Open Access Short Research Article

Production of Light Weight Blocks Using Rice Husk

C. U. Okpoechi, C. A. Emma-Ochu, L. C. Ibemere, P. Ibe, E. O. Onwuka, A. C. Osuagwu

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 24-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930473

Affordable housing has remained a major challenge in Nigeria, as housing costs have continued to rise beyond the reach of the low income population. This paper explores the use of waste products like rice husk as alternative materials for housing construction. Rice husk is abundant as a waste product in areas where rice is processed commercially in Southeast Nigeria. The aim of the study is to create rice husk blocks that are cheap, lightweight, and appropriate for use in low income housing construction. The study was conducted through experimentation in the Building Technology workshop of Federal Polytechnic Nekede. A series of trial mixes were done involving a wide range of materials and mix proportions. Rice husk, Portland cement, and cassava starch, were found to be the most appropriate components for the blocks. The blocks produced were of good appearance, and lightweight. Five samples of solid core blocks measuring 150x150x150mm were tested in Strength of Materials laboratory of the Federal University of Technology Owerri. The average compressive strength of the blocks was 0.26N/mm2, which is below the Nigerian Industrial Standard NIS 87:2007. The blocks produced were considered appropriate for use as non-load bearing partitions and not structural walls. The result of the study is promising because the rice husk blocks help address the waste management problem in affected areas, and could also be an important component of a potentially useful material. This paper recommends further research in the area of improving the strength of the blocks, to make them usable as structural components in low rise buildings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dry Matter Production and Nutrient Uptake of Coloured Capsicum Hybrids (Capsicum annuum var. grossum L.) as Influenced by Different Irrigation Levels under Shade Net

B. Kiruthiga, K. Avil Kumar, K. Sreenivasa Kumar, A. Srinivas

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930469

Aim: The experiment was aimed at evaluating the influence of different irrigation levels on dry matter production and nutrient uptake of coloured capsicum hybrids.

Study Design:  Split plot design with three replications

Place and Duration of Study: Horticultural farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during rabi 2018-19.

Methodology: The experiment was laid out in split plot design and the treatments comprises of four irrigation levels viz., drip irrigation at 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 Epan as main treatments and three hybrids viz., Indra (green), Orobelle (yellow), Bomby (red) as sub treatments and replicated thrice. The recommended dose of nutrients were 100:80:60 N, P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1 and entire dose of P2O5 was applied as basal, N and K2O was applied through venturi meter as fertigation on three days interval from 9 to 153 DAT. The crop was transplanted at 45 cm × 40 cm spacing in September under a green shade net. Irrigation scheduling was done based on daily evaporation data recorded from USWB class ‘A’ pan evaporimeter. The cumulative daily evaporation during crop growth period was 737.5 mm. Quantity of water applied including special operations of 26 mm and effective rainfall during crop growth period were 245.3, 392.0, 546.5 and 698.5 mm and 58.6, 64.2, 74.6, 82.6 mm out of 127.4 mm of rainfall for 100, 80, 60 and 40 per cent irrigation treatments, respectively as per water balance method. Bed size was 7.6 m × 0.9 m.

Results: Significantly higher yield (47.50 t ha-1) was recorded with drip irrigation at 1.0 Epan than rest of the treatments. Indra recorded significantly higher yield (40.27 t ha-1) than other two hybrids. The interaction effect between drip irrigation levels and hybrids was not significant on Dry Matter Production and N, P & K uptakes and economics of capsicum. DMP and nutrient uptake were significantly higher with drip irrigation at 1.0 Epan than 0.8, 0.6 and 0.4 Epan throughout the crop growth over other drip irrigation levels. Among hybrids, Indra recorded significantly higher DMP and nutrient uptake than other two hybrids.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Influence of Different Weed Management Practices on Yield and Economics of Rabi Groundnut in Telangana State

N. Charitha, M. Madhavi, G. Pratibha, T. Ramprakash

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 9-13
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930470

