Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth, Yield Attributes and Economics of Spiny Brinjal (Solanum melongina L.) Var VRM (Br)-1

S. Nantha Kumar, Mhaddalkar Tejas Vijay Vidhya, K. Rathika

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030486

Background: An experiment on “Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth, Yield Attributes and Economics of Spiny Brinjal (Solanum melongina L.) var. VRM (Br)-1” were conducted at Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College farm, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu.

Methods: Eleven treatments of integrated nutrient management viz., T1-RDF of N:P:K (100:50:30 kg/ha.), T2– FYM (25 t/ ha.), T3- Humic acid (20 kg/ha.), T4- RDF of N:P:K (100:50:30 kg/ha.) +FYM @25 t/ ha, T5- Humic acid (20 kg/ha.) + RDF of N:P:K (100:50:30 kg/ha.), T6- Azospirillum (2 kg/ha.), T7- Phosphobacteria (2 kg/ha.), T8- Azospirillum (2 kg/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (2 kg/ha.), T9 – 75% RDF of N (75 kg/ha.) + 100% RDF of P&K (50:30 kg/ha.) + Azospirillum (2 kg/ha.), T10 - 75% RDF of P (37.5 kg/ha.) + 100% RDF of N&K (100:30 kg/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (2 kg/ha.) and T11 - 75% RDF of N & P (75:37.5 kg/ha.) + 100% RDF of K (30 kg/ha.) + Azospirillum (2 kg/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (kg/ha.) replicated thrice in Randomised block design.

Results: The various treatments of integrated nutrient managementin spiny brinjalclearly showed that growth and yield attributes were high in T11.The economic assessment of different treatments revealed that maximum net profit Rs.2,16,570/ha.with benefit cost ratio (2.60) was also recorded in treatment T11 75% RDF of N & P (75:37.5 kg/ha.) + 100% RDF of K (30 kg/ha.) + Azospirillum(2 kg/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (kg/ha.).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Yield Performance of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Varieties with Varied Dates of Planting under North Central Plateau Zone (NCPZ) of Odisha

N. Mishra, K. C. Sahoo, M. Ray, P. K. Majhi, S. Das, S. Tudu

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 7-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030487

Aim: To identify the proper variety and suitable date of planting of potato for North Central Plateau Zone (NCPZ) of Odisha.

Study Design: The experiment was laid in a Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The field experiment was carried out at Field Experimental Block, Regional research and Technology Transfer Station (RRTTS), Keonjhar, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Odisha. The investigation was conducted during rabi-2015-16 and rabi-2016-17.

Methodology: There were four high yielding potato genotypes used as sub-factor for the study such as V1: Kufri Jyoti, V2: Kufri Surya, V3: Kufri Ashoka and V4: Kufri Pukhraj. The materials were planted in three different dates (D1: 15th November, D2: 25th November and D3: 5th December) as main-factor to identify the superior variety with suitable dates of planting.

Results: The results of pooled analysis of variance (ANOVA) shown that the genotypes had significant differences for the dates of planting on yield. Higher tuber yield was recorded in the variety Kufri Pukhraj in both rabi-2015-16 (28.37 t ha-1) and rabi-2016-17 (35.53 t ha-1) along with higher mean yield (31.95 t ha-1). All the varieties have higher yield when planted on D1 (15th November) as compared to the other two date of planting.

Conclusion: The varietal and environmental variations as well as their interaction had a considerable influence on yield and its attributes. In this investigation, Kufri Pukhraj was identified as higher yielder and 15th November was found best suitable planting date for north central plateau zone of Odisha, as this date given higher yield as compared to the other two dated of plating. Therefore, if a specific window of date of planting can be ascertained to the farmers of this region then it would help to cultivate potato exactly when the climatic conditions are favorable for its growth and ultimately to get a high crop yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Development of Environmental Friendly Sub-Baric Storage Bin

C. T. Ramachandra, H. G. Ashoka, G. Mahesh Kumar, B. Shivanna, Babu R. M. Ray, P. Sivamma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 19-28
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030488

Developments in vacuum storage technology present an opportunity to achieve significant improvements on protection, preservation and storage of agricultural commodities for residential and commercial use. Sub-baric storage is a environmental friendly, non-residue organic technology which provides chemical-free and insect contamination-free products. Due to creation of vacuum, there is a change in the environment inside the storage structure. This study therefore contributes an important knowledge and method in the development, fabrication and application of a sub baric storage bin (SBSB) as a best alternative to the commonly used traditional and modern storage structure. In its embodiment, the work focuses on the design and fabrication of the sub-baric storage bin to provide efficient storage of food grains by preventing the use of pesticides and insecticides and to reduce material loss during storage, a sub-baric storage bin of 500 kg capacity was designed and developed. The developed storage bin consists of storage chamber (500 kg), Vacuum pump, suction blower, grain inlet with pipe for loading, grain outlet for unloading, vacuum gauge, thermocouple, control panel, agitator, air filter, two inlet valves for gas infusion, vacuum release valve and SS mobile skid. The designed sub-baric storage bin is cylindrical in geometry with conical shape at bottom side and flat circular plate on top side and the storage bin has capacity of 500 kg to store food grains with hopper angle of 60°. The storage bin was designed in such a way that, it has provision for both bulk and bag storage and to work from 0-650 mm Hg vacuum. The developed SBSB was subjected to hydraulic pressure test and vacuum drop test to ensure a safe operation. It was observed that there was no implosion (compression) or explosion confirming to the fact that the design was adequate and also safe to operate. Also, there were no signs of bulging, buckling or any deformations observed in any of the components or the pipe lines, connections, fixtures or fasteners. Hence, it was concluded that the designed equipment could be operated safely at 650 mm Hg vacuum pressure satisfying all the applicable safety assurances and standards relevant to the industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Irrigation and Herbicides on Most Tenacious Weed Cyperus rotundus in Wheat

