Open Access Case Study

Characterisation and Prioritization of Micro Watersheds Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case Study on river Bharathapuzha, Kerala

Md. Majeed Pasha, K. K. Sathian

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 68-81
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830458

Watershed based interventions are essential for the sustainable land and water management of any region. Watershed prioritisation is a must for the efficient utilisation of available monetary and human resources. One of the most common means of prioritisation is through morphometric analysis as hydrological processes or watershed responses depend on morphometric characteristics of the watersheds. The study contains morphometric analysis of a few number of micro watersheds of river Bharathapuzha of Kerala state. With the help of ArcGIS software and SRTM DEM, all the basic morphometric characteristics and derived morphometric characteristics of 10 micro watersheds are determined and then scores are assigned to the parameters. Finally, combined parameter scores are determined and ranking of each micro watershed is done. The priority scores between watersheds show considerable variation which is an indication of the efficacy of the methods employed. Once the ranking of the micro watersheds are done objectively and scientifically it would be a great support to the soil and water conservationist and planners. This study gives an insight into the applicability of the method to a mid land region in the state of Kerala, India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Weather Based Agromet Advisories on Economics of Farmers in Gaya District of Bihar

Mohd Zakir Hussain, Avinash Kumar, Rajeev Singh, Santosh Kumar, R.K. Sohane, Anjani Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 6-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830453

Present study was conducted during Summer and Kharif 2020 across villages of Gaya district under the South Alluvial zone of Bihar to assess the usefulness of Agro-met Advisory Services (AAS) and to quantify the economic gain of farmers through adoption of advisory in their day-to-day farming practices. To achieve this, two groups of farmers were formed namely, a group adopting the agro-met advisories (AAS farmers) and other group not aware of agro-met advisories (non-AAS farmers). A total of 80 farmers (including AAS and Non AAS) were identified. The agro-met advisory were circulated among AAS farmers for Summer and Kharif season of 2020 and care was taken for proper implementation of advisories by this group. Expenditure incurred & crop situation of both the group of farmers were compared at every stage from land preparation to harvest and crop growth and yields were monitored regularly among them. Significant results were reported for crop growth and yield among the AAS farmers compared to non-AAS. AAS farmers have obtained a net income of Rs. 45188 and Rs. 37273 while, non AAS farmers obtained a net income of Rs. 26225 and Rs. 28510 for green gram and rice respectively. The AAS farmers reported 41.96 and 23.5 per cent of additional benefit in green gram and rice, respectively. The gain in additional benefit was due to management of crop according to agro-met advisory bulletins. Therefore, adoption of agro-met advisory bulletin based on past, current and future weather forecast is an effective tool for enhancing the net productivity and income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Growing Conditions on Growth and Yield Attributes of Cherry Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme)

. Chandni, Deepti Singh, Shirin Akhtar, Randhir Kumar, Subrat Bahera

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 15-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830454

Cherry tomato is a high value crop which due to neutraceutical properties commercially cultivates under protected condition, for its demand in national and international market, it is necessary to develop varieties with high yield. It is need to evaluate cherry tomato varieties with desirable in protected and field conditions. The present investigation was conducted to study the performance of eighteen genetically diverse genotypes of cherry tomato in open field trained on trellis and naturally ventilated polyhouse conditions. Twelve growth and yield traits, viz., plant height, days to 50% flowering, days to first fruiting, number of flowers and fruits per truss, average fruit weight, polar and equatorial fruit diameter, pericarp thickness, number of fruits per plant, yield per plant and total yield were observed. In open field condition, genotype BRCT-30 and BRCT-32 gave the best performance in terms of earliness with maximum values for number of flower-fruit per truss and total yield (415.98 q/ha and 408.75 q/ha, respectively). In polyhouse condition, genotype BRCT-20 and BRCT-35 gave the maximum value for total yield (701.21 q/ha and 611.21 q/ha, respectively) with mid-early values for flowering and fruiting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Long Term Application of Inorganic Fertilizers and Organic Manure on Soil Fertility and Crop Productivity under Soybean-Wheat Cropping System in a Vertisol

