Open Access Data Article

Rainfall and Temperature Trends in Jagtial District of Telangana State

N. Navatha, G. Sreenivas, R. Umareddy

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 47-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130515

Aims: To investigate and assess the significance of the potential trend of two variables viz. rainfall, temperature in Jagtial district of Telangana state.

Place and Duration of Study: Data of Daily rainfall and temperature data of 39 years (1980-2019) collected from the meteorological observatory at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Polasa, Jagtial.

Methodology: In this study, trend analysis has been carried out on monthly, seasonal and annual basis using the data period between 1980 to 2019 for rainfall and temperature. Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimate test were applied to identify the existing trend direction and magnitude of change over time.

Results: The rainfall seasonal trend analysis indicates that pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon and winter period showed a negative rainfall trend with z statistics of-1.47, -2.51, -0.55 and-1.38 respectively. However, the annual rainfall showed a negative trend with a z value of -2.53. In the case of Sen’s slope shows that negative trend in monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall.  But the significant rising trend of monthly, seasonal average temperature is noticed from 1980 onwards. The annual average maximum temperature in the Jagtial showed an increasing trend (Z value +5.03). An increasing trend in the all seasons will lead to increase in annual mean temperature. The results of minimum temperature shows a rising trend and falling trend observed Monthly. However annual mean minimum temperature in the Jagtial District showed an increasing trend (Z value 0.10). In the case of maximum temperature for the observed period, it showed rising trend (Sen's slope = 0.63) while the minimum temperature trend showed no trend (Sen's slope = 0.02).

Conclusion: Time series was carried out using nonparametric M–K test and Sen's slope estimator, which are widely used tests for conducting trend analysis. Therefore, its take into think about the rainfall variability in particular and temperature variability in general of the area into their climate change adaptation approach.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Characterization of Paper Board Mill ETP Sludge Derived Hydrochar

K. Sabarish, S. Paul Sebastian, M. Maheswari, P. Balasubramaniam, J. Ejilane

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130511

Hydrothermal Carbonization an emerging technology for the conversion of biomass into carbon rich materials called as hydrochar. In this study, the paper board mill ETP sludge has been used for the production of hydrochar. The characterization of point of zero charge, Heavy metals, proximate and ultimate constituents, structural morphology (SEM), and molecular surface functionalities (FTIR) were also analysed. The results of Hydrochar showed slightly acidic pH (6.40), EC (1.33), and the pHPZC (point of zero charge) of 7.8 and the heavy metals content were found to be below detectable limit. FTIR analysis revealed that, the produced hydrochar have oxygen containing functional groups (-OH, C-O-C, -C=O). SEM analysis has the morphological features such as spongy, fuzzy and fluffy porous network on surfaces. These results of hydrochar can be act as an active adsorbent with further activation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Approach on Growth and Yield Attributes of Maize

P. Nandini, P. Laxminarayana, K. Bhanu Rekha, T. Anjaiah

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130512

The investigation was carried out in sandy loam soils at college farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad during kharif, 2019. From results it can be concluded that growth parameters which were recorded at 30 days after sowing (DAS), Knee-high stage, 60 DAS and at harvest like SPAD, leaf area and at flowering parameters like days to 50% tasseling and silking were shown highest in treatment T5-RDF + FYM enrichment with 50 kg ZnSO4 ha-1 and also it was on par with T7-RDF + ZSB (1kg/100 kg FYM) + 0.2% Foliar spray of ZnSO4 (Knee-high and Tasseling stages). Similar trends has been recorded in case of yield attributes like number of rows cob-1, number of kernels row-1, total no. of kernels cob-1, kernels weight cob-1 and test weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Artisanal Mining Practice and Physical Impacts on the Environment in the Ity-Floleu Gold Region, Côte d'Ivoire

Sandotin Lassina Coulıbaly, Franck Michaël Zahui, Lydie Clarisse Mangoua-Allali, Awa Cherif, Lacina Coulibaly

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 17-31
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130513

This paper describes artisanal gold mining practices and environmental impacts around the Ity-Floleu gold mine, in western Côte d'Ivoire. Interviews and field observations as well as measurements of turbidity and water flow velocity in the section of the river (Cavally) watering the study area, made it possible to identify 13 artisanal mining sites, housing 247 artisans, operating in groups made up mainly of 5 to 10 people. The activity is dominated by local populations from the villages of Ity and Floleu and the surrounding communities. Gold mined comes from alluvial and vein ores, with a predominance of alluvial ore, extracted in the sediments of the bed and the banks of the river and in the soils, inside forests. In the bed of the river, sediments are dredged using machines placed on boats, from where they are washed in mats and then dumped into the watercourse. On the other hand, on the banks of the river and in the forests, the material used consists of picks, dabas, mats, and shovels. In all cases, gold is recovered as a concentrate of gold powder. As regards vein ores, they are also extracted along with the soils of cultivable land, but in the form of blocks of stone which are crushed and washed. The gold is then recovered using mercury, followed by cyanidation. The techniques used lead to the silting up and the fall of the banks of the river, reduction of agricultural land, and the degradation of the environment by the tailings. The Cavally River appears to be strongly impacted in the midstream part of the Ity-Floleu axis, marked by a decrease in the bed and the river flow velocity (0.19 m/s) and higher turbidity (255.3 NTU). More effective policies are urgently needed to restore degraded ecosystems, both aquatic and terrestrial.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identifying and Using Suitable Oceanic Domains for Prediction of the Indian Monsoon Rainfall over Tamil Nadu

G. Senbagavalli, N. K. Sathyamoorthy, Ga. Dheebakaran, Patil Santosh Ganapati, S. Kokilavani, P. Jeevanand

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 60-71
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130516