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different high efficiency herbicides as pre and post-emergence application on the economics of groundnut at College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad, during rabi 2020-21. The experiment consisted of ten treatments laid out in randomised block design (RBD) replicated thrice. Treatments are diclosulam 84% WDG 26 g ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 20 DAS, imazethapyr 2% EC + pendimethalin 30% EC 960 g ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 20 DAS, pyroxasulfone 85 % WDG 127.5 g ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 20 DAS, propaquizafop 2.5% + imazethapyr 3.75% w/w ME 125 g ha-1 PoE fb intercultivation at 40 DAS, imazethapyr 35% +  imazamox 35% WG 70 g ha-1 PoE fb intercultivation at 40 DAS, sodium acifluorfen 16.5%  EC + clodinafop propargyl 8%  EC 250 g ha-1 PoE fb intercultivation at 40 DAS, imazethapyr 10% SL 100 g ha-1 PoE fb intercultivation at 40 DAS, intercultivation (20 and 40 DAS), intercultivation fb hand weeding (20 and 40 DAS) (Weed-free) and Unweeded control. The findings also conveys that, among all the weed management practices, higher gross returns were realized with intercultivation fb hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS and among the herbicides, diclosulam 26 g ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 20 DAS and imazethapyr + pendimethalin 960 g ha-1 PE of fb intercultivation at 20 DAS recorded higher returns. However the net returns and B: C ratio was significantly highest with diclosulam 26 g ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 20 DAS and imazethapyr + pendimethalin at 960 g ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 20 DAS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Domestic Waste Disposal Practices and Perception towards Solid Waste Management in Selected Areas of Bangalore, India

Anisha Rai, S. Umashankar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 14-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930471

Aims: To assess the waste disposal practices and perception towards solid waste management in selected areas of Bangalore.

Study Design:  Descriptive cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Bangalore between November 2019- November 2020.

Methodology: Multi stage sampling technique was used. Using random sampling, respondents from 100 households were selected from each of the 3 study areas. Face to face interview and focus group discussions in all 3 areas were conducted. Semi structured questionnaires were used to collect data.

Results: The study revealed that only 35% of the respondents segregated their waste even though 64% of them had heard about it. 74.7% of them said waste van was available to collect their waste whereas few of them also resorted to open dumping and burning as method of waste disposal. 94% of the respondents said food waste was the commonly produced waste followed by plastics and papers. 14.3% respondents said garbage collection facility was not available in their area. About 72.6% of them were satisfied with the current solid waste management system. Availability of regular garbage collection facility was found to be significant with waste disposal practice.

Conclusion: The variables such as age, education, size of household, source of income and monthly income were found to be significant with waste segregation practices. The waste segregation practices were found to be highly significant with knowledge on waste segregation, education on solid waste management, and exposure to information.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Vulnerability in Different Districts of Chhattisgarh with Reference to Climate Change

Avinash Yadu, G. K. Das, H. V. Puranik, M. L. Lakhera, H. Pathak

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930474

The present study was conducted at department of Agrometeorology, IGKV Raipur (C.G.) during 2019-2021, to assess the district level vulnerability in different districts of Chhattisgarh with reference to climate change. The data on various components was collected from the Census department of Chhattisgarh (2001 and 2011), department of Agrometeorology, Raipur and the report of Directorate of Economics & Statistics Raipur, C.G. for the period 2000 to 2018 and divided into three different periods 2000-2005, 2006-2010 and 2011-2018 as districts increased. We have used the Hiremath and Shiyani methodology to prepare vulnerability index. The outcome of study indicates that the agricultural sector played major role and contributing significantly to quantify the vulnerability followed by climatic and demographic indicators during all most three periods which was considered for the study. During the period 2000-2005, the results indicates that district Dantewada ranked 1st followed by korba and Mahasamund district. While, district Surguja falls under least vulnerable followed by Durg and Raipur district. During the study period 2006-2010, district Bijapur observed in 1st position followed by Dantewada and korba districts. Whereas, district Durg was supposed to be least vulnerable followed by Surguja and Bilaspur district. During the period 2011-2018, district Sukma ranked 1st rank followed by Dantewada and Narayanpur districts. While, district Dhamtari belongs to least vulnerable followed by Balrampur and Janjgir-champa.

