Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Crop Management Practices on Growth, Yield, Quality, Economics of Buckeye Rot, Alternaria Disease of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) var. Solan Lalima

Shilpa ., Priyanka Bijalwan, Y. R. Shukla, Sandeep K. Kansal, K. S. Thakur

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i530669

A study was carried out for two successive years (2017/2018 and 2018/2019) in the Research Farm of Vegetable Science, Dr YSP, UHF, Nauni, Solan, HP. The maximum value for number of flower clusters per plant (12.64), number of fruits per cluster (6.51), fruit weight (80.47 g), number of fruits per plot (140.71 kg) and yield per hectare (992.94 q) were obtained in treatment module P1M1T1 (raised bed, black polythene mulch and two stem training system). Pericarp thickness (4.99 mm), TSS (5.10 degree Brix) and lycopene content (6.42 mg per 100 g of fresh fruit) was also found best for the same treatment combination. The incidence of buckeye rot (3.46 %) and Alternaria leaf bight (2.80 %) was minimum in P1M1T1 (raised bed, black polythene mulch and two stem training system). The treatment combination P1M1T1 (raised bed, black mulch and two stem training system) also produced highest cost benefit ratio (3.84 %).

Open Access Original Research Article

Sedimentation in East Coast Hilly Terrain Reservoirs; Balimela, Odisha

Siba Prasad Mishra, Abhisek Mishra, Chandan Kumar, Saswat Mishra

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 15-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i530670

Globally reservoirs behind dams are changing their hydrologic cycle under a shifting climate. Sediment, the flagship for water resources projects provide negative impact on environment and dam benefits. Sedimentation behind dams is continuous, regular through sequential paths that comprises of erosion, entrainment, transference from upper basin and deposition within the reservoirs. Present study envisages the morphometric study of the Balimela Reservoir active from 1972. The downloading of Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote sensing (RS) data from LANDSATS and making Stream order, Contour, slope and aspect maps by constructing Digital Elevation Model using the various Arc-GIS tools. The average bifurcation ratio is  safe.. Considering the water-spread areas at various elevations of the years 2000, 2002, 2013, 2016, 2019 and 2022, the sediment deposits and reduction of storage volume by 29.945% by Jan 2022 since first impounding. The dam housed in hilly terrains, so there is less increase of catchment erosion except deforestation. The water from the dam optimally used by both the states Odisha and Andhra Pradesh. Preparation and strict adherence of concrete reservoir operation rule, upstream proper upstream maintenance and best catchment treatment plans shall increase the dam’s longevity and utilities.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Biomass and Enzymatic Activity of Major Cropping Systems in Soils of Inceptisols and Vertisols at Northern Telangana

V. Shalini, A. Krishna Chaithanya, K. Chandrashaker, C. H. Aruna Kumari

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 50-56
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i530671

Under cropping systems, microbial biomass plays a major role in nutrient and energy flow of soil. Similarly, urease and dehydrogenase activities are essential for nitrogen cycle and determining biological index of soils, respectively. However, their information is minimal at major cropping systems of this region. Therefore, surface soil (00-15 cm) samples were collected after 8 years from rice-rice, rice-maize, cotton and turmeric-sesame cropping systems at soils of Inceptisols and Vertisols of Northern Telangana zone during kharif 2019. A five replicated soil samples were collected, assessed and statistically analyzed with factorial randomized block design. The results revealed that the forms of microbial biomass carbon (14%) and nitrogen (22%), urease (29%) and dehydrogenase (20%) activity were found to be higher in cropping systems under Vertisols compared to Inceptisols. Among the cropping systems, rice-rice showed significantly higher biological properties than others. The interactions are significant for urease activity. Urease and dehydrogenase activity is positively correlated with soil available nitrogen and organic carbon content of soils, respectively of cropping systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Fungicides against Bipolaris sorokiniana under in vitro and in vivo Conditions