Rainfall prediction are vital for agriculture which is one of the primary sectors greatly affected by climate variability and extremes. Agriculture plays a vital role in shaping the economy of India which is often affected by monsoon. Sea surface temperature (SST) plays a vital role in rainfall predictability over the land surface. A total of twelve different domains of oceanic influences of SST on monsoon rainfall over Tamil Nadu were selected for analysis. The SST of different lead times (February, March, April, and May for southwest monsoon (SWM) and June, July, August, and September for northeast monsoon (NEM) from the ERSSTv5 and ECMWF-SEAS5 model with the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) were used in the Climate Predictability Tool (CPT) to identify the best predictor domains for the prediction of SWM and NEM rainfall over Tamil Nadu. The model training utilized the first 40 years (1981-2020) SST and rainfall data and prediction was done for the 2021 seasons. The results of the study revealed from Kendall tau goodness index and CCA score, the predictor domains comprised of a combination of oceanic domains, this were the Indian, Arabian, Bay of Bengal, and Pacific Oceans recorded the best CCA score and the goodness index. Is therefore recommended that, these domains which have the highest overall predictability can be used by the National meteorological services to early warning and monsoon rainfall information over Tamil Nadu.

Open Access Original Research Article

Brown and Yellow Rust of Wheat in India –Significance of Climate on It’s Races and Resistance

Katravath Srinivas, Shaik Moizur Rahman, Manu Yadav, Mamta Sharma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 72-91
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130517

Wheat is one of the most important staple food crops having global economic significance. Grown globally around 215 million hectares area with production of more than 600 million tons. Wheat is constrained in its production due to several biotic factors, among them yellow rust of wheat, Puccinia striiformis Westend. f.sp. tritici Eriks and Henn. (Pst) and brown rust of wheat, Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici (Eriks. and E. Henn.) D.M. Henderson (Ptr) continues to be a serious threat and dominant factor limiting its yield potential globally. The estimated yield losses range from 10-70%, while in a severe epidemic the grain damage can be as great as 100%. Pathogens are considered to be favoured by the cooler areas but current races are more adaptable to high temperatures causing significant yield reduction in wheat. In India, prevalent pathotypes for yellow rust include 46S119, 110S119, and 238S119. Yr5, Yr10, Yr15, YrSp, and YrSk genes are resistant to Pst pathotypes in Indian conditions, while in the case of leaf rust of wheat, prevalent pathotypes are 77-5, 77-9, and 104-2. Lr9, Lr19, Lr24, Lr25, Lr29, Lr32, Lr39, Lr45, and Lr47 are the genes having resistance to Ptr pathotypes in Indian conditions. This publication provides a comprehensive overview of the stripe and leaf rusts of wheat in India and their virulent races, types of host resistance and provides a tool for effective management of wheat rust disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment with Bio Inoculants and Micronutrients on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributing Traits of Lentil

Martha Amulya, Abhinav Dayal, Prashant Kumar Rai

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 92-99
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130518

The field experiment entitled “Pre sowing seed treatment of bio inoculants and micronutrients on growth, yield and yield attributing traits of lentil (Lens culinaris L.)” var. Shekhar Masoor-2 was conducted during rabi at central reseach field of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India during 2020 - 2021. The experiment consisted of 13 treatments which was laid in Randomized Block Design (RBD). Results revealed that seeds treated with T12 (Rhizobium + PSB + KMB + ZnSO4 + Ammonium molybdate) recorded maximum values in growth parameters viz., field emergence (%) 88.72%, plant height at 30, 60, 90 DAS with 6.97, 23.33, 45.2 cm Days to 50% flowering (72.67days), number of branches 5.07 branches per plant, number of pods per plant with 64.07 pods per plant, number of seeds per pod 1.85 seeds per pod. Similar results are observed in yield paramters where highest seed yield per plant was observed in T12 (Rhizobium + PSB + KMB + ZnSO4 + Ammonium molybdate) with 3.79 g and seed yield per plot 107.4 g.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Character Association Studies in Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

Shubham Chakraborty, Anil Kumar, Chandan Kishore, Anand Kumar, Ravi Ranjan Kumar, Nitish De

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 100-105
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130519

India is a nation which has got huge scope for modernization. The pace of increasing modernization in India coupled with its ever increasing human population is posing a very serious impact on environment mainly due to global warming. Abrupt rainfall conditions coupled with drought conditions prevailing during the Kharif season often hampers paddy transplantation in eastern parts of India. It results in late harvesting of paddy which in turn leads to late sowing of mustard crop in the fields during Rabi season. Hence, the need of the hour is to develop Indian mustard varieties having high yield potential as well as suitable for late sown conditions in Eastern India. An investigation was carried out to study the genetic variability, correlation and path analysis of ten quantitative traits in 33 genotypes of Indian mustard procured from diverse agro-climatic zones of the country. Analyses of variance were found to be highly significant for all the characters studied. Genotypic Coefficient of Variability as well as Phenotypic Coefficient of Variability were found high for number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, number of siliqua and seed yield per plot. High heritability coupled with higher genetic advance was found for plant height, number of siliqua per plant and seed yield per plot suggesting due importance of these traits for selection in breeding program.The phenotypic and genotypic correlation studies revealed that seed yield per plot exhibited significant positive correlation with plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of siliqua per plant, siliqua length, seeds per siliqua and 1000 seed-weight. Path coefficient analysis revealed that seed yield per plot, days to maturity, plant height, number of primary branch, number of secondary branch, number of siliqua per plant had positive direct effect on seed yield per plot suggesting that direct selection for these triats can be practiced for yield improvement in Indian mustard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standardization of Integrated Nutrient Management for Growth and Yield of Tomato

Eggadi Ramesh, Subhamoy Sikder

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 106-112
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130520

Aim: “Standardization of integrated nutrient management for growth and yield of tomato”.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design (RBD) with 14 treatments with three replications maintained.