Nilesh Patidar, A. K. Dwivedi, B. S. Dwivedi, R. K. Thakur, Jalendra Bairwa, Abhishek Sharma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 24-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830455

The field experiments was conducted is an ongoing All India Co-ordinate Research Project on “Long term Fertilizer Experiment” during 2018-2019 with soybean-wheat cropping sequence at the Research Farm Department of Soil Science, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.), India. The objective of the study was the Impact of long term application of inorganic fertilizers and organic manure on soil fertility and crop productivity under soybean-wheat cropping system in a Vertisol. The experiment consists of ten treatments i.e. T1 50% NPK, T2 100% NPK, T3 150% NPK, T4 100% NPK + Hand Weeding, T5 100% NPK + Zn, T6 100% NP, T7 100% N, T8 100% NPK+ Farm Yard Manure, T9 100% NPK–S and T10 unfertilized plot (control) with four replications in a randomized block design. The findings of the present study indicated that the soil pH and EC were remaining unaltered even after continuous application of variable amounts of fertilizers either alone or in combination. A significant positive change in soil organic carbon, available N P K and S content was observed with continuous additions of balanced fertilizers and manures over the imbalanced or unfertilized treatments. The findings showed that the application of recommended dose of N, P and K (20:80:20 kg ha-1 for soybean and 120:80:40 kg ha-1 for wheat) with organic manure (FYM) @ 5 t ha-1 resulted in 185.8% and 325.9% increase over control in soybean and wheat yields, respectively. Thus, the continuous use of balanced fertilization, either alone or in combination with organic manure is necessary for sustaining soil fertility and productivity of crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Field Evaluation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Management of Orobanche: A Parasitic Weed in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)

Asif Waratadar, P. Jones Nirmalnath, P. S. Matiwade, Vithal Navi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 82-93
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830460

An investigation was carried out to evaluate the methods of application of AMF cultures in the management of Orobanche viz., planting of pre colonized tobacco seedling; soil application and the combination of both. The experiment was carried out in Orobanche infested soils of tobacco growing areas of Belagavi district. The results of the present investigations have revealed that the treatment received STD AMF had reduced the emergence of Orobanche (1.33 plot-1) compared to UASDAMFT (1.67 plot-1) and UASDAMFS (2.89 plot-1). The results with respect to different methods of applications of AMF on Orobanche numbers revealed that planting of pre colonized tobacco seedling plus soil application at the time of planting suppressed the Orobanche emergence (0.00 plot-1) compared to planting of pre colonized seedlings (1.67 plot-1) and direct soil application of AMF cultures at the time of planting (4.22 plot-1).The results pertaining to the interactive effect between mycorrhizal cultures in conjunction with the methods of application of AMF cultures significantly reduced the population of Orobanche with the treatment received planting of pre colonized seedling along with soil application of UASDAMFT, UASDAMFS and STD AMF recorded zero emergences of Orobanche at 60 DAP. However, the highest numbers of weeds were recorded in uninoculated control (68.67plot-1). Furthermore, mycorrhizal parameters like spore count and percent of root colonization were found to be the highest in the plots received mycorrhization in the form of pre-colonization and soil application with STD AMF at the time of transplanting in the main field compared to uninoculated control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Rainwater Recharging on the Yield of Borewells at the GKVK Campus, Bengaluru

N. Soundarya, H. G. Ashoka, K. Devaraja, K. S. Rajashekarappa, M. N. Thimmegowda

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 94-101
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830461