Kairovin Lakra

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 29-37
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030489

To manage the Cyperus rotundus (Purple nut sedge.) is a troublesome, economically damaging weed, widely naturalized in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A field experiment was done at Students Instructional Farm of Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur (U.P).The study was conducted to investigate the competitive effects of C. rotundus in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under varying irrigation regimes and herbicides in field conditions at Kanpur during Rabi 2017-18 and 2018-19 in a split plot design.  The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with four irrigation schedule viz. irrigation at CRI and active tillering stage (I1), irrigation at CRI + jointing + booting (I2), CRI + active tillering + booting + flowering stage (I3) and  irrigation at CRI + jointing + booting + flowering + milking stage (I4) were assigned to main plots and weed management practices viz. W1-weedy check, W2-two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS, W3-sulfosulfuron @25 g/ha , W4- pendimethalin (pre emergence) fbWCPL-15(clodinafop- propargyl 15 %) @400 g/ha , W5- carfentrazone ethyl 20% + sulfosulfuron 25%WG @ 100 g/ha , W6- halauxafen + penxasulam 23.5% @ 75 g/ha , W7- halauxafen - methyl 1.21% w/w + fluroxypyr @  and W8- clodinafop- propargyl 15% + metsulfuron 1% @ 400 g/ha  were allocated to sub plots. Application of two irrigations at CRI and active tillering stage (I1) significantly reduced the density of C. rotundus and their fresh and dry weight with highest weed control efficiency (WCE) over irrigation at CRI+ jointing+ booting+ flowering+ milking stage (I4), irrigation at CRI + active tillering + booting + flowering stage (I3) and irrigation at CRI + jointing + booting (I2). However, maximum yield was recorded with the application of five irrigation at CRI+ jointing+ booting+ flowering+ milking stage (I4). Among herbicidal treatments, lowest density, fresh and dry weight of C. rotundus with  the highest WCE resulted in higher  yield of wheat was recorded with the application of carfentrazone ethyl 20% + sulfosulfuron 25%WG as post emergence (35 DAS) at 100 g/ha as compared to other treatments. However, none of the herbicidal treatments as effective as hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Light Parameters on Photosynthetic Rate of Sorghum Based Intercropping System

S. Divya Dharshini, SP. Ramanathan, S. Kokilavani, M. Djanaguiraman

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 38-44
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030490

Selecting the appropriate row proportion in the intercropping system is required for the effective harnessing of solar radiation. In Semi-arid areas, Sorghum based intercropping is commonly adopted by the farmers for effective utilization of the available resources. The treatments consisted of T1-Sorghum Sole crop (SS), T2-2rows of Sorghum+2rows of Cowpea (2S:2C), T3-2rows of Sorghum+1row of Cowpea (2S:1C), T4-2rows of Sorghum+2rows of Greengram (2S:2G), T5-2rows of Sorghum+1rows of Greengram (2S:1G), T6-2rows of Sorghum+2rows of Lablab (2S:2L), T7-2rows of Sorghum+1rows of Lablab (2S:1L). The results of the study showed that sorghum under 2:1 pattern had enhanced LAI, Radiation absorption efficiency which resulted in a high photosynthetic rate. The intercrops under 2:2 pattern were suffered from shading of sorghum than 2:1 pattern which affected the photosynthetic rate of intercrops under 2:2 pattern. Hence, planting sorghum under 2:1 pattern with Lablab will be the ideal row ratio to harness maximum sunlight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Phenophase Wise Climatic Parameters on Growth and Fruit Yield of Autumn Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

L. Shravika, G. Sreenivas, A. Madhavi, A. Manohar Rao

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 45-51
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030491

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season 2019to study and identify the impact of weather on growth and fruit yield of tomato under open field Crop was planted on eight different dates viz., 02 Jul, 12 Jul, 22 Jul, 02 Aug, 11 Aug, 23 Aug, 03 Sep and 13 Sep as main plots and two cultivars viz., US 440 and TO-3251 (Saaho) as sub-plots in split plot design and replicated thrice. Result revealed that, significantly more yield attributes and fruit yield of tomato was recorded with maximum temperature range of 30.7 to 32.8oC during vegetative phase, morning Relative humidity (RH) of 88 to 92% during fruit development phase, Vapour Pressure Defficient (VPD) of 0.6 to 0.7 kPa and 0.4 to 0.6kPa during fruit development and harvest phase. Further correlation studies revealed that the most critical weather parameter from fruit initiation to first picking stage was morning RH as this was negatively correlated with drymatter production at fruit development (-0.93**), harvest (-0.95**) and total fruit yield (-0.91**) of tomato, which accounted for 86%, 89% and 83% variation in drymatter production during fruit development, harvest phase and total fruit yield respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Rain Water Recharging on the Chemical Properties of Groundwater