On the basis of degree of vulnerability during year 2000-2005, out of 16 districts the 2 and 12 districts were falls under very highly vulnerable and highly vulnerable category, respectively. While, only 2 districts were belong to vulnerable category. During year 2006-2010, out of 18 districts the 5, 11 and 2 districts were supposed to be very highly vulnerable, highly vulnerable category and vulnerable category, respectively. During year 2011-18, out of 27 districts the 9 and 18 districts were belongs to very highly vulnerable and highly vulnerable category. We have not found less and moderately vulnerable districts during the period 2000-2005 and 2006-2010, while only two viz., highly vulnerable and very highly vulnerable districts found during the period 2011-2018.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conservation Tillage and Nutrient Strategies Enhances Crop-Water Productivity and Economic Profitability of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L)

Pradeep Kumar Singh, R. K. Naresh, . Vivek, Yogesh Kumar, M. Sharath Chandra, Shakti Om Pathak, Sandeep Gawdiya, Mohd Shah Alam, Himanshu Tiwari

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930475

Decline in soil fertility is one of the major constraints to sustainable crop production and profitability. To meet the increasing demand for the growing population the issue of low soil fertility needs to be addressed moreover, excessive pumping of groundwater over the years to meet the high irrigation water requirement of rice-wheat system has resulted in over exploitation of groundwater in the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) of India. Replacement of traditional wheat cultivation practices under conservation agriculture (CA) based management (tillage, and crop establishment management) practices are required to promote sustainable agriculture. Furthermore, inefficient nutrient management practices are responsible for low crop yields and nutrient use efficiencies in wheat under rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS). A field experiment was conducted at Crop Research Centre of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut (U.P.), India to evaluate the effects of tillage and crop establishment (TCE) methods, and nutrient management practices on crop yields, water productivity and profitability of wheat under RWCS. The main plot treatments included four combinations of TCE [Furrow irrigated raised beds (FIRB), Roto tillage (RT), Reduced tillage (RTW) and conventional tillage (CT), with six nutrient management practices [N1 Control, N2 100% Recommend Dose of Fertilizer, N3 100% RDF + NPK consortia + Bio-stimulant, N4 75% RDF + NPK consortia + Bio-stimulant, N5 100% RDF + NPK consortia + Bio-stimulant + NPK (18:18:18) spray after II irrigation, and N6 and 75% RDF + NPK consortia + Bio-stimulant + NPK (18:18:18) spray after II irrigation]. Crop water productivity and net returns under FIRB were significantly increased by 11.7% and 13.8% compared to CT respectively, during year of experimentation. Study showed that conservation agriculture based sustainable practices (FIRB) and nutrient strategies 100% RDF + NPK consortia + Bio-stimulant + NPK (18:18:18) spray after II irrigation approach provided opportunities for enhancing crop and water productivity, and profitability of wheat crop in North-West IGP of India. Treatments with N and conservation agriculture were the most profitable. A combined use of conservation agriculture and organic and chemical fertilizers is the best bet for increasing, wheat crop yield and associated return on investment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nigeria’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Estimations Based on the 5th Assessment Report

C. E. Ezeokoro, T. G Leton, Y. Momoh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 52-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930477

The lack of GHG emissions inventory and absence of standardized estimation methods necessitated this study. American Petroleum Institute’s method of Greenhouse gas estimation methods combined with the global warming potential in the 5th assessment report and Nigeria’s unique gas composition were used to estimate volume of GHG’s resulting from gas flaring in Nigeria between 1965 to 2020, as reported by NNPC. The findings show the total CO2, CH4, N2O and GHG emission between 1965 to 2020 were 1.86*109 tons, 3.3*108 tons, 5.76*109 tons, and 7.94*109 tons respectively. In the 56 years under review, the gas produced was estimated at 2,14*106 MCM, while 9.44*105 MCM of the gas was flared, accounting for 44% of the total gas produced over the years. Overall, the study revealed a striking cause for concern due to the predicted continuous increasing amount of gas flaring and release of greenhouse gas emissions which could have significant effects on the environment. Curbing gas flaring: increased gas utilization for domestic and export uses and standardization of GHG estimation methods were recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of aging of Cladding Material on Crop Yield under Greenhouse Cultivation