Pankaj Tiwari, D. N. Shukla, Ramesh Singh, Rohit Tiwari

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i530672

Spot blotch of wheat caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana could be effectively and economically controlled by two foliar sprays of either Propiconazole or Hexaconazole @ 0.1 per cent at fifteen days interval but on the basis of cost- benefit ratio Hexaconazole had an edge over Propiconazole. The harmful effects of fungicides to human and environment, there have been proved useful and economical in the control of spot blotch. Non systemic and systemic foliar fungicides belonging to the dithiocarbamate and Triazoles are found to be effective. Foliar applications of systemic fungicides between heading and grain filling stages, are cost effective. Propiconazole, Hexaconazole and Difenaconazole + Propiconazole at 250 ppm completely inhibited the mycelial growth of B. sorokiniana. Carbendazim and Copper oxychloride also causes and complete inhibition but at 500 and 1000 ppm, respectively but Mancozeb could not give complete inhibition even at 1000 ppm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Feasibility and Product Maturity of Compost Developed from Poultry Waste in Temperate Agroclimate of Kashmir Region

Irfan Akram Baba, Mohammad Tufail Banday, Hilal Musadiq Khan, Azmat Alam Khan, Islam U. Din Sheikh, Rouf A. Patoo, Zufisha Anjum

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 41-49
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i530673

Present work was carried out in the Department of LPM, FVSc and AH (SKUAST- Kashmir) to assess the feasibility and compost maturity in terms of temperature and bio-mineral (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) changes due to composting of poultry waste under the temperate agro-climatic conditions of Kashmir Valley. Poultry waste in the form of poultry carcass (including feathers) and litter manure was used for this study. Four treatment groups with four replicates each were formulated as: G1: Poultry carcass; litter manure, G2: Poultry carcass; litter manure; Paddy straw, G3: Poultry carcass; litter manure; effective microbes (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhodopseudomonas palustris) and G4: Poultry carcass; litter manure; Paddy straw; effective microbes. During the primary stage of composting the group G4 had attained a significantly (P<0.05) highest peak temperature (0C) of 59.0±5.04 and 59.50±5.04 respectively during winter and summer seasons. Significantly (P<0.05) highest nitrogen content of 24.7 g/Kg was observed in group G4 at the end of secondary stage during summer season. The phosphorus content in end product of composting was significantly (P<0.05) highest (1.0 g/Kg) in group G4 during summer season. Similarly significantly (P<0.05) highest K content of 10.23 g/Kg was observed in group G4 during summer season. It was concluded that the addition of paddy straw and effective microbes assistant the composting process and yield better bio-mineral values and higher temperature gain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standardization of Irrigation and Fertigation Requirement for Snake Gourd under Rain Shelter

A. Saji, A. Hussain, G. Patidar, A. S. Diveena, A. Jinu, A. Wilson

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 57-65
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i530674

Aim: The study entitled “standardization of irrigation and fertigation requirement for snake gourd under rain shelter” was taken up to standardize the irrigation and fertigation requirement of snake gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina) of Manusree variety under rain shelter.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was performed in instructional farm of PFDC, KCAET, Tavanur, Kerala, between October 2020 and January 2021.

Methodology: Penman Monteith method was used for the determination of crop water requirement and irrigation scheduling. There were three levels of irrigation i.e., T1 – 60%, T2 – 80% and T3 – 100% of ETc and three levels of fertigation viz: R1 – 100%, R2 – 125% and R3- 150% of recommended dose of fertilizer. Different crop and soil parameters and yield is noted in each bed.

Results: The treatment T3R3 showed comparatively better performance in yield and other growth characteristics as compared to the other treatment. These plants yield longer fruits and bloomed early compared to other fertigation levels. The cultivation is found to be feasible since the benefit cost ratio is greater than one. The result of the study can be used as a guide for the farmers to plan their irrigation and cropping pattern. Also the result can be extrapolated to the future to analyse the trends in future crop water demands.

Conclusion: The farming can run feasibly if we follow precision farming. Through this study we got that the optimum water content of snake gourd is 100%of Etc and 150% fertigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Development of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as Influenced by Different Levels and Timing of Phosphogypsum Nutrition

Sheri Vaishnav, M. R. Ananda, Madam Vikramarjun, Poojitha Kommireddy

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 80-83
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i530676

Aims: A field experiment entitled “Growth and development of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as influenced by different levels and timing of phosphogypsum nutrition” was planned to ascertain the role of phosphogypsum an industrial by product in promoting growth of groundnut.

Study Design:  Experiment was carried out at Agronomy field unit, Zonal Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore, during kharif 2019. Experiment was planned with eleven treatments of which eight received sulphur through phosphogypsum at different levels (50, 75, 100 and 125 kg S eq ha-1) as basal and split (30 DAS) and one through gypsum (500 kg ha-1) as basal. Whereas, other two treatments with NPK and NK alone are included for comparison. Design of the experiment is RCBD with eleven treatments replicated thrice.