N. Soundarya, H. G. Ashoka, K. Devaraja, K. S. Rajashekarappa, M. N. Thimmegowda

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 59-66
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030492

The study was conducted to analyze the impact of different seasons and sources of rainwater (rooftop runoff and runoff plots) used in recharging borewells on chemical properties of groundwater. There were nine borewells considered for the study, among them five borewells are recharged through rooftop runoff water, two borewells are recharged through water from runoff plots and the two borewells have no treatments. After each runoff event, water samples from each borewell were collected for five days and analyzed for various chemical parameters. The electrical conductivity, pH and concentration of bicarbonate ions were analyzed. The result revealed that the recharge that took place during the Kharif season had an impact through reduced salt concentration and it also had an influence during the Rabi season. The electrical conductivity and concentration of bicarbonates in water samples from borewells was low in Kharif than rabi. The values of these chemical properties indicated that recharging of borewells is having the beneficial effect on the groundwater properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Delineation of Efficient Paddy Cropping Zones in Andhra Pradesh

Katha Reddy Baswanth Kumar, M. Anji Reddy, Ramasamy Gowtham, Vellingiri Geethalakshmi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 52-58
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030493

The research delineated efficient paddy crop zones in Andhra Pradesh. The area, yield and production of paddy were gathered from the Andhra Pradesh Department of Economics and Statistics to compute the Relative Spread Index (RSI) and Relative Yield Index (RYI). The definition of an efficient cultivation zone for paddy shows that in all nine districts of Andhra Pradesh there are numerous possibilities to increase overall paddy production. The primary source of irrigation is groundwater, comprising tubes and wells that cover 49 percent of net irrigation. The grade is of four types: Most Efficient Cropping Zone (MECZ) and Area Efficient Cropping Zone (AECZ) and Yield Efficient Cropping Zone(YECZ) and Not Efficient Cropping Zone (NECZ). It was noted that the West Godavari, East Godavari, Krishna, Guntur and Nellore are five districts inside Paddy's Most efficient cropping zone. Srikakulam and Vizianagaram are two districts within the Area efficient cropping zone. The Kurnool and Prakasam are two districts in which Yields efficient cropping zone. Visakhapatnam, Chittoor, Kadapa and Anantapur are four districts belong to the Not-efficient cropping zone. It is concluded that there was a lot of possibilities of increasing the overall production of paddy in all nine districts of Andhra Pradesh by delineating the efficient cropping zone for paddy. In the case of AECZ there is a need for popularisation of high-yielding cultivars, for better management technologies like the Rice Intensification System (RIS) and for integrated nutrient handling to increase yield levels and convert this zone into MECZ. In the case of YECZ, these sites offer promise for rice growing, although a decrease in water availability may be attributed to the less extensive area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trend Analysis of Temperature and Rainfall across Agro Climatic Zones of Karnataka-A Semi Arid State in India

Seedari Ujwala Rani, Naveen P. Singh, Pramod Kumar, Rabindra Nath Padaria, Ranjit Kumar Paul

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 67-78
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030494

The study was carried out for ten Agro climatic zones in Karnataka state in India. The temperature and rainfall data were used for analysis from 1979-2019 which is about 40 years. Understanding spatiotemporal rainfall pattern, Rainfall Anomaly Index which is drought indicator technique was  used to classify the positive and negative severities in rainfall anomalies. The RAI ranges below 0.2 are considered as dry zone. The analysis resulted that, all zones are falls in category of dry zone with range of 0.2 to 0.4. For past five years, North Eastern Transition Zone was noted maximum times falling in the range of RAI below 0.2 and near to zero. Statistical techniques like linear trend estimation, R square was used for trend estimation across annual, seasonal to identify the variation in the temperature across different zones. The meaningful statistically significant achieves when there is r2≥0.65 and p≤0.05. It was analysed that, hilly Zone experienced decreased trend in both minimum and maximum temperature in all seasons which ultimately reflected in annual temperature to decrease with high R square values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of PEG Induced Drought Stress on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Greengram Genotypes

A. Priya Dharshini, V. Babu Rajendra Prasad, K. Vanitha, N. Manivannan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 79-90
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030495