Place and Duration of Study: Experiment was carried out at the Instructional Farm, Faculty of Horticulture of Uttar Banga Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, and Pundibari, Cooch Behar during Rabi season of 2019 - 2020.

Methodology: The treatments consisted of different combinations of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers i.e., T1 (Recommended NPK), T2 (100% FYM), T3 (100% VC), T4 (100% PM), T5 (100% NC), T6 (100% VC + 100% FYM + 100% PM + 100% NC), T7 (½ Recommended NPK + 50% FYM + 50% VC), T8 (½ Recommended NPK + 50% FYM + 30% VC + 20% PM), T9 (½ Recommended NPK + 50% FYM + 50% VC + NC), T10 (½ Recommended NPK + 50% FYM + 30% VC + 20% PM + NC), T11 (½ Recommended NPK + 50% FYM + 50% VC + PSB), T12 Recommended NPK + 50% FYM + 30% VC + 20% PM + PSB), T13 (½ Recommended NPK + 50% FYM + 50% VC + NC + PSB) and T14 (½ Recommended NPK + 50% FYM + 30% VC + 20% PM + NC + PSB).

Results: All the growth and yield parameters were recorded maximum stem girth at last harvest (14.85mm), days to first flowering (27.46), number of truss per plant (20.59), individual fruit weight (127.71g), fruit yield per plant (4.49 kg) and yield per hector (79.62 t/ha) with treatment T8 (½ Recommended NPK + 50% FYM + 30% VC + 20% PM).

Conclusion: The application of treatment T8 (½ Recommended NPK + 50% FYM + 30% VC + 20% PM) shown enhanced tomato production with minimal alteration to environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic variation for Vegetative and Reproductive Traits in Mulberry (Morus spp) Accessions

C. Sushmitha, . Chikkalingaiah, S. Murali, B. N. Ahalya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 113-120
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130521

Aims: To assess genetic variability for vegetative and reproductive traits in different seasons.

Study Design: Field experimental design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in different seasons during 2019-20 at Department of Sericulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore.

Methodology: The present study comprised of Seventy one mulberry accessions.

Results: The mean performance of leaf moisture content (64.41 & 55.42%) and leaf yield (1268.71 & 872.21g) in rainy and winter season, respectively. There are large differences were observed between the minimum and maximum range leaf moisture content was varied from 45.16 to 78.51 per cent and leaf yield was varied from 235.90 to 29008.89 during rainy season. In winter season the range of leaf moisture content was varied from 15.28 to 72.35 per cent and leaf yield was varied from 94.43 to 2975.00 g. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV %) was found to be higher than the respective genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV %) for all the characters denoting variability among genotypes in both the seasons. Estimates of phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variations were high for leaf yield per plant (98.63, 98.49%) and (89.69, 89.62%) in rainy and winter season, respectively. Maximum heritability was observed for leaf yield per plant (99.71 %), (99.85 %) in rainy and winter season, respectively. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean in respect of number of days for first flower initiation, plant height and single leaf area at 45th, 60th, and 75th DAP, number of branches, leaf moisture content and leaf yield per plant was observed in rainy and winter seasons.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Seasonal Water Quality Changes in Semi-Urban Surface Tanks of Noyyal River Basin

P. Aravind, S. Selvakumar, G. Thiyagarajan, K. Boomiraj, Balaji Kannan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 121-134
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130522

Aims: The history of Noyyal river in Coimbatore is known for water quality and taste since the colonial period. The river water is used mainly for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes to districts of Coimbatore, Tiruppur and Karur with many anaicuts and tanks. In the recent past due to urbanization and industrialization the river water has been polluted in the greater extend.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted to investigate the water quality status of five important upper reach semi-urban tanks of Noyyal river basin in the year 2020 -2021.

Methodology: We have collected the sample season wise in the five tanks and analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, TSS, total hardness, alkalinity, chlorides and sulphates as well as heavy metals such as zinc, copper, cadmium and lead.

Results: The results of our water quality analysis showed that most of the parameters are above the maximum permissible limits of CPCB standards for drinking water in India. The heavy metals concentrations were many folds higher than the CPCB permissible limits. The correlation analysis, Anova and PCA showed that the EC and TDS, alkalinity and sulphates, chlorides and sulphates and alkalinity and chlorides had higher correlation in the water quality analysis and they are interrelated to one another. In the monsoon season the pollution status is less and during summer season the pollution load is higher in the all tanks. During the monsoon season because of intensive water flow dilute the pollution load as well high rate of degradation due to high dissolved oxygen content of river water. Since, he Noyyal river is seasonal river, during summer, there would be very less or no flow of water into the tank increase the pollution load. The Narasampathy tank had comparatively less pollution than other tanks, since, it is the first tank in the upper reach of the Noyyal basin and has less inhabitants and industry.