The study was conducted to analyze the effect of recharging the borewells through rooftop rainwater and runoff water harvesting from open fields during the year 2020-21. Nine borewells were chosen for the study, with seven borewells using various recharge strategies and two borewells serving as controls. The yield from these borewells is measured at 15-day intervals on a regular basis. During the Kharif season of 2020-21, three borewells (BW1, BW3, and BW5) measured a constant discharge of 0.3 lps, 0.4 lps and 3.2 lps respectively, four borewells (BW2, BW4, BW6, and BW7) measured a rise in discharge from 2.4-2.8 lps, 2.3-2.4 lps, 2.2-2.6 lps, and 1.6-2 lps, respectively, and two borewells (BW 8 and BW9) without any recharge technique measured a drop in discharge from 3-2lps and 2.4-2lps, respectively. During the subsequent Rabi season five borewells (BW1, BW2, BW3, BW4 and BW6) showed a constant discharge of 0.3lps, 2.8lps, 0.4lps, 2.4lps and 2.6lps respectively, two borewells (BW5 and BW7) continued to have an increased discharge 3.2-3.4lps and 1.8-2 lps, respectively and the two control borewells (BW 8 and BW9) continued to show a decrease in the discharge from 2-1.8lps and 1.9-1.8lps, respectively. As a result, the procedure of recharging of borewells through rainwater had a significant impact on borewell yield. The yield of recharged borewell had shown an increase in discharge or had a constant discharge during the Rabi season.

Open Access Original Research Article

Traffic Impact Assessment for New Industrial installation at Dhamrai Area along the Dhaka-Aricha Highway, Bangladesh

Sree Pradip Kumer Sarker, Mohammad Majibur Rahman

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 102-113
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830462

Industrialization can benefit individuals, communities or states as it opens new opportunities for economic, social and human development. The stream of globalization is impelling Bangladesh to adopt the technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Bangladesh has pursued export-oriented industrialization, with its key export sectors include textiles, shipbuilding, fish and seafood, jute and leather goods etc. Communication system plays a very important role in accelerating the place of industrialization of a country. Along with the industrialization, communication system of Bangladesh has also been greatly improved. Various major projects have already been implemented and many more new projects have been under taken. Even then various unplanned developments are creating traffic congestion on our highways which become a big problem for us. Factories are being setup on both side along the highways in an unplanned manner to accelerate the pace of industrialization. As a result, roadways cause a slew of issues, including reduced capacity, increased travel time delays, queue length, increased fuel consumption, and roadway accidents, all of which result in unrecorded economic losses. So, it is vital to investigate and measure the traffic impact of industrial installations along highways in order to achieve long-term sustainability. Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA) is a technical examination of traffic problems and safety concerns associated with a particular development. In this study, we have assessed the traffic impact due to setting up a new industry along the Dhaka-Aricha Highway(N-5). It is mainly focused on the impact of the new generated traffic will have on the Dhaka -Aricha highway’s traffic system after the installation of an industry.  Furthermore, the findings may be used to take the anticipatory role in the future for becoming a beneficiary to set up a sustainable industry along the highways.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Management in Underutilized Vegetable Crop Ivy Gourd [Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt]

N. K. Patel, D. T. Desai, D. D. Champaneri, M. B. Tandel

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 114-119
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830463

Background: Ivy gourd is the most nutritious and healthy vegetable among the underutilized vegetable crops. To increase the production effective nutrient management is key tool.

Methods: The experiment on growth and yield improvement in ivy gourd through integrated nutrient management was conducted in a randomised block design with three replications at Regional Horticulture Research Station in ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat.

Results: An application of 50% RDF (Recommended Dose of Fertilizer) + Bio-compost had a beneficial effect on growth parameters like minimum days to flowering (35.83 days) and fruit harvest (47.11), maximum dry biomass of shoot (8.41 kg) and dry biomass of root (840 g) with near to neutral fruit pH (6.8). Maximum length of fruit (5.12 cm), diameter of fruit (1.80 cm), weight of fruit (4.57 g), maximum fruit yield plant-1 (1.64 kg), highest fruit yield (16.60 t ha-1), maximum leaf nutrient content (N - 1.753 ppm, P - 0.456 ppm, K - 1.653 ppm) and soil nutrient status (N - 211.77 kg ha-1, P2O5 - 69.52 kg ha-1, K2O - 498.96 kg ha-1) were also noted in 50% RDF + Bio-compost as compared to other treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Radiation Exposure and Heavy Metals Concentration in Agricultural Research Farm Federal Polytechnic Ile-Oluji and Environs