Greengram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is the third most important pulse crop and drought is the most severe constraint to greengram growth and productivity. The present study was conducted to identify the drought tolerant greengram genotypes. Four greengram varieties used for standarization of drought stress using Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) 6000. The effect of water stress caused by different concentration of PEG 6000 are control (0 MPa), -0.4MPa, -0.5 MPa, -0.6MPa and -0.7 MPa. Increasing PEG concentration decrease the germination percentage, root length, shoot length, fresh weigh and dry weight of seedlings. At -0.5 MPa shows 50% seedling mortality , So control and -0.5 MPa level of drought stress was used for screening the greengram genotypes. Under PEG induced drought situations, parameters such as germination percentage, growth indices and proline content were recorded in all greengram genotypes. Compared to control, PEG induced drought stress (-0.5MPa) decrease all these parameters studied, where as drought has increased the proline content in all greengram genotypes screened. Among the greengram genotypes VGG17019 and VGG17004 posses higher germination percentage, GSI and proline content indicates high level of tolerance to drought stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Effect of Various Organics, Chemicals, Growth Regulators Treatments on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributing Traits in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

J. Naga Pavan Kumar Reddy, Abhinav Dayal, Prashant Kumar Rai, Neha Thomas

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 91-96
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030496

University of Agriculture Technology and Science, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh during the rabi season of 2020-2021. To investigate the Study on the Effect of various organic, growth regulators & chemicals treatments on growth, yield, and yield attributing traits in Radish (Raphanus sativus). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with Thirteen treatments and three replications. The treatments consist of FYM, NAA, GA3 KNo3, ZnSo4, KCl were subjected to study the growth, and yield parameters were recorded. The maximum field emergence percentage (93.30), plant height 30 das (23.50) plant height 60 das (89.57), plant height 90 das (148.23), days to 50% flowering (52.67), number of pods per plant (110.03), dry weight of plant (40.56), seed yield per plant (5.4), biological yield (343.3) harvest index (44.23) were observed in T7 (NAA). Whereas minimum was recorded in T0 (Control) (81.30, 21.60cm, 78.13cm, 139.83cm, 56.20%, 102.33, 32.20, 1.4, 132.20, 33.10).

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern and Coss) Genotypes with Respect to Seedling Growth Physiology under Salinity and High-Temperature Stress

Satya Narayan Prasad, . Kavita, . Kiran, Trisha Sinha

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 97-108
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030497

The experiment was carried out to screen mustard genotypes under individual and combined salinity and high-temperature stress at seedling stage. Seeds after being sown in soil-filled trays were subjected to two levels of salinity stress i.e. 4.0 dSm-1 and 6.0 dSm-1, and high-temperature (40℃), and their performances were also compared with control (1.2 dSm-1). Contrasting sets of genotypes were selected on the basis of seedling growth parameters such as germination percentage, seedling length, dry weight of seedlings, vigour index-I and vigour index-II, recorded in 15-day-old seedlings. With consideration to the genotypic variations observed under all the treatments, genotypes CS2009-347 and CS-52 were identified as tolerant, and genotypes CS2009-256 and CS2009-145 were identified as susceptible under salinity and high-temperature stress conditions. The results also revealed that the impact of salinity and high-temperature in combination on mustard at seedling stage was more detrimental than that of their effects under individual conditions. These findings of genotypic variations in terms of tolerance in seedling stage of Indian mustard might be helpful in selection of genotypes with improved tolerance to salinity and high-temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Plasticity of Green Gram Stomata to Photosynthesis Traits under Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2, Drought and Heat Stress

J. Ranjani Priya, D. Vijayalakshmi, A. Vinitha, M. Raveendran, V. Babu Rajendra Prasad

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 109-119
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030498

Heat waves and droughts are projected to become more widespread as a result of climate change. At the same time, CO2 levels are predicted to have doubled by 2100. The stomatal regulation and gas exchange characteristics were assessed in 25 days old plants of green gram (var Co 8) by exposing them to six different treatments namely, T1: a [CO2] + a T+ irrigation (100%), T2: a [CO2] + a T+ irrigation (50%), T3: a [CO2] + e T (40ºC) + irrigation (100%), T4: e [CO2] – 800 ppm + a T+ irrigation (100%), T5: a [CO2] + combined stress [e T (40ºC) + irrigation (50%) T6: e [CO2] – 800 ppm + combined stress [e T (40ºC) + irrigation (50%)]. The experiment was carried out using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. All gas exchange parameters viz., ((photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate) were determined before imposing stress and two weeks after imposing stress. Stomatal characters was examined two weeks after imposing stress. Elevated CO2 stress caused a reduction in stomatal frequency accompanied by larger stomatal size. The study revealed the positive effect of higher CO2 concentration on gas exchange traits of the C3 crops viz., green gram.

Open Access Original Research Article

Jiwamrita: A Low Cost Organic Nutrient Source for Growth, Yield and Economics of Organic Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] under Changing Agricultural Environment

Anil Swami, Moola Ram, R. C. Meena, Durga Shankar Meena, Surendra Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 120-129
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030499

Aims: To find a suitable alternate option of nutrient management in organic mungbean with standardization of dose and its mode of application.

Place and Duration of Study: Agricultural Research Station, Mandor, Jodhpur between July 2020 and October, 2020.