Conclusion: We concluded that the tanks are polluted due to urbanization and industrialization in and around the Noyyal basin and there is an urgent need to tackle this problem by making eco-friendly and economically viable treatment system to sustain the water quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Farmyard Manure and Jeevamrutha on Growth and Yield of Sunflower

M. Chaithra, G. M. Sujith

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 135-141
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130524

A field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2017 at ZARS, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru to study the influence of different levels of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and Jeevamrutha on growth and yield of Sunflower in red sandy loam soil. There were nine treatment combinations laid out in factorial randomized complete block design, which were replicated thrice. The experimental results revealed that, the application of FYM at 150 per cent nitrogen equivalent and jeevamrutha at 1500 L ha-1significantly influenced growth parameters like plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index and total dry matter production. The interaction effect of FYM and jeevamrutha was significant in enhancing the seed yield of sunflower due to improvement in yield attributes like head diameter, number of seeds per head, hundred seed weight and seed yield per plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Bio-fertilizers and Botanicals on GrowthYield and Yield Attributes of Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Var. (Azad Pea-3)

P. Navya Sai Mrudula, Abhinav Dayal, Prashant Kumar Rai, G. M. Lal, Neha Thomas

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 142-147
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130525

The Field Experiment was conducted at Field Experimentation Centre, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Prayagraj (U.P) during the year 2020-2021.The Experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with 13 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments were T0 - Control, T1- Azotobacter @ 3g, T2-Azotobacter @ 5g ,T3- Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria @ 3g, T4-Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria @ 5g, T5- Azospirillum @ 3g, T6-Azospirillum@ 5g,T7- Rhizobium @ 3g, T8-Rhizobium @ 5g , T9- Moringa leaf extract @1%, T10-Moringa leaf  extract @3%, T11- Lantana camera leaf extract @1%, T12-Lantana camera leaf extract @ 3% with a soaking duration of 8 hours. The results showed that seeds primed with T8- Rhizobium @ 5g improved Field emergence percentage, growth, yield and yield attributing traits followed by T7-Rhizobium @ 3g and T4- PSB@ 5g. The least performance was observed in T0-Control when compared with the other treatments.  This it indicated that the process of seed treatment by bio-fertilizers may be the  better option for seed growers to achieve higher seed yield and yield attributes in Pea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dry Matter Production and Nitrogen Uptake as Influenced by Irrigation and Nitrogen Levels in Maize

B. Soujanya, B. Balaji Naik, M. Uma Devi, T. L. Neelima, Anima Biswal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 155-161
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130528

A field experiment was conducted at Agro Climate Research Center, Agricultural Research Institute, P.J.T.S Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India during rabi 2019-20. The field experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. The treatments comprising of three irrigation scheduling based on (Depletion of Available Soil Moisture) at 60% DASM, 40% DASM and 20% DASM as main plots and three nitrogen levels viz., 90, 180 and 240 kg N ha-1 as sub-plots. The experiment was laid out in split plot design. The results indicated that, among the different treatment combinations, the crop irrigation scheduled at 20 % DASM in conjunction with 240 kg N ha-1 accumulated significantly more dry matter of 34.2 g, 149.2 g, 233.7 g and 284.8 g plant-1, at 6th leaf, silking, dough and physiological maturity stages, respectively. The nitrogen uptake was found to be more when the crop was irrigated at 20 % DASM in conjunction with 240 kg N ha-1 (67.1 g, 231.8 g, 294.7 g and 305.3 g plant-1) at 6th leaf, silking, dough and physiological maturity stages, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Varieties and Crop Geometries on Yield and Profitability of Soybean in Semi – Arid Climate of Telangana

E. Anusha, K. B. Suneetha Devi, O. Sampath, G. Padmaja

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 162-169
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130529

A field study entitled ʻʻEvaluation of varieties at varied crop geometry for yield maximization in soybeanʼʼ was conducted at College farm, Agricultural College, Polasa, Jagtial, PJTSAU, during the kharif season of 2018. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three replications to evaluate the performance of promising varieties of soybean (V1- Basar, V2- JS 335, V3- KDS 756 and V4- MACS 1281) and to standardize the crop geometry for Soybean varieties (S1- 45 x 10 cm, S2- 30 x 10 cm, S3- 45 x 05 cm and S4- 35 x 05 cm) under rainfedsemi arid conditions of Telangana. The results obtained from the present experiment indicated that among the varieties the yield attributes and yield are numbers of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1, seed yield, stalk yield and harvest index (%) and monetary returns of KDS 756 variety was significantly higher as compared to other varieties followed by Basar, MACS 1281, respectively. Hundred seed weight was significant among varieties and was higher with variety KDS 756 followed by MACS 1281, JS 335 and Basar. JS 335 showed inferior performance regarding yield attributes yield and monetary returns. Among crop geometry 30 x 10 cm recorded higher yield characters and monetary returns followed by 45 x 05 cm, 30 x 05 cm and 45 x 10 cm, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Generation Mean Analysis for Yield and Drought Tolerant Traits under Rainfed and Irrigated Conditions in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Ramasamy Gobu, Jai Prakash Lal, Annamalai Anandan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 170-178
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130530

Generation mean analysis was carried out using two crosses, involving a high yielding drought susceptible variety NDR 359 and drought tolerant rainfed cultivars Nagina 22 and Vandana. Six generations namely P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 were grown under both rainfed and irrigated environment to study the gene action for various yield and drought tolerance traits. Scaling test revealed the presence of epistasis for most of the yield and drought tolerance traits in both the crosses. Hence, six parameter model was adopted for these traits and for few traits where epistasis was absent, three parameter model was used. The results revealed that dominance gene effect along with non-allelic interactions had profound effect on the genetic control of majority of the yield traits. Therefore, early generation selection will be misleading for these traits. However, the drought tolerance related traits like proline content and stomatal conductance were governed by additive component as well. Duplicate epistasis was observed for majority of the traits. Hence, present study indicates that, epistasis has a key role in the expression of almost all the traits in both the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sowing Dates, Tillage and Establishment Methods on Growth and Yield of Mustard

P. Sneha Reddy, G. Satyanarayana Reddy, K. B. Suneetha Devi, A. Krishna Chaitanya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 179-186
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130531