Deepthi S. Nair, A. Jinu, K. K. Sathian

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 60-66
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930478

Agriculture is the basis of our economic activity. For improving agricultural production greenhouse technology was developed to prevent adverse climatic conditions. Even though higher yield and profit were obtained from greenhouse production compared to open field cultivation farmers were not satisfied with this technique due to the drastic reduction of crop yield with the aging of cladding material. To test this, an experiment was conducted in the instructional farm of Kelappaji College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology (KCAET), Tavanur, Kerala during the period from April to June 2021. Amaranthus variety CO1 was planted inside two greenhouses where one is having cleaned cladding material and the other is an old one. Microclimatic parameters and the biometric observations of crop in both conditions were compared. Mean monthly values of temperature and light intensity were higher inside the cleaned greenhouse than the old one while relative humidity was higher inside the old greenhouse. Crop growth parameters were higher inside the cleaned greenhouse than the old one except the internodal length. From this study, it was clear that the aging of cladding material has a significantly higher influence on crop performance under greenhouse.

Open Access Original Research Article

Can Wet Aggregate Stability and Texture Regulate Organic Carbon Stock in Alluvial Soils of East Champaran (Bihar)?

Vandana Kumari, Ranjan Laik, Debabrata Nath

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 67-73
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930479

Aims: Here in this experiment, the investigation was done for the relationship among the various soil health parameters i.e., soil organic carbon (SOC), soil texture, and wet aggregate stability (WAS).

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Collection of soil samples were done from 0-15 cm depth from East Champaran is situated in Bihar and is located at 26038’N and 84054’E in the year 2019-2020.

Methodology: Soil texture: 14g (+/- 0.1g) of sieved soil was added to a 50 ml centrifuge tube holding 42 ml of a dispersant 3% sodium hexametaphosphate solution follwed by 2 hr shaking and 0.053 mm sieved. Water stable aggregates: Each 0.25-mm sieve contained 4g of air-dried, 2-mm aggregate soil. Each sample's precise weight was recorded. The soil samples were dispersed for 3 minutes with 100 mL distilled water and then for 10 minutes with a 2 g/L sodium hexametaphosphate solution. Pre-weighed filter sheets were used to filter both solutions. Each filter paper was weighed after being oven-dried at 105°C.

Soil organic carbon: The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) was calculated using the Walkley and Black technique (1934).

Results: Wet aggregate stability and soil organic carbon storage were shown to have a strong positive connection. Soil carbon stock in soils of East Champaran varied between 5.27-19.60 Mg ha-1 with an average of 12.98 Mg ha-1. WAS ranged from 3.82 to 36.43% with a mean of 16.11%. The results revealed that WAS increased with increase in SOC stock. This experiment also revealed that clay (%) and silt (%) directly affect WAS and hence enhance SOC storage.

Conclusion: So, it can be concluded that WAS and soil texture directly and positively impact SOC storage in soils of East Champaran, Bihar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Pearl Millet Genotypes for High Temperature and Drought Tolerance Based on Morpho-Physiological Characters

R. C. Meena, Moola Ram, Supriya Ambawat, C. Tara Satyavathi, Vikash Khandelwal, Raj Bala Meena, Manoj Kumar, J. P. Bishnoi, K. D. Mungra

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 74-80
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930480

Aims: Screening of pearl millet genotypes lines for high temperature and drought tolerance.

Study Design:  Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: ICAR-AICRP on Pearl Millet, Mandor during summer 2017-18.