Methodology: Treatment comprised of main plots as mode of application: M1: Soil application, M2: Foliar application and M3: Soil and foliar application and sub plots as dose of Jiwamrita: S1: Control, S2: 50 ml/l, S3: 100 ml/l and S4: 150 ml/l were replicated thrice in split plot design. FYM @ 5.0 t/ha was applied on the soil and the field of the experimental site was prepared by disking following harrowing and planking. The crop variety GM 6 was sown on 10th July, 2020 at row spacing of 30 cm with seed rate of 15 kg/ha. The plants were kept at 10 cm distance after thinning at 15 days after sowing. Jiwamrita was prepared using Palekar [1] method (Photo 1) and was kept in shade for 7 days. It was filtered before using for spray as per treatments. It was applied as soil spray at the time of sowing and 15 days after sowing as per treatments of different doses. Foliar application of Jiwamrita was done at 15 and 30 days after sowing as per treatments. Total quantity of solution containing Jiwamrita was 500 liter/ha in all the treated plots. In control plots, a quantity of 500 liter/ha was used as spray. Weeding was done manually at 15 and 30 days after sowing. Data on growth attributes, yield attributes and grain yield was recorded from net plot size of 4 m x 1.8 m and converted into hectare basis. The gross return was computed by multiplying current price of mungbean with yield. The net return was estimated by deducting cost of cultivation from gross return. The benefit-cost ratio was worked out by dividing gross return by cost of cultivation.

Results: Maximum plant height of 71.5 cm was recorded with a dose of Jiwamrita @ 150 ml/liter which was at par with Jiwamrita @ 100 ml/liter. The SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR) of leaves increased at 50 DAS (53.5) being maximum with Jiwamrita @ 150 ml/liter which was significantly higher over SCMR recorded with Jiwamrita @ 50 ml/liter (34.7). The significantly maximum number of pods/plant (28.7) and maximum grain yield (1314 kg/ha) was recorded due to combined application of soil and foliar application of Jiwamrita. Among doses, maximum number of pods (30.9) was recorded under Jiwamrita @ 150 ml/liter which was 30, 24 and 16 percent higher over control and Jiwamrita @ 50, 100 ml/liter. The application of Jiwamrita @ 150 ml/liter resulted in significantly higher grain yield (1221 kg/ha) which was found at par with Jiwamrita @ 100 ml/liter (1179 kg/ha) which were 17 and 13 percent higher, respectively, over control and 9 and 5.6 percent higher, respectively, over Jiwamrita @ 50 ml/liter. The maximum net return ( 65672 ha-1) was recorded with 150 ml/liter followed by 100 ml/liter ( 62686 ha-1).

Conclusion: Jiwamrita is a fermented microbial culture which provides essential nutrients to plants. Its application in both soil and plant canopy were found beneficial. The study revealed that twice application of Jiwamrita in soil at the time of sowing and 15 days after sowing and twice application of Jiwamrita as foliar spray at 15 and 30 days after sowing significantly increased the growth attributes, yield attributes and yield of organic mungbean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Productivity under High Temperature Stress

P. Priyanka, S. Kokilavani, V. Geethalakshmi, SP. Ramanathan, M. K. Kalarani

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 130-135
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030500

High temperature stress severely interrupts the physiological and biochemical functions in plants which hinders the growth, development and productivity of cowpea. The present study evaluates the potential roles of Naphthalene Acetic Acid and Brassinolide for mitigating the adverse effects of high temperature in cowpea. The study was carried out during the year 2021 in cowpea variety CO 7 using Temperature Gradient Tunnel (TGT) located at Agro Climate Research Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore. The experimental design followed was Factorial Completely Randomized Design (FCRD). Different treatments were imposed on plants exposed to ambient and ambient +2oC temperature. The effect of treatments on leaf area index, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll index and seed yield were studied. The application of brassinolide @ 0.2ppm showed a positive effect on stressed plants and produced the highest seed yield of 8.78 g plant-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Blackgram [(Vigna mungo (L)] Genotypes for Saline Tolerance at Seedling Stage Using Sea Water

Mukul Kumar Gandhi, Abhay Kumar, G. V. Marviya, Prasenjit Paul

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 136-145
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030501

Blackgram is one of the most highly prized pulse crops, cultivated in almost all parts of India.Soil salinity is one ofthe major factors responsible for losses in agriculturalproduction in most of the arid and semi-arid regions in theworld leading to loss in yield. The experiment was maintained for 10 days and all the observations from the seedlings namely germination percentage, shoot length, root length, dry matter production, vigour index I and vigour index II were recorded from each replicate and mean was worked out.On the basis of physiological parameters, the blackgram genotypes were discriminated into tolerant, moderate and sensitive to salinity.Germination per cent decreased by 85.5%, root length reduced by 75.68%, shoot length reduced by 61.73% while seedling length decreased by 22.30% in T4 treatment as compared to the T1 (control) treatment among all the blackgram genotypes. Seedling dry weight reduced by 40.04 folds in T4 treatment as compared to the T1 (control) treatment. Looking to the vigour index, seedling vigour index-I (length basis) and seedling vigour index-II (Dry weight basis) decreased by 0.03 and 1.18 folds, respectively. Out of 20 genotypes, four genotypes viz., IC-204869, TPU-94-2, IC-21485, and IC-214844 were found to be tolerant to salinity. thirteengenotypes were found to be moderately tolerant and three genotype viz.,SKNU-03-03, SKNU-0703, and SKNU-06-03 are sensitive to salinity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Drought Characteristics under Changing Climatic Conditions using SPI and SPEI Indices in Semi-Arid Environment of Southeastern Niger