This experiment was conducted at College Farm, Agricultural College, Polasa, Jagtial in Rabi, 2019-20. The experiment was laid out in strip-plot design with T1-Zero tillage with direct sowing, T2-Zero tillage with transplanting, T3-Conventional tillage with direct sowing and T4-Conventional tillage with transplanting in 4 horizontal strips and D1-15 November, D2-25 November and D3-5 December sowing dates in 3 vertical strips. Nursery was prepared 15 days earlier to sowing date for transplanting. Direct sowing and transplanting was carried out on same date. Among tillage practices with establishment methods, significantly the highest performance of growth parameters was obtained with T4 and lowest response under T1. Significantly higher values of growth parameters were recorded under early sowing date (15 November) followed by 25 November and lowest was registered on 5 December. The number of siliqua plant-1, seeds siliqua-1 was significantly higher under T4 which resulted in higher seed yield (754.38 kg ha-1), stover yield (1815.40 kg ha-1) and was comparable with T3. Higher number of siliqua per plant-1 and number of seeds per siliqua-1 resulting in higher seed yield (944.55 kg ha-1) and stover yield (1943.12 kg ha-1) were recordeed on 15 November followed by 25 November and lowest was registered on 5 December.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio Economic Factors Responsible for Groundwater Consumption in Purba Bardhaman District of West Bengal

Chowdhury Nazmul Haque, Monirul Haque, Hiralal Jana, Debabrata Basu, Sabyasachi Karak

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 187-194
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130533

Groundwater is the biggest freshwater reservoir in the world. More than 95% of the unfrozen water comes from groundwater. Factors responsible for groundwater consumption by rice growers have been included in the study. For the study, Purba Barddhaman district was selected purposively considering the pattern of agriculture and extent groundwater use in the state. One community development block from the district has selected based on crop diversity, type of irrigation, amount of water extraction for irrigation purposes. From the selected block a big parcel of cultivating land (Math) were again selected randomly keeping the consideration of homogeneity in lad type, soil type, type of crops, variety and seasons. Farmers’ knowledge level, farmers’ attitude towards irrigation, economic motivation, improved water extraction mechanism and method of irrigation are the major contributing factors in predicting the amount of groundwater consumption when crop and land situation are constant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Deficit and Optimum Irrigation at Various Growth Stages on Yield Attributes, Yield and Economics of Summer Sesame

P. Neeshma, K. B. Suneetha Devi, B. Shobha Rathod, A. Krishna Chaitanya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 195-206
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130534

Aims: Sesame is grown in the country since antiquity. Sesame has high nutritional benefits and is utilized in numerous cooking styles everywhere globally. Sesame is called as the queen of oilseeds for the reason of its top notch polyunsaturated stable fats that limit oxidative rancidity and contains high oil content (up to 60%). Sesame is cultivated in summer in the North Telangana in turmeric and rice fallows. Low productivity in sesame is primarily due to rainfed planting on sub-marginal and marginal lands with poor management and low investment. To solve the upcoming challenges and in view of the improving yield and acquire higher returns, precised water management strategies need to be formulated. Hence the present investigation is proposed to study the effect of deficit and optimum irrigation at various growth stages on yield and economics of sesame crop grown in summer.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design.

Methodology: A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural college, Polasa, Jagtial district during summer 2021 to study the effects of water deficit and optimal irrigation at various growth stages on yield and economics of summer sesame. The study is conducted with eight deficit and optimum irrigation treatments (T1 to T8) and replicated thrice.

Results: The results of this experiment manifested that scheduling irrigation at vegetative, prebloom, flowering, capsule initiation and capsule filling stages (T8) registered highest yield attributes, yield and economic parametersviz., no of capsules plant-1 (45),capsule weight (0.32 g) and no of filled seeds capsule-1 (55), seed yield (1150 kg ha-1), stalk yield (1999 kg ha-1), gross returns (128499  ha-1), net returns (94391  ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (2.76).

Open Access Original Research Article

Calibration and Validation of DSSAT CROPGRO Peanut Model for Yield and Yield Attributing Characters of Groundnut Varieties in Northern Agro-Climatic Zone of Tamil Nadu

S. Thirumeninathan, S. Pazhanivelan, N. S. Sudarmanian, K. P. Ragunath, A. Gurusamy, N. Sritharan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 207-215
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130535

Aim: The research study was conducted to calibrate and validate the DSSAT CROPGRO peanut model for simulating the potential yield of groundnut to deciding the best possible management options at major growing areas of Northern Agro-Climatic zone of Tamil Nadu.

Study Design:  The experiment was conducted in Split plot Design with four Sowing dates and cultivars.

Methodology: The DSSAT model requires layer wise soil data (physical and chemical), including soil texture and other soil properties. Daily weather data, including maximum and minimum air temperature (°C), solar radiation (MJ m−2 day−1), Relative Humidity (%) and precipitation (mm) were used as inputs. Data describing management practices and information of cultivar-specific genetic coefficients were used to calibrate the model. Validation of model were carried out using observed growth and yield attributes of TMV13 and G7 varieties using RMSE (Root Mean Square Error), NRMSE (Normalized Root Mean Square Error) and agreement per cent as test criteria for the evaluation.

Results:  The performance of DSSAT CROPGRO peanut model for simulated growth attributes were underestimated the growth attributes like days to anthesis, leaf area index, days to first pod and days to maturity than compared to observed growth attributes of TMV13 and G7 varieties. But the model performs better for G7 as compared to TMV13. Whereas, yield and yield attributes of CROPGRO peanut model were overestimated than the observed yield.