G. O. Awoleye, O. Olatunji, O. J. Agunbiade

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 120-131
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830464

Exposure level of radiation and heavy metal concentration were examined in Agricultural research farm, Federal Polytechnic Ile-Oluji and environs using a gamma scout survey meter and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy respectively. The exposure level was determined by placing a survey meter 1 m above the soil level in each sampling point. The mean value of exposure level was 0.5113 µSv hr-1which was higher than the recommended limit of 0.11µSv hr-1 [1]. For the heavy metal values, there is a general increase in the concentration from Zn metal to Pb in the order Zn>Fe>Cu>Cr>Cd>As>Pb. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded for Zn while Pb metal has the lowest heavy metal concentration for the soil samples. In the plant samples however, the trend of heavy metals is as Cu>Zn>Fe>Cr>Cd>As>Pb. The highest concentration of the metals is recorded for Cu metal while Pb has the lowest value.Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Zn and Fe were all above permissible levels in plant materials while only Pb and As have lower values than the safety limit.The transfer factor from soil to plant is greater than 0.5 in some of the areas indicating a high risk through the food chain to man. Similarly, most of the metals have transfer factors greater than 0.2 which is also an indication of contamination of the Cassava plant in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of DSSAT CERES Wheat Model under Different Thermal and Irrigation Regimes at Prayagraj

Lakshmi Prasanna Aggile, Shradhha Rawat, Shweta Gautam

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 132-140
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830465

The present study was planned to determine the phenology and heat unit requirement of promising wheat varieties under different crop growing environment of Prayagraj, India.  Delay in sowing of wheat results into reduction in the grain yield as the crop exposes to high temperature at phenological stages. A field experiment on wheat (variety PBW-502) was conducted at the farm nursery, College of Forestry, SHUATS, Prayagraj during rabi seasons of 2018-19 and 2019-20. The experiment was conducted in factorial randomized block design and replicated thrice with three dates of sowing and five irrigation levels. The yield attributes (grain and biological yield) were significantly influenced by sowing dates and irrigation levels. The significantly highest grain and biological yield were recorded in crop sown on 15th November as compared to other dates of sowing. Among different irrigation levels, grain and biological yield were significantly more in I5 (CRI+ tillering + jointing + anthesis + maturity) treatment over the other irrigation levels. DSSAT CERES-Wheat model suggests good model performance at optimum irrigation at Prayagraj under stress condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Indicator-Based Assessment of Drought in Bhilwara District, Rajasthan

Gaurav Sharma, Chandra Kishor Kumar, Rishi Pathak

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 141-153
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830467

Management of water resources helps to sustain even in drastic conditions resulted due to unprecedented disruption in rainfall patterns. Change and irregularity in the pattern of the Indian monsoon are the outcomes of human-induced activities. Inadequate water availability affecting various sectors namely domestic, industrial, and agricultural sectors that are dependent upon it. To cope under such drastic conditions adaptability and planning prior to its occurrence plays a significant role. It is under this context, the present study investigated drought characteristics which include drought frequency and severity caused by prolonged dry spells in Bhilwara district, Rajasthan. The district falls in the water-scarce regions with arid to semi-arid conditions and with an average annual rainfall of 658.03 mm. Due to high rainfall variability, the region is frequently subsumed under drought-like conditions. Comprehensive analysis using daily rainfall data from 1973-2018 for 12 rain gauge stations in Bhilwara district has been carried out. Most of the stations were drought-prone assessed by probability analysis using Weibull’s plotting position formula. The departure analysis showed that Kotri station has a maximum drought frequency of 1 in 2 years while other stations were having a drought frequency of 1 in 3 to 4 years. Prioritization of drought-prone stations based on rainfall departure analysis helps to initiate an immediate mitigation process based on the ranking of its proneness. Asind and Bhilwara station with RDI 0.91 has maximum proneness and its calls for effective planning for drought management. Based on seasonal departure analysis it is found that 1980, 1981, 1985, 1987, 2000, 2002, 2008, 2015, and 2017 are drought years. The result has been supplemented using NDVI so that the vegetation condition can also be assessed during water stress conditions. The study highlighted that the frequency of drought has increased owing due to climate change and thus, poses serious challenges if not tackle adequately.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Plant Growth Regulators on Post Harvest Life of Cut Flowers of Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii.B) cv. Goliath