Methodology: Fifteen genotypes (J-2290, J-2340, J-2479, J-2500, J-2503, J-2507, J-2517, J-2534, JMSB-9904, JMSB-101, JMSB-20064, JMSB-20102, JMSB-20071, JMSB-20082 and JMSB-20091) of pearl millet received from Main Pearl millet Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Jamnagar were evaluated during  summer season of 2017-18 at research Farm of ACIRP on pearl millet, Mandor, Agricultural University, Jodhpur under terminal moisture stress  and irrigated  conditions in two sets of randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield, stover yield, Relative Water Content (RWC), harvest index, threshing percentage and chlorophyll content were recorded.

Results: The suitability of the genotypes was judged in terms of grain yield, stover yield, RWC, harvest index, threshing percentage and chlorophyll content. The results showed that due to the terminal stress, the mean performance of all yield attributing characters including grain yield and chlorophyll, RWC and seed setting was reduced. The inbreds J-2479, J-2503 and J-2507 were high yielders due to high seed setting percentage under terminal stress conditions.

Conclusion: The lines viz., J-2479, J-2503 and J-2507 can be used for further breeding programme to develop varieties suitable under high temperature and low moisture conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parental Diversity and Its Relationship with Performance of F1 Hybrid in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Avinash Kumar, Ashutosh Kumar, N. K. Singh, Rajesh Kumar, . Nilanjaya, Mithilesh Kumar Singh, Mohd Zakir Hussain, Subhash Bijarania, Monika Shahani, Vinay Rojaria, Kumari Pragati

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 81-91
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930481

The present investigation was carried out including 10 parents and their 45 half diallel crosses with the objective to study the relationship between heterosis and diverse genotype. The Mahalonobis D2values resulted in grouping of 10 parents into 3 clusters. Cluster I was comprised of four genotypes, cluster II comprised of five genotypes while, cluster III was found monogenotypic. Cluster II and Cluster III had maximum mean values for 4 traits. Highest intercluster distance was also observed in these 2 cluster followed by cluster I and III . Maximum intra cluster distance was observed in cluster II followed by cluster I. The highest contribution in the manifestation of total genetic divergence was exhibited by grain iron content followed by grain zinc content. The relationship between parental diversity and heterosis indicated that majority of crosses belong to moderate divergence class. The cross P4×P5 exhibiting better parent heterosis for maximum traits also exhibited at par mean performance for 5 traits including grain yield per plant over the better parent. For grain zinc content, two crosses from high and low while, nine crosses from moderate divergence classes reported positive significant heterosis and SCA effects. For grain iron content, 1 cross with high, 2 crosses with moderate while four crosses with low divergence classes reported significantly positive heterosis and SCA effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Profile and Marketing Behaviour of Turmeric Farmers in Kadapa District of Andhra Pradesh

Settipalli Sravani, S. V. Prasad, P. L. R. J. Praveena, G. Karuna Sagar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 92-97
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930482

The present study was conducted at Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh with the objectives to find out the relationship between the turmeric farmers’ profile and their marketing behaviour.  Ex post facto research design was used for the study. Two mandals of Kadapa district namely Mydukur and Duvvur were purposively selected based on the highest area under turmeric cultivation and data was collected from a randomly drawn sample of 90 respondents by a structured questionnaire administered personally as per schedules.  The correlation results of the study revealed that the independent variables viz., age, farming experience, education, material possession, extension contact, training received, achievement motivation and social interaction had positive and statistically significant relationship with the marketing behaviour of the turmeric farmers. Whereas, area under turmeric cultivation and economic status had non-significant relationship with the marketing behaviour of the turmeric farmers. Multiple Linear Regression analysis revealed that all the selected 10 independent variables put together explained about 79.10 per cent variation in the marketing behaviour of turmeric farmers. The analysis of turmeric farmers’ profile indicated that majority of them were middle aged, with less than 2.5 acres of area under turmeric cultivation with medium farming experience, high school level of education, medium economic status, extension contact, training received, achievement motivation and social interaction and they also had medium level of marketing behaviour due to medium levels of planning orientation, production orientation, marketing orientation, market information sources utilization, decision making ability, risk taking ability and innovativeness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic and Economic Analysis of Browntop Millet under Varying Sowing Dates and Nitrogen Fertility Levels

A. Saikishore, K. Bhanu Rekha, S. A. Hussain, A. Madhavi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 98-106
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930483

Aim: The experiment is aimed to identify ideal sowing date and nitrogen level in browntop millet during rainy season on alfisols of Telangana.