Issiaka Issaharou-Matchi, Habou Rabiou, Boubacar M. Moussa, Idrissa Soumana, Karim Saley, Ali Mahamane, Mahamane Saadou

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 146-157
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030502

In the sahelian zone where 80% of the populations rely on rainfed-agricultural activities for their livelihood, drought episodes had significant socio-economics and ecological impacts. In recent decades, there has been an increase in the intensity, frequency and severity of drought occurrence mainly attributed to climate change. Thus, the main objectives of this study were: i) to understand drought multi-scale patterns and trend; ii) to assess drought duration, frequency and temporal extent over Mainé-soroa and Diffa located in the lake chad basin. To achieve these objectives standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24-month timescales were employed for the stations of Mainé-soroa and Diffa. Stations’ monthly rainfall, air minimum and maximum temperature spanning 1950-2009 and 1988-2017 respectively for Mainé-soroa and Diffa were used for the analysis. The Mann–kendall trend test was performed and revealed negative SPEI and SPI trends in the station of Mainé-soroa.  Results indicate a significant negative SPI-12 and SPI-24 trend (p-value < 0.05), while no trend was detected in the rest of the time-scale series. The absolute value of declining trend was gradually increasing when SPEI was calculated with more lagged months.  Meanwhile, at the Diffa station both SPEI and SPI showed positive trends. The pettitt's t-test on the SPEI series indicated particularly 1968 as the change point detected for three time scales including spei-9, SPEI-12, and SPEI-24. Drought frequency generally increased in Mainé-soroa over the period of 1950–2009. SPEI appear to be the most powerful tool of monitoring drought in semi-arid environment in the context of climate change. To build resilience to drought and cope with its effects in the area we stress the importance of the establishment of early risk identification and advices framework at local level such study should be extended to lake chad basin.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Inconvenient Truth about Access to Safe Drinking Water

A. W. Jayawardena

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 158-168
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030503

The phrase inconvenient truth associated with global warming and climate change has received a great deal of publicity some years back. The objective of this article is to highlight a different kind of inconvenient truth which affects about 29% of the world population. It is about the lack of access to safe drinking water that results in over 1.2 million preventable deaths annually. The first two targets of UN sustainable development goal 6 (SDG6) aim at providing universal, affordable and sustainable access to “water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)”.  Recognizing the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a basic human right, issues related to this problem as well as possible options to alleviate the problem are discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Different Seed Treatment on Growth, Yield and Seed Quality Parameters of Mustard (Brassica junicea) Var.(sulabh-3777)

Asha Latha Vemala, Abhinav Dayal, Prashant Kumar Rai, Neha Thomas, Vaidurya Pratap Sahi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 169-177
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030504

The experiment was conducted in the central research field at the department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University Of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences and college, Prayagraj (U.P) during Rabi season 2020-2021. In order to standardize the suitable pre-sowing seed treatment of Mustard (Variety-Sulabh-3777) laid by Randomized block design(RBD). Influence of different seed treatment on growth, yield and seed quality parameters of mustard were evaluated by Viz T0- Control, T1-Hydropriming(-0.3Mpa) for 3Hrs, T2-KNO3 1% for 12Hrs, T3-Nacl - 1% for 12Hrs, T4-KH2PO4 -1% for 12Hrs, T5- Electromagnetic (200Guass) for 30Mins, T6-PEG6000 (0.15 Mol.) for 3Hrs, T7- Neem leaf Extract- 5% for 12Hrs, T8-Tulasi Leaf Extract-5% for 12Hrs , T9- Recommended NPK, 10-Recommended NPK+FYM, T11-Azotobacter, T12-Azotobacter + 50% NPK+ FYM. To find out influence of different seed treatment on growth, yield and seed quality parameters of mustard showed that significant treatment field emergence (%), plant height (30,60,90 DAS), days to 50% flowering, number of branches per plant, number of siliquae per plant, number of seeds per siliquae, seed yield per plant (g), seed yield per plot (g), biological yield (g), harvest index. The study helps to improve the quality to improve seed with help of seed various botanicals, chemicals and biofertilizers priming treatment which are cost effective and economic, non- toxic, ecofriendly sources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Potassium Application on Growth, Yield and Micronutrient Uptake by Forage Maize (Zea mays L.)