Bishnupada Giri, Sashikala Beura

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 154-162
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830468

The present investigation was carried out in premises of Biotechnology cum Tissue Culture Centre, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar during 2015-16 and 2016-17. The objective of the study was to standardize suitable bio regulators on post harvest life of gerbera cut flowers. Apart from control, eight treatments of growth regulators like Gibberellins (GA3) @ 100ppm and 150ppm; cycocel @ 700 ppm and 800 ppm with and without amino acid were used as foliar spray. In winter season percentage gain weight of flower stalk (19.95%), percentage gain in flower diameter (4.95%), solution uptake (33.17 ml) and vase life (13.83 days) were maximum with application of cycocel @ 700 ppm + Amino Acid while percentage gain in stalk length (1.28%) of flower in vase was maximum in Gibberellin @ 150ppm + Amino Acid. Similar trends in change in above post harvest parameters were also observed in summer and rainy season.

Open Access Review Article

Nano Fertilizer on Sustainable Agriculture- A Review

Debashis Dutta, Anurag Bera

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830451

With an increment of population day by day the agriculture sector is facing a big issue with the production and the economics of production as well. In this scenario adoption of more efficient tools which could mitigate the drawbacks and led the agriculture in a sustainable way is the need of the hour. The application of nanotechnology in agriculture and forestry will help the environment to retain its biodiversity [1]. Nano fertilizers are synthesized or modified form of traditional fertilizers, fertilizers bulk materials or extracted from different vegetative or reproductive parts of the plant by different chemical, physical, mechanical or biological methods with the help of nanotechnology used to improve soil fertility, productivity and quality of agricultural produces [2].

In this particular scenario adoption of labour saving and well advanced technologies is badly needed. This could be mitigated by a eco-friendly technology of Nano-science [3]. Nano fertilizers can control nutrient release and give the proper amount of nutrients to crops in the right proportions, boosting yield while maintaining environmental safety [4]. A report by Dwairi [5] proposed that urea-impregnated zeolite may be utilised as a slow-release fertiliser, releasing nitrogen slowly and steadily from Nano zeolite. Zinc is one of the commonly deficient micronutrient in soil [6]. Chlorophyll formation, fertilisation, pollen function, and auxin synthesis all need zinc-containing nanomaterials. Zn is one of the elements that defend plants from drought conditions. [7]. A research by Raliya and Tarafdar in 2013 [8] showed that zinc oxide, Nano Particles were shown to improve chlorophyll content, protein synthesis, rhizospheric microbial activity, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and phytase activity in a cluster bean rhizosphere. Copper has characteristics of first transported to shoot and then re translocated into root [9]. An experiment on moong bean (Vigna radiata) and wheat revealed that nano copper could penetrate cell membrane and conglomerate thereafter. Moong bean was found to be more sensitive regarding the toxicity of nano copper than wheat [10], (Rico et al. 2011)

Open Access Review Article

Analysis of Climate Change and Sustainable Development in Peru and Its Departments during the Year 2006 - 2018

Vladimir Villarroel Diaz, Ronald Révolo Acevedo, Uriel Quispe Quezada, Elvis Carmen Delgadillo, Joel Colonio Llacua, Bimael Justo Quispe Reymundo

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 31-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830456

Aims: Analyze and relate the general index of climate change and sustainable development of Peru and its departments during the year 2006 - 2018.

Study Design:  The research is not intended to deliberately manipulate the variables, therefore, it is non-experimental; is descriptive, correlational and longitudinal.

Place and Duration of Study: The research project was carried out in the Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Sciences of the UNCP, likewise the collection of information data was carried out during 2020 and 2021, due to the Covid19 pandemic.

