have to be made at every possible level, especially from the metropolitan cities as they are the prominent source of emissions. This raises the requirement of elucidating the meaning of climate targets at local levels. In this context, the present study tries to interpret the global and national targets at the level of a metropolitan region and quantify the amount of emission reduction required. Mumbai Metropolitan Region in India was studied for this purpose. Paris Agreement’s 2°C target as a global target and India’s climate target defined in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions as the national target were studied. These climate targets were translated into emission budgets for Mumbai Metropolitan Region. Comparing these with Mumbai Metropolitan Region’s emission forecast showed that it requires a 16.8% reduction to meet the national target while a 40% to 47% reduction to meet the global target. The results are significant for policy makers and planners to design focused mitigation policies and support national efforts to govern climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of DBSKKV Developed Fruit harvesters for Matured Nutmeg Harvesting

A. A. Pachangane, K. G. Dhande, V. S. Nalawade

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 125-132
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730448

Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) is an important tree spice which produces two different spices. Harvesting should be done at proper stage of maturity in order to maintain their nutrients level as attaining desirable quality. Presently, the method adopted for harvesting nutmeg in Konkan region is done manually. The DBSKKV, Dapoli has developed four different fruit harvesters. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the field performance and check feasibility for harvesting of matured Nutmeg fruits with DBSKKV, Dapoli developed fruit harvesters. The performance of the DBSKKV developed fruit harvesters for matured Nutmeg fruit were evaluated in terms of harvesting capacity (kg/h), damage fruit per cent, total harvesting time (h), labour requirement and economics of Nutmeg harvesting. The average harvesting capacity of Naveen Mango harvester, Nutan Mango harvester, Atul Sapota harvester and Multi fruit harvester foe matured Nutmeg harvesting was found to be 51.33 Nos./h (2.79 kg/h), 61 Nos./h (2.78 kg/h), 51.33 Nos./h (2.92 kg/h) and 144.66 nos./h (5.63 kg/h) respectively. The average damage fruit per cent for Naveen Mango harvester, Nutan Mango harvester, Atul Sapota harvester and Multi fruit harvester for matured                      Nutmeg harvesting were found to be 25.73%, 25.79%, 17.02% and 7.76% respectively. The cost of operation of Naveen Mango harvester, Nutan Mango harvester, Atul Saopta harvester and Multi fruit harvester for matured Nutmeg harvesting was found to be Rs 18.21/kg, Rs 18.44/kg, Rs 17.53/kg and Rs 9.01/kg respectively. Among the evaluated DBSKKV, Dapoli fruit harvesters for matured Nutmeg harvesting, Multi fruit harvester perform better with minimum damage of fruits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pyro Geography and Indian Quest during Anthropocene to COVID-19

Siba Prasad Mishra

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 133-149
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730449

Taming fire by homosapiens was one of the foremost technological advancement in the history of evolution. The homosapiens tried to tame the wild fire by locating, preserving, using as tools for hunt game, food preparation, rituals and religion, and protecting them from predators. The modern men in Anthropocene in Pyroxene period, the fire have been used for domestic, industrial, and pioneering researches to concur the earth. The type of ignition to our vast deciduous forests can be natural, accidental, out of negligence, deliberate, incendiary, agriculture purposes, resource collection, and at times cultural. Present assessment embraces the changes that occurred in the wildfire due to weather-related and anthropogenic ignited. The wild fire deaths in towns, factories and mines have been reduced for the last six years.  But during the pandemic COVID-19 under the locks, shutdowns and curfews, the numbers of crowdie and industrial fires in India has abridged, but dependence on forest products for livelihood by the aboriginal people and global warming had increased numbers of forest fire in India. There are also increased electrocution fatalities in different hospitals in India due to oxygen enriched surroundings during the present Pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

22 Years of Near-zero Cloud Cover Variability across Varying Geographical Landscapes of Southern Africa: A Surprising Anomaly

Mutinta Nkolola

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 150-163
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730450

In physical geography, clouds are known to dictate global energy budgets and to have crucial ripple effects on other climatic variables such as diurnal range of temperature (DTR), a key indicator of climate change. Here, a 115-year state-of-the-art station based gridded dataset from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) is interrogated to understand the evolution of cloud cover across southern Africa for the period 1901 - 2016. Results show near-constant variability from 1901 – 1922. It was therefore hypothesised that the observed near-constant variability would result in a similar pattern for some climatic variables such as DTR as the opposite would bring into question our current knowledge of geographical mechanisms underlying DTR control across the region. Further analyses showed little to no association between cloud cover and other climatological variables (including DTR) for the period 1901 – 1922 but strong and significant association from 1923 – 2016. This is the first observational evidence of near-constant cloud cover variability; it is surprising, and counterintuitive. This constant variation can be attributed to limited ground-based observations that went into the construction of the CRU gridded dataset during the 1901 – 1922 period and therefore, caution needs to be exercised by studies that need to use the data for the said period. This is a crucial area of scientific enquiry, and a lack of caution can lead to misleading conclusions on cloud cover evolution and how that relates to climate change.

Open Access Review Article

A Review Pyrolysis: Different Agricultural Residues and Their Bio-Char Characteristics

J. M. Makavana, P. N. Sarsavadia, P. M. Chauhan, M. S. Dulawat, U. D. Dobariya, R. Yadav

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 80-88
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i730442

Due to the large availability of biomass resources, India has great potential for the production of biochar. Different types of thermochemical even biological processes have been adopted to convert biomass into value‐added products. Among those processes, pyrolysis is more convenient since it has several advantages of storing, transportation, and flexibility in solicitation such as turbines, combustion appliances, boilers, engines, etc. Fig. 1 Overview of the pyrolytic product.  Illustrates different types of the existing biomass conversion process with their respective output. The study was undertaken to investigate the properties of various agricultural residues. Until recently, the use of BC (biochar) in agriculture was mainly focused on the application of BC as a soil amendment. However, there are opportunities to investigate in this wide field of study, as there are plenty of potential relationships between various parameters, such as (but not limited to) BC(biochar) feedstock material, dose, and its characteristics, type of soil, plant species, and target elements/compounds of the treatment. Other related aspects that were investigated are BC‐enhanced composting processes and obtaining the BC via pyrolysis of agricultural waste.