Results: Among different treatments, application of phosphogypsum 125 kg S eq ha-1 in split recorded highest growth parameters like plant height (42.49 cm), leaf area (1137 cm2 plant-1), dry matter per plant (29.30 g) and number of branches plant‑1 (8.62). Whereas, application of phosphogypsum 100 kg S eq ha‑1 in split found on par with 125 kg with respect to all growth parameters. While lowest values of all the parameters were noticed in treatment receiving N and K fertilizer alone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trends in Streamflow in Relation to Water Retention Structures: A Case Study in Bharathpuzha River Basin, India

Anu Varughese, M. S. Hajilal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 84-96
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i530677

Lack of availability of land, water and other natural resources along with climate change has caused a major threat for increasing the agricultural production on par with the increasing population. Bharathapuzha river is considered as the cradle of civilization in Kerala state, India. The river flow is highly affected by increased water use and reduced recharge caused due to increasing population, urbanization and unscientific management practices. Even though, watershed development activities in river basins help in conserving water in the upstream areas for agricultural, domestic and other uses, very few research have been done to understand its effect on the flow regime in the lower reaches. A number of dams, check dams and other conservation structures have been constructed in Bharathapuzha catchment area during the past and hence its effect on the downstream flow need to be studied. The calibrated and validated SWAT model was applied to Bharathapuzha river basin for studying the impact of watershed interventions on the water balance of the area. The simulated monthly streamflow was analyzed during 2007 to 2011 after addition of Water Retention Structures (WRS) @ 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% of the land area. The results indicated that even though the total annual flow decreased, the flow during the summer months (baseflow) increased due to the addition of the conservation structures. The increase in river flow was highest during the period January to April when the river had lean flow. It was found that SWAT model can be used as an effective tool to study the impact of water retention structures in a watershed. The conservation structures help to store water in the upper reaches for irrigation and domestic purpose, and at the same time it helps in increasing the summer flow. This helps to maintain a better environmental flow regime. Hence while planning the conservation measures in a watershed so as to meet the demand of the upstream users, care should be taken to avoid the negative impact that can happen in the downstream.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Adoption and Factors Determining the Adoption of Recommended Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) Practices by the Farmers of Telangana State

C. Yuvaraj, K. Ravi Shankar, I. Sreenivasa Rao, K. Supriya, A. D. Sailaja, G. Sreenivas

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 97-103
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i530678

A study was conducted to identify the adoption of various Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) practices and factors determining the adoption of recommended CSA practices. Expost facto research design were followed and selected 300 respondents by using random sampling method indicated that majority of the farmers coming under the category of medium (59.7%) extent of adoption of various CSA practices followed by high (30.7%) and low (9.7%). The factors determining the adoption of CSA practices were grouped under seven categories namely Personal, Social, Economic, Environmental, Technological, Marketing and Transfer of technology.

Majority of the farmers have size of land holding is very small, followed by the constraint of lack of awareness about adaption strategies were major constraint faced by the farmers. Most of the farmers are not inclined much to be in touch with the changes in environmental climate change, this trend may be due to the idiosyncratic behaviour established by the virtue of their medium to old age, less education and possessing low degree of other profile characteristics and majority of them seemed to be not following the WBAAS regularly as they were taking up the farm activities naturally with time. Then Non availability of the recommended inputs in the market and sometimes due to shortage of the availability of quality inputs, traders sell the inputs at high cost resulting in non-adoption of input intensive CSA technologies. Poor availability and accessibility to short duration drought tolerant crop varieties were observed as a hindrance factors in the adoption of CSA technologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Association Analysis of Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf) Shinn) Advanced Lines Under Mid Hill Conditions of Himachal Pradesh, India

M. R. Dhiman, Raj Kumar, Chander Parkash, Sandeep Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 104-115
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i530679