Conclusion: The simulation model shows the low RMSE, NRMSE and high agreement per cent for growth and yield of groundnut which was more than 90 per cent, it shows the higher level of confidence on model simulation with observed characters.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Plant Growth Regulators to Improve the Colour and Sugar Content of Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). cv. Red Globe

S. Nanthakumar, V. Manju, V. Ashok Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 216-221
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130536

Studies on Effect of plant growth regulators to improve the colour and sugar content of Grapes” (Vitis vinifera L.).cv. Red Globe was conducted in the field of a progressive grape grower at Kaalampalyam (10 O 58’49.17” N and 76 O 55’ 15. 81”E   and elevation of 1352 ft from MSL) near Perur area of Coimbatore district in Tamil Nadu. The experiment was laid out in a randomized Block design with 7 treatments and each treatment was replicated four times. The data recorded on various parameters viz., vegetative growth, flowering, fruit yield, Quality etc., were statistically analysed. Significant differences were observed among the growth regulators on various vegetative growth parameters in Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). cv. Red Globe. Among all the treatments, number of bunches per vine was significantly higher when sprayed with ethephon 200ppm (T4) compared to other treatments. (6.53 cm), the berry size and berry weight of the grapes were found to be maximum in the bunches treated with CCC 500ppm (T2) (6.57 g), There was no impact on the number of seeds by the treatments. The ethephon 200ppm (T4) treatment exhibited superior quality in terms of juice content, total sugars and colour value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Population Dynamics of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) on Sorghum

S. V. L. Sunitha, M. Swathi, T. Madhumathi, P. Anil Kumar, C. H. Chiranjeevi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 222-229
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130537

The study on seasonal incidence of fall armyworm was carried out during kharif, 2019 at Agricultural college farm, Bapatla.  The oviposition of fall armyworm was observed from 34th SMW (Standard Meterological Week) and reached its peak during 40th SMW (0.03 egg masses plant-1). The larval population of fall armyworm was commenced during 35th SMW and increased gradually to a peak of 1.67 larvae plant-1 during 41st SMW. The maximum plant infestation (60.00%) and leaf damage severity rating (3.13) of fall armyworm was observed during 41st SMW. The peak activity of natural enemies was observed during 41st SMW which coincides with the larval population of fall armyworm. The correlation analysis indicated that eggmasses of fall armyworm was positively correlated with minimum temperature(r= 0.668) and wind speed (r= 0.529) while, the larval population showed significant positive correlation with maximum temperature (r= 0.029). The plant infestation caused by fall armyworm had shown significant negative correlation with maximum temperature (r= -0.633) and positive correlation with morning relative humidity (r= 0.678) and evening relative humidity (r= 0.664) whereas, the leaf damage severity rating exhibited significant positive correlation with evening relative humidity (r= 0.691). The multiple regression analysis revealed that the influence of weather parameters on the incidence of fall armyworm and natural enemies in sorghum ecosystem was more than 65% and 40%, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Effective Protocol for Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. 'Geolei' Explants Sterilization for Successful Callusing and Shoot Regeneration

Ujjwal Sirohi, Swati Sharma, Mukesh Kumar, R. S. Sengar, L. K. Gangwar, Akash Tomar, Vyankatesh Dhanraj Bagul, M. K. Yadav

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 230-238
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130538

Carnation is a popular floricultural crop grown widely for its attractive cut flowers. Micro-propagation can be used to create large-scale carnation output. For growth and development, plants require some necessary nutrients as well as growth regulators. Due to the importance of carnation, the present work is carried out using leaf and nodal segments to examine the potential of several plant growth regulators for in vitro callus formation and adventitious shoot regeneration. Explants were sterilized properly with bavistin, sodium hypochlorite and mercuric chloride. The minor contaminated cultures were created by consecutively treating the explants with 0.25% bavistin, 0.50% sodium hypochlorite, and 0.1% mercuric chloride for ten, fifteen, and two minutes.

MS media with 2.5 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) in combination with 0.75 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) resulted in the maximum callus induction (90.47%) from leaf explants. Maximum shoots (76.47%) were produced in MS media supplemented with 2.0 mg/l Thidiazuron (TDZ) + 0.25 mg/l NAA. NAA at 1.25 mg/l was most efficient for maximum root induction (83.32%). In the present study, an effective protocol of carnation explants sterilization was optimized for successful callusing and shoot regeneration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers' Perception, Adaptation Strategies, their Determinants and Barriers to Climate Change in the Bundelkhand Region of Central India

S. K. Rai, Sunil Kumar, P. K. Ghosh, . Satyapriya, P. Govindasamy, D. R. Palsaniya, Rupali Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 239-257
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130539

This study is based on a farm house hold survey (818 households) collected from 4 districts of drought prone region of central India and examines that how farmers perceive the climate change and adaptation strategies adopted over the past few decades. Nearly, 80.9%, 93.6% and 95.2% farmers’ perceived that the average temperature has increased, rainfall has decreased and occurrence of drought is more frequent, respectively during last 25–30 years. A significant decreasing trend was observed in annual rainfall at all the studied locations with a rate of 2.1 to 5.8 mm year–1. In most of the locations both maximum and minimum temperature showed an increasing trend during winter season (July-October) in the range of 0.8 to 1.2 and 0.4–1.5ºC per 100 year, respectively. However, only two locations viz., Jhansi and Banda district showed increasing trend in maximum temperature in the range of 0.8 to 2.3oC per hundred years during rainy season. This study revealed that the perceptions of rural farmers on climate change and variability are consistent with the climate trend analysis. Econometric model suggested a positive influence of age, agriculture experience, educational qualification, size of land holding, adequate access to credit facility and crop insurance, intermittent dry spell and adequate extension services on climate change perceptions and adaptation. The results further revealed that 69.8% respondent have implemented adaptation measures in response to dry spell. Furthermore, analysis showed that agriculture experience, educational qualification and intermittent dry spell and access to extension services are the key factors for adoption of various adaptation strategies particularly, irrigations scheduling, use of high yielding improved varieties, pesticides and change of planting date. Inadequate availability of irrigation resources and frequent drought as well as intermittent dry spells were considered as the most critical barriers for adaptation measures to climate change by farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Heat-tolerance Potential in QTL Introgressed Lines of Hybrid Rice Restorer, KMR-3R through PS-II Efficiency