Study Design: Randomized Block Design with factorial concept and replicated thrice.

Place and Duration of Study: College Farm, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India during rainy season, 2019.

Methodology: Browntop millet variety VZM-1 was tested under four dates of sowing viz., D1- June 15th, D2- June 30th, D3-July 15th and D4 - 30th July and four N levels viz; N1- 0 kg ha-1 N2 - 20 kg ha-1, N1- 40 kg ha-1 and N4-60 kg ha-1. The growth parameters, yield attributes, yield, nitrogen uptake at different crop growth stages and monetary returns were studied.

Results: The results indicated that plant height, tillers hill-1, leaf area, dry matter accumulation at all crop intervals and yield attributes viz; effective tillers, panicle length,  panicle weight, number of grains, grain, straw yield, N uptake at different crop stages and monetary returns were highest with sowing on D1- June 15th.Among the N levels tested, crop fertilized with 40 kg N ha-1 registered higher plant height, tillers hill-1, leaf area, dry matter accumulation at all crop intervals, yield attributes viz; effective tillers, panicle length, panicle weight, number of grains, grain, straw yield N uptake at different crop stages and monetary returns.

Conclusion: On alfisols of Telangana during rainy season, sowing of browntop millet on June 15th fertilized with 40 kg N ha-1 helps to realize higher yield and monetary returns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mycoflora Associated with Phylloplane and Rhizosphere of Aloe vera and their Effect on Plant Growth Parameters

Mina Kumari, P. K. Jha

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 107-116
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930484

The present investigation was conducted to study the spectrum of mycoflora associated with phylloplane and rhizosphere of Aloe vera and to assess their effect on plant growth parameters and antagonistic activity against the C. gloeosporioides causing black spot disease in Aloe vera. During the study total 15 mycoflora belonging to ten genera were isolated from Aloe vera plant by leaf washing technique from phylloplane and serial dilution from rhizosphere soil. Among these, fungal species belonging to the genera of Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Penicillium was found to be more abundant. In course of study some of mycoflora associated with phylloplane and rhizosphere of Aloe vera were found to exert plant growth promoting effect and also exhibited strong antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Plotting Position Formulae for Pearson Type 3 Distribution in Three Hydrological Stations on the Niger River

Itolima Ologhadien

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 117-128
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930485

In this study, eight unbiased plotting position formulae recommended for Pearson Type 3 distribution were evaluated by comparing the simulated series of each formula with the annual maximum series (AMS) of River Niger at Baro, Koroussa and Shintaku hydrological stations, each having data length of 51years, 53 years and 58 years respectively.

The parameters of Pearson Type 3 distribution were computed by the method of moments with corrections for skewness. While the fitting of Pearson Type 3 distribution proceeds with the development of flood – return period (Q-T) relationship, followed by application of the derived Q- T relation to compute simulated discharges for comparison with AMS of the study stations.

The plotting position formulae were evaluated on the basis of optimum values of the statistically goodness-of-fit of probability plot correlation coefficient (PPCC), relative root mean square error (RRMSE), percent bias (PBIAS), mean absolute error (MAE) and Nash-sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), across the stations.

The plotting position formulae were ranked on scale of 1 to 8. Thus a plotting formula that best simulates the empirical observations using the goodness-of-measures was scored “1” and so on. The individual scores per plotting position were summed across the gof tests to obtain the total score.   

The study show that Chegodayev is the best plotting position formula for Baro, Weibull is the best plotting position Formula for Kourassou and Shintaku hydrological stations. The overall performances of the eight plotting position formulae across the hydrological stations show that weibull distribution is the overall best having scored 27, seconded by Chegodayev with 30 and thirdly, Beard with 38.

The Pearson Type 3 distribution had been found one of the best probability distribution model of flood flow in Nigeria and this study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of the distribution. Finally, this study recommends extension of the studies to Log-Pearson Type 3 distribution.