Methodology: Two economic data, four social data and five environmental data were selected, in addition climatic data of precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature of the 24 departments of Peru were collected during the years 2006 - 2018; To estimate the climatic and sustainable indices, the Prescott-Allen methodology was applied, the interpretation and assessment scale (climate change and sustainable development) was carried out using the barometric analysis of McCarthy. Five regression models were applied [dependent variable GISD; independent variable IGCC], hypothesis testing was performed using Karl Pearson's r coefficient and p-value at 0.05.

Results: It is stated that Peru presents an economic sustainable index [EcSI] of 0.066 low, social sustainability [SoSI]: 0.225 medium, environmental sustainability [EnSI]: 0.282 high and general index of sustainable development [GISD] is 0.572 medium. In itself the climate index of precipitation is [CPrI]: 0.079 weak, the climate index maximum temperature [CTxI]: 0.251 severe, climate index minimum temperature [CTnI]: 0.138 weak and the general index of climate change [GICC] is 0.468 moderate. Two appropriate regression models [linear and exponential] were determined to estimate the GISD as a function of the GICC, CPrI, CTxI and CTnI.

Conclusion: It was found that during the year 2006 to 2018 Peru presented a low economic, social medium, high environmental situation and therefore its sustainable development is in a medium situation; while precipitation is weak, severe maximum temperature, weak minimum temperature, and therefore, climate change has a moderate impact. Likewise, it is stated that there are two linear and exponential regression models to estimate the GISD based on the GICC, CPrI, CTxI and CTnI. It is recommended to collect more climatic data and economic indicators to be able to differentiate the economic and climatic situation that Peru and departments represent during its thirteen years of development.

Open Access Review Article

Application of Digital Technologies for the Next Level of Agriculture Growth and Transformation under Changing the Indian Agriculture: A Critical Review

R. K. Naresh, Sunil Kumar, M. Sharath Chandra, Shakti Om Pathak, S. K. Gupta, Sandeep Gawdiya, Pradeep Kumar Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 47-67
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i830457

The rapid population growth has driven the demand for more food, fiber, energy, and water, which is associated to an increase in the need to use natural resources in a more sustainable way. The growing connectivity in the rural environment, in addition to its greater integration with data from sensor systems, remote sensors, equipment, and smart-phones have paved the way for new concepts from the so-called digital agriculture. The information that crops offer is turned into profitable decisions only when efficiently managed. Current advances in data management are making Smart Farming grow exponentially as data have become the key element in modern agriculture to help producers with critical decision-making. Valuable advantages appear with objective information acquired through sensors with the aim of maximizing productivity and sustainability. These kind of data-based managed farms rely on data that can increase efficiency by avoiding the misuse of resources and the pollution of the environment. Data-driven agriculture, with the help of robotic solutions incorporating artificial intelligent techniques, sets the grounds for the sustainable agriculture of the future. Digital agriculture offers far-reaching opportunities for accelerating agricultural transformation. Although there are concerns that digital agriculture will enhance the market power of large agribusiness enterprises and increase the digital divide, a combination of new actors and public action can help accelerate the supply of digital agricultural technology, manage threats of market concentration, and harness the opportunities of digital agriculture for all.

The agriculture industry has radically transformed over the past 50 years. Advances in machinery have expanded the scale, speed, and productivity of farm equipment, leading to more efficient cultivation of more land. Seed, irrigation, and fertilizers also have vastly improved, helping farmers increase yields. Now, agriculture is in the early days of yet another revolution, at the heart of which lie data and connectivity. Artificial intelligence, analytics, connected sensors, and other emerging technologies could further increase yields, improve the efficiency of water and other inputs, and build sustainability and resilience across crop cultivation and animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current status of advanced farm management systems by revisiting each crucial step, from data acquisition in crop fields to variable rate applications, so that growers can make optimized decisions to save money while protecting the environment and transforming how food will be produced to sustainably match the forthcoming population growth.