V. Jaldhani, D. Sanjeeva Rao, P. Beulah, B. Srikanth, P. R. Rao, D. Subrahmanyam, P. Sudhakar, A. Krishna Satya, C. N. Neeraja, P. Senguttuvel

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 258-266
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130540

Aims: To assess heat-induced PSII damage and efficiency in eight promising backcross introgression lines (BC2F6) of KMR-3R/N22 possessing qHTSF1.1 and qHTSF4.1.

Study Design:  Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad India during wet/rainy (Kharif) season 2018.

Methodology: Eight ILs (BC2F6) and parents were evaluated for heat tolerance. The high- temperature stress was imposed by enclosing the crop with a poly cover tent (Polyhouse) just before the anthesis stage. The fluorescence parameters viz., maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), Electron transport rate (ETR), effective PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII), coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP) and coefficient of non-photochemical quenching (qN) were measured under ambient and high-temperature stress.

Results: The heat-tolerance potential of ILs was assessed in terms of PSII activity. The results indicated that significant differences were observed between treatments (T), genotypes (G) and the interaction between T × G.  The physiological basis of introgressed QTLs controls the spikelet fertility by maintaining the productive and adaptive strategies in heat-tolerant QTL introgressed lines with stable photosynthetic apparatus (PSII) under high-temperature stress.

Conclusion: The Fv/Fm ratio denotes the maximum quantum yield of PSII. The heat-tolerant QTL introgressed lines exhibited stable photosynthetic apparatus (PSII) and noted better performance under high-temperature stress. They may be used as donors for fluorescence traits in breeding rice for high-temperature tolerance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Application of Zeolite Affects Inorganic Nitrogen, Water Soluble and Exchangeable Potassium

Ch. Ravali, K. Jeevan Rao, T. Anjaiah, K. Suresh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 267-273
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130541

An incubation study was conducted at college of agriculture, rajendranagar, PJTSAU to evaluate the influence of zeolite application on inorganic nitrogen, water soluble and exchangeable potassium in soil. Clinoptilolite Zeolite was fully mixed with soil (7.5 t ha-1) at the start of the experiment. Nitrogen was applied to soil through urea (200 kg ha-l). The experiment was conducted for 35 days and soil was analyzed for inorganic nitrogen, water soluble and exchangeable potassium at weekly intervals i.e., 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 days of incubation. The results indicated that the treatment with zeolite application showed significantly higher ammoniacal nitrogen from day 1 (136.54 mg kg-l) to day 35 (38.71 mg kg-l) as well as nitrate nitrogen (day 1 – 59.13 mg kg-l; day 35 – 130.13 mg kg-l). Similarly water soluble (day 1 – 92.21 kg ha-l; day 35 – 103.13 kg ha-l) and exchangeable potassium (day 1 – 363.69 kg ha-l; day 35 – 393.94 kg ha-l) was also significantly higher in zeolite applied treatments. Thus, mixing of zeolite into soil improves inorganic nitrogen through reducing leaching losses and also improves water soluble and exchangeable potassium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Attitude towards the Climate-Resilient Technologies of NICRA Project in Anantapur District

Yeragorla Venkata Harikrishna, Seema Naberia

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 274-278
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130542

Climate change has been perceived with high emphasis from the beginning of this century. Since it directly impacts the ecosystem and agriculture especially over the farmers of dryland regions. The research study has been conducted to assess the farmers’ attitude towards climate-resilient technologies of the National Initiatives on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) project by farmers of Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh. The sample consists of 60 farmers as beneficiaries from NICRA villages and 60 farmers as nonbeneficiaries from non-NICRA villages were selected randomly. The ex-post facto research design was used in the study. The results of the study showed that more than half of the beneficiaries (51.67 %) and 48.33 per cent of non-beneficiaries had a medium level of favorableness towards climate-resilient technologies of the NICRA project. From the above findings, this is concluded that both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of the NICRA project have a positive favourable attitude towards climate-resilient technologies which is considered as a precursor for adoption of those technologies by the farming community. Hence the results of this research study may help extension organizations for good training and implementation of climate-resilient technologies of National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Silicon Nutrition on Yield, Uptake and Agronomic Efficiency of Paddy in Acid Lateritic Soils of Odisha

Aliva Das, Prasanna Kumar Samant, Gayatri Sahu, Gour Hari Santra

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 279-291
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130543