The present investigation was designed to assess the extent of variability, genetic advance, heritability and interrelation of different traits of 19 lisianthus genotypes at ICAR-IARI Regional Station, Katrain, Kullu, HP during 2019–2021. The mean performance of different genotypes exhibited considerable range together with large value for most of the characters. The trend of variability at genotypic level was similar to that of at phenotypic for some of the characters. The path analysis clearly indicated that total number of flowers per plant was directly associated with plant height and number of shoots per plant. It is imperative that these traits should be prioritized while improving number of flowers per plant in lisianthus. The cluster analysis revealed existence of diversity among the evaluated genotypes. The first principal component analysis (PCA) score explained 33.798% of the total variation mainly associated to genotype and flower yield. The PCA biplot was effective in showing the genetic distance among the genotypes and their discrimination based on key traits of importance in lisianthus. Genotypes Ktlis-1, Ktlis-17, Ktlis-5, Ktlis-9 and Ktlis-7 were superior among the tested genotypes therefore could be exploited in lisianthus breeding to improve flower yield. Hence, the characters showing high heritability along with high genetic gain should be given due attention in the development of desirable genotypes through simple selection. Further, Genotypes from different clusters identified for specific characters may be used as parent for lisianthus breeding programme with an objective to improve the specific traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Soil Physico-chemical Properties in Rice Based Cropping Systems of Long Term Fertilizer Experiments

P. Sowmya, K. Surekha, K. Pavan Chandra Reddy, P. C. Latha

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 116-121
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i530680

Soil samples collected from All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Programme from three different locations initiated in 1989-90 viz. Maruter(Andhra Pradesh-Rice Rice cropping system), Titabar (Assam-Rice Rice cropping system) and Mandya-(Karnataka- Rice Cowpea cropping system); with 8 treatments involving combinations of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients and three replications laid under Randomized Block Design, were collected, processed and analyzed for different soil physicochemical properties viz. pH, EC, OC and CEC properties to study the effect of varied fertilization practices in the long run which help in assessing the soil health status. Results showed that over 30 years of continuous experimentation the soils physico-chemical properties did not vary significantly among different treatments except organic carbon content. It ranged from 0.52-0.63%, 0.22-0.31% and 0.26-0.40% in Maruteru, Titabar and Mandya respectively. The results clearly brought out that monocropping over 30 years without any manures and fertilizers completely resulted in the depletion of nutrients. Inclusion of the pulse crop (cowpea) improved the soil fertility status especially in organic carbon

Open Access Review Article

Role of Integrated Nutrient Management on Oat: A Review

Saikat Biswas, Rupa Das

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 66-79
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i530675

Food security and environmental safety are the two important areas receiving major setback with the use of chemical fertilizers. Sustainable food supply in response to population demand urges for a paradigm shift from chemical-based agriculture to some eco-friendly approaches. Integrated nutrient management or combined approach of using different sources of nutrients is relevant in this context as it optimisez profitable crop production and improves soil health without deteriorating environment further. Food supply not only comes from agriculture but also from livestock sector. Therefore, cultivation of dual purpose (food and fodder) crop like oat is gaining importance day by day. Adequate nutrition to oat directly reflects on livestock and human nutrition. Researches around the globe indicate that integrated nutrient management in oat is now gaining momentum as it holds good promise as a successful replacement of sole chemical fertilizer. However, poor extension service and lack of policies make this technology to remain as a dormant. Therefore, further research works regarding integrated nutrient management on oat and its true transfusion to farming community are the needs of the hour to protect livestock and human food security and to free the environment from clutches of chemical hazards in coming days.

Open Access Review Article

Lentil Breeding: Present State and Future Prospects

Anil Kumar, P. Yadav, . Seema, R. R. Kumar, A. Kushwaha, Md. H. Rashid, N. Tarannum

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 122-132
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i530710

Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is one of the vital grain legume crops that originated from L. culinaris Medik.ssp. orientalisin the Near East. It is an essential food source that is capable of contributing energy, proteins and iron to human diet. Major concern of lentil producing countries is to have a stable high seed yield in addition to resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses. The activities of domestication and selection in the course of crop evolution have led to reduction in genetic variation in the current cultivars and species, which is a major drawback for lentil breeding. The improvement of many monogenic traits has been carried out by conventional breeding techniques like selection and recombination. However, these improvements still lack in addressing economic traits like yield as they are governed by polygenes and G x E interaction. Various species in the genus Lens can aid to enhancement of genetic variation for target lentil traits to develop new varieties. Induced mutagenesis is another vital breeding method which can ease the availability of lentil genomic resources. Commendable success stories in applications of molecular markers and biotechnological techniques will further speed-up the development of improved varieties. This review article majourly dealt on present status on genetic improvement in lentil and a compendium of important aspects of lentil diversity, genetics and breeding with the way forward.