Nisha Chaudhary, J. K. Parmar, Drashti Chaudhari, Manish Yadav

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 178-184
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030505

A pot experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2019 to carry out the study on “Interactive effect of potash (K2O), potassium mobilizing bacteria (KMB) and FYM on forage yield, nutrient uptake by forage maize and soil fertility in a loamy sand soil of middle Gujarat”. Application of K2O @ 60 kg ha-1, KMB and FYM recorded significantly the highest plant height of forage maize at harvest over respective control. Crop fertilized with K2O @ 60 kg ha-1 and KMB gave significantly the highest green forage and dry matter yield. The results indicated that application of K2O @ 60 kg ha-1, potassium mobilizing bacteria recorded significantly the highest uptake of N, P, K, Fe and Zn by crop at harvest. Significantly the highest uptake of N, K and Cu were found with application of FYM @10 t ha-1. Significantly the highest K uptake by maize as well as higher P and Zn uptake by maize were observed due to interaction effect of K × KMB (60 kg K2O ha-1 with KMB). In case of N and Cu uptake by maize were noted the Significantly higher due to interaction effect of K × KMB (30 kg K2O ha-1 with KMB) and K × KMB × FYM (60 kg K2O ha-1 with KMB and FYM), respectively. The integrated use of potassium fertilizers along with KBM or in combination with FYM significantly improved the maize grain and nutrient uptake.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring the Major Climate-smart Agricultural Practices for Dry Season Crop Production in Salinity Affected Fallow Land in the Coastal Areas of Bangladesh

Md. Abdul Awal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 185-192
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030506

The landmasses of the coastal areas of Bangladesh still remains under-utilized, thus cropping intensity is much less than the national average. Most areas remain fallow during dry (rabi) season from December to May due to presence of higher concentration of salts in soil and water, and scarcity of suitable irrigation water. Available adaptation options or technologies are not capable to solve these problems at all. Nevertheless, the areas receive a lot of water from monsoon rain, most of that rainwater is drain-out as surface runoff. The present study results suggest that the use of harvested rainwater and conservation agriculture either in combination or alone could mitigate the problem for bringing huge areas under crop cultivation. The public social safety net programmes such as cash-for-work, food-for-work etc. can be deployed for excavating or re-excavating the abandoned coastal ponds, ditches or canals for storing rainwater. Salt-, drought- and/or heat-tolerant crop varieties with short life span can also be cultivated to get the better results. Early plantation or growing crops with early-maturing varieties can ensure safer harvest in ahead of stress arrives. The avenues have immense potential as climate-smart practices for growing crops preferably non-rice crops during dry season in vast fallow land that will not only ensure food security for coastal people but could turn the entire southern Bangladesh as a food surplus zone. The findings refer the broad recommendation, therefore, specific research works based on the locations and resources available are necessary.

Open Access Original Research Article

Temporal Analysis of Trends in Groundwater Level in Northern Karnataka

Sangamesh Angadi, S. M. Mundinamani

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 193-201
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030507

The present study was conducted in three districts of northern Karnataka viz., Belagavi, Vijayapur and Uttar Kannada based on the highest number of observation wells and secondary data collected for the year 1999 to 2018 from various sources like Central Groundwater Department and district Groundwater department. Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) tool was used to analyze the trends in depth of groundwater level which revealed that, in Belagavi district, during 1999 with a ground water level of 4 MBGL has increased to 20.22 MBGL (Meter Below Ground Level) in 2018 at a rate of (2.72%) per year. Among 10 taluks of Belagavi district, Belagavi taluk recorded highest rate of increase in depth of groundwater level (4.82%)  While, Ramdurg taluk recorded lowest growth in depth of groundwater level (0.43%). In Vijayapur district, during 1999 the depth of groundwater level was 7.37 MBGL and has increased to 19.09 MBGL in 2018 at a rate of 1.62 per cent per year. Among five taluks of Vijayapur district, Sindagi taluk recorded highest rate of increase in depth of groundwater level (2.79%). Whereas, Vijayapur taluk recorded lowest growth in depth of groundwater level (0.10%). While, Uttar Kannada district, with a the depth of groundwater level 6.94 MBGL during 1999 had increased to 17.41 MBGL in 2018 at a rate of 2.38 per cent per year. Among 11 taluks of Uttar Kannada district, Sirsi taluk recorded  the highest rate of increase in depth of groundwater level (4.51%). However, Supa taluk recorded the lowest growth in depth of groundwater level (0.36%). The study indicated that over the years depth of groundwater level has increased significantly. The decline in groundwater availability might be due to over exploitation of groundwater over its recharge rate and inadequacy of rainfall over the period of time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evidence of Climate Changes in a Tropical Rainforest: Case Study Kakamega Tropical Rainforest

Phanice N. Wanyonyi, Mugatsia H. Tsingalia, Dennis O. Omayio, Emmanuel Mzungu

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 202-212
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030508

Aims: To assess trends in rainfall and temperature as evidence of climate change in the Kakamega tropical forest ecosystem over the last 30 years (1980-2010).

Study Design: Secondary data on temperature, rainfall and other climate related phenomena that have occurred within the Kakamega forest ecosystem over the last 30 years were obtained from the Kenya Metrological Department (KMD), Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), and local metrological stations and analysed to assess trends. This data was supplemented with data from questionnaires and structured interviews.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out among forest adjacent communities in the Kakamega tropical forest ecosystem between April and December 2020.