A field experiment was conducted in the central farm, Regional Research and Technology Transfer Station, Coastal Zone OUAT, Bhubaneswar during kharif 2020 using cv-Lalat variety of Rice. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with ten treatments and three replications. In this experiment BOF (Basic Oxygen Furnace) slag was used as a source of silica for application to rice crop. 200, 300 and 400 kg SiO2/ha was applied in combination with 50% STD and 75% STD in order to assess the efficacy of Silica with reduction in fertilizer dose by 50% and 25%. It was shown in case of grain yield, straw yield, and harvest index, 100% STD (T4) registered maximum (36.9q/ha) grain yield which was 29.4% more than that of control. Of course, grain yield in case of T9i.e., 75% STD+300kg SiO2/ha was at par 36.2q/ha indicated efficacy of silica application by reducing fertilizer dose. Harvest index was not significantly affected by Si treatments. However, maximum HI (0.478) was observed in T9. Available N, P, K and S status in post-harvest soil was increased significantly due to application of silica along with fertilizer over control indicated better availability of nutrients which plays a vital role in increasing production and productivity of rice. The content and uptake of N, P, K and Si was significantly increased over control due to application of silica with fertilizer. Though 100% STD (T4) was found to be very effective as compared to other treatments but 75% STD+300kgSiO2/ha was also equally effective so far as yield, yield attributing characters, available nutrient status, N, P, K and Si content and uptake along with Relative Agronomic Efficiency (RAE), Agronomic Efficiency (AE), Apparent Recovery (%) AR and Production Efficiency (PE) are concerned.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization of Drought Tolerant Genotypes of Pearl Millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] for A1 Zone

Supriya Ambawat, C. Tara Satyavathi, R. C. Meena, Rajbala Meena, Narayan Ram Gurjar, Vikas Khandelwal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 292-301
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130544

Pearl millet is a widely grown, climate resilient rainfed cereal crop cultivated on 29 million ha in the arid and semi-arid tropical regions of Asia and Africa accounting for almost half of global millet production. It is useful for minimizing the adverse effect of climate change, hence facilitating income and food security among farming communities. It has deep root system and exhibit climate-resilient features including adaptation to a wide range of ecological conditions, less irrigational requirements, better growth and productivity in low nutrient input conditions, less dependent on synthetic fertilizers and minimum vulnerability to environmental stresses and thus can survive in harsh climatic conditions, less fertile soil under water scarcity. Breeding of drought tolerant varieties and selecting genotypes for better water use efficiency is important in pearl millet to mitigate the changing climatic scenario. In this study, 24 genotypes of pearl millet which are drought tolerant and specific for A1 zone were characterized using 15 drought specific SSR primers. All the 15 SSRs amplified products of varying sizes ranging between 90-550 bp. A total of 40 alleles were obtained in this study and the number of alleles per locus varied between 2 to 5 with an average of 2.67 alleles. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) varied from 0.34 to 0.76 with an average of 0.53 PIC value. This study will be useful for developing high yielding, dual purpose cultivars for low rainfall areas i.e. A1 zone and increasing pearl millet productivity. 

Open Access Review Article

New, Emerging, Re-Emerging Tropical Infectious and Non-Communicable Diseases Persistent to the Climate, Landscape, and Environmental Changes on the Grounds of the Urbanizations, Industrializations, and Globalisation

Masimalai Palaniyandi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 32-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130514

Historical records evidenced of urban landscape changes, and environmental transitions brought by the improper growths and urban development’s of the urbanisation and industrialization in the developing countries, especially in India, significantly chaotic urban sprawl and industrial growths, and the development of its allied activities for the recent decades, invites new, emerging, re-emerging, and triggers the tropical infectious diseases including vector borne diseases (VBD) as well non-communicable diseases. Urban sprawl has a multiplier effect of growth of unplanned a crowded housing, and industrialization has an impact on the urban landscape with commercial and market development, and roads over large expanses of urban land while little concern for appropriate urban planning. The union government of India is launching to promote 100 mega smart city projects / metropolitan / urban agglomeration across the nation for betterment of the standard of living infrastructure facilities by 2030. The large scale urban landscape architectural changes, land use / land cover changes, environmental transitions, and micro climatic changes in the heart of the urban landscape, and its fringe areas on the consequence of built-up structures, construction of roads transport networks, drainages, commercial buildings, human dwellings, educational buildings, legal and medical health services, income tax professionals, small scale to large scale industries, etc., The census of India, reports highlighted that people mass movements / migration from rural to the urban, and small towns to mega cities are notably accelerating trends for the recent decades mainly for the purposes of occupation, education, trade and commerce, and professional services, generally reasons for male migration, and marriage is the absolute reason for female adults migration. The spatial and temporal aspects of malaria and dengue has been declining trends in rural settings, however, it has been accelerating trends in the urban settings due to the urban buoyant migrants. Urbanization and industrialization effect on urban landscape environment leads to breakdown of sanitations, water-borne diseases associated with inadequate  and unsafe drinking water supply, tendency to use metal, plastic, and mud pots water storage containers, discarded domestic waste misshapen to vector breeding habitats containers, urban heat island, garbage waste disposal, liquid waste from dwellings, and industries, air pollution (dust, pollen and spores suspended as particles, Sulphur Dioxide-SO2, nitrogen oxides-NO, Carbonate-CO3, depletion of Oxygen O2, Ozone-O3, Methane  Gas- CH₄, Lead- Pb,  Mercury- Hg etc.,), exonerated by the industries and urban transport emissions, modern transport / shipping goods and services, and collectively hazard to human health through erratic infectious diseases and vector borne diseases immediately.

Open Access Review Article

Studies on Integrated Nutrient Management of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata l.): A Review

Bimesh Dahal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 148-154
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1130526

There are many management methods for nutrient which can be specifically applied in farming systems. Integrated nutrient management (INM) generally denotes the combined use of organic and chemical fertilizers for producing crops in a sustainable manner and to maintain soil fertility as well as to supply nutrient in appropriate amount which consider social, ecological and economic impacts. This paper shows the importance and need of INM in agriculture production. Also, the relation of INM and yield attributes are analyzed and evaluated including growth and physical attributes of cowpea. The status of nutrient uptake by plant is also described along with other physical and chemical properties of soil. Finally, this paper also describes about the biofertilizer and its relation, impact and effect on crop production which can be used as a improved technology with the combination of other nutrient management practices.