Methodology: Data on awareness and preparedness for climate change was collected using structured questionnaires, focused group discussions (FGD) and structured interviews. Three villages in the east, west, north and south of the forest that are within a 2km radius of the forest were randomly selected for sampling. From the 52,729 households, 397 households were randomly chosen from each of the three selected villages. Questionnaires targeted family heads in all the selected households. The questionnaire sought first-hand information on climate change awareness and impacts of climate change among the forest-adjacent communities. Each questionnaire comprised of open and closed-ended questions. Focused Group Discussion involved specialized groups of women, village elders, local administrators, CBOs working in the ecosystem, among others. Further information was obtained using key informants. A total of forty-eight (48) key informants were randomly selected for discussion. The interview method involved key personnel working within the forest ecosystem which included staff from KWS, County environmental officers, National Environment Officers, Agriculture officers at the national and county levels. The interviews focused on preparedness, mitigative and adaptive capacity to climate change by the forest adjacent communities.

Results: Analysis of the mean rainfall trends over the last 30 years (1980-2018) reveal that, mean monthly rainfall ranged from a monthly minimum 36mm (2012) to a maximum mean of 402.30mm (2018). Similarly, analyses of the mean monthly rainfall reveal dissimilarities in amounts of rainfall in each year over the last 30 years. The mean monthly rainfall fluctuations appear to increase overtime. Analysis of temperature records for the last 30 years (1990-2018) revealed a maximum mean daily temperature of 27.720C, a minimum temperature of 25.35⁰C and a maximum of 31.96⁰C with a range of 25⁰C - 30⁰C. From 2005 to 2018, higher temperatures (above 30⁰C) are evident. When a moving cumulative mean, using data on the minimum temperature over the last 30 years (1982 – 2018) was calculated, a forecasted trend gave a mean minimum temperature of 14.41⁰C, a minimum temperature of 12.33⁰C and a maximum temperature of 18.67⁰C. In the year 1990, the minimum temperature rose from 150C to 18⁰C. The forecasted temperature for 2019 also follows the same trend, with temperatures now stabilizing above 30⁰C. Majority of the respondents (96.7%, n=290) were aware of changes in climatic conditions now, compared to previous years. Most of the respondents had moderate (53%, n=159) to high (30.7%, n=92) knowledge about changes in climate. Majority of the respondents (57.7%, n=173 ) affirmed that information on climate change was obtained from broadcast media. Majority of the respondents were very concerned about climate change 91.7% (n=275) suggesting that they understood the seriousness of the changing climate. Further analyses of the data revealed that many of the respondents were aware that natural causes (31%, n=93), human activities (34.3%, n=103) and a combination of both (34.7%, n=104) were the main causes of climate change, while many of the respondents (58%, n=174) had experienced some extreme weather events in the last five years.

Conclusion: There is a clear evidence of climate changes in the Kakamega forest ecosystem as observed from the rising temperatures and variability in precipitation. Most people adjacent to the forests are aware of climate changes and its effects. The main sources of information are the electronic media. The increase in temperature may be due to deforestation, urbanization and agricultural activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pilot Study of Air Quality during Pre and Post COVID-19 Lockdown: An Inadvertent Assistance to the Environment

Akhtar Shareef, Durdana Rais Hashmi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 213-220
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030509

The main object of this study was to examine the levels of air quality in Karachi, Pakistan, before and during the 1st, 2nd and 3rd wave of lockdown period levied to control the spread of a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in the environment of Karachi city. Momentous improvement in the air quality has been found during the ‘Lockdown’ being implemented due to the Corona Virus Disease (COVID -19) pandemic in Karachi city. Concentrations of trace gases and particulate matter were used to calculate the results according to the criteria of USEPA. We have analyzed data from fourteen different locations along the busy roads in commercial, residential and industrial areas of Karachi during the period of lockdown. Data were compared to the before lockdown (BL) and during the complete lockdown (CL 1stwave), smart lockdown (SL 2nd wave) and again complete lockdown (CL-2 3rd wave) of COVID pandemic. The results show drastic reductions in criteria pollutants (PM10, CO, SO2 and NOx) concentrations in all the selected area during lockdown period. This study explained the level of air quality and its relation to prepare alternative plans to mitigate the air pollutants and to improve the environment of urban areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Effect of Different Treaments in Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

Tharuna Sree, Abhinav Dayal, Prashanth Kumar Rai

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 221-225
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030510

A field study was conducted to investigate the various treatments that effect on growth and yield of field pea in RBD (Randomized block design) at Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Science, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh during march to May in 2020. The trail consists of 13 treatments combinations. The field pea varieties were used were IPF429. The treatments included T0- control, T1,T2,T3,-Gibberellic acid, T4,T5,T6- Neem leaf extract, T7,T8,T9-ZnSo4, T10T11T12- Naphthalene acetic acid(NAA). All Ten parameters treated with Ga3 shows good results in Yield and shows maximum in field emergence, plant height, Days to 50% flowering, Number of pods, Seed yield per plot, Biological Yield and Harvest index. T0 (Un primed) shows lowest of all treatments. Hence, priming with Gibberellic acid could recommended for pre sowing treatment for field pea.