##### Adoption of Drought Mitigation Strategies in Irrigated Cropping System of Madurai District

K. Mahandrakumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 673-677
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030849

In drought situation, farmers in Irrigated ecosystem often faced financial losses due to uncertainty of occurrence of drought event. With the intention of minimizing impact of drought through application of science and technology, drought management plans are implemented by government.  The outcome of   government supported mitigation strategies was studied. The result revealed that only less number of farmer have adopted technological mitigation strategies on their own. Conducting demonstrations, trainings and supply of critical mitigation inputs through development departments must be continued to educate the farmers to adopt the mitigation measures.

##### Estimation of Meteorological Drought in Bhavanisagar Block using Weather Cock Software as a Tool

M. Rajavel, V. Guhan, V. Vakeswaran, K. Bhuvaneswari, R. Gowtham, S. Priyanka

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1082-1087
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030902

Drought happen aimlessly and there is no periodicity in its event and can't be anticipated ahead of time. In semiarid stations, the event of precipitation is occasional and is known something else for its changeability regarding reality. Meteorological drought is characterized as the time of drawn-out dry weather pattern because of underneath ordinary precipitation. Drought is an extensive stretch of incredibly low precipitation that essentially affects crop result and individuals' prosperity. Recent study has made substantial progress in understanding drought in Tamil Nadu, as well as the implications of climate change, but more research is needed because regional climatic responses remain unknown. The Meteorological Drought Indicator was also a useful and appropriate index for drought monitoring in the research area since it provided drought analysis on a variety of timeframes. This study might help us better understand the features of drought.

##### Redundancy of Respiratory Humidification & Dysfunction of Defence Mechanisms at Upper Airways of Large Number of People Due to Cumulative Adverse Effects of Climate Change -The Root Cause of the COVID-19 Outbreak

Makarand Anand Phadke. B. E. Mechanical

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 314-321
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030800

The COVID-19 has returned in the form of an outbreak of new variants. Viruses have evolved and accompanied mankind from times immemorial but seem to be increasingly threatening the survival of the human race especially in the last four decades. Various theories are available with respect to initial transmissions to humans yet none is endorsed in totality. At the same time climate change poses the greatest threat to human health and its effects are more pronounced in the last four decades than ever before. The purpose of this perspective is to establish scientifically a correlation between the outbreak of COVID-19 or its variants and climate change. This presentation is based on hitherto overlooked yet proven physics and engineering involved in the human respiratory humidification. Respiratory humidification is a uniquely evolved process of Natural Selection to withstand complex and dynamic environments. As COVID-19 is a respiratory viral disease, the gas exchange mechanism and human body’s normal temperature and alveolar air parameters are first explained to justify its uniqueness. A step by step review of physics and engineering involved in respiratory humidification is also done. It is then analyzed in context of Climate Change of a location and its impact on inspired air parameters. Based on Meteorological Data of Wuhan; the place of COVID-19 outbreak; it is established that the Climate Change resulted in redundancy of respiratory humidification and dysfunction of associated immune defence mechanisms of many inhabitants and facilitated viruses like SARS-CoV-2 an unchallenged access to the lungs. The outbreak of COVID-19 and subsequent pandemic was its outcome.

##### Pre-sowing Seed Treatment of Chemicals, Botanicals, Plant Growth Regulators on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributing Traits of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) under Late Sowing Conditions var. Uma

Pratik Ananthwar, Abhinav Dayal, Prashant Kumar Rai, Neha Thomas, Prashant Ankur Jain

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1067-1076
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030900

The experiment was conducted at Field Experimentation and Farm Research Centre, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, (Rabi season, 2020-21) Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P.). The experimental material for present experiment comprised of thirteen priming treatments on linseed seed. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Linseed seeds of variety Uma was subjected to various pre sowing treatments like MnSO4,FeSO4 Pongamia leaf powder, Arappu leaf powder, Notchi leaf powder, Kinetin at various concentrations along with distilled water control. The study revealed that linseed seeds treated with Pongamia leaf powder T6 (5%) showed maximum field emergence (97.48%), plant height 60 days (77.46cm) and 90 days (92.69cm) no of primary branches per plant (5.97),no of seeds per capsule (8.95),no of capsules per plant (25.91), test weight (9.43), seed yield per plant (4.78g), seed yield per plot (128.4g), biological yield (8.26), harvest index (79.53) and reduced days to 50% flowering (65.89), days to maturity (115.89), followed by kinetin T12 50(ppm), in comparison to control T0.

##### Status of Genomic Research in Non-basmati Aromatic Joha Rice of Assam

Nayanmoni Borah, Ramendra Nath Sarma, Vedant Vikrom Borah, Partha Pratim Behera

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 338-347
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030805

Many natively adapted, aromatic, and high-quality rice landraces can be found in NE India. Among the different classes of cultivated rice varieties, Assam has a distinctive scented rice variety known locally as 'joha,' which is particularly popular among the region's farmers. The aroma of joha rice is also thought to differ markedly from that of basmati rice. Genotype stability can be established through genetic variation. Thus, new disease resistant joha rice varieties are necessary to meet both domestic and worldwide demand. There is a need for conservation of this traditional aromatic joha rice germplasm which could be used in the future breeding programme for multiple disease resistance and grain and aroma quality traits improvement. The recent advancements in marker and genomics assisted breeding coupled with high-throughput genotyping and phenotyping enable the discovery of novel alleles and gene targets for the implementation of sustainable rice cultivars with improved grain aroma quality.

##### Safeguarding National Developments against Climate Change: Cost Implications on Sectors, Services and Assets

Julius R. Atlhopheng

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 678-687
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030850

The world has come to terms with the alarming impacts of climate change, and their costs which are both monetary, and non-monetary. Increasing emissions and their global warming bearings, have resulted in disequilibrium of the climate system, and the associated ecosystems. This makes mitigation (low carbon strategies) to be essential. With the current world being on a high carbon trajectory, there is need for transition. A move in the energy sector (away from fossil fuel intensity), building the right financial investments, transitions in the planning (e.g. transform market systems for sustainability), policies and livelihood choices that acknowledge limits to planetary provisions, and, to safeguard humanity. The planet is on an increasingly unfamiliar trajectory, hence uncertainty to support lives as before. However, COP26 and the IPCC 2021 report indicated shortfalls in mitigation ambitions, which are needed to bring the planet back on track. Emissions need to be cut, to realise the Paris Agreement objectives, as well as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as climate change has far-reaching negative impacts, due to its cross-cutting nature. There are data gaps on the costs of current climate change i.e. the mitigation and adaptation costs, at national levels. The data would enable ease of implementation, build standardisation through agreed tables and formats, for accounting and reporting, and the necessary targets. Thus national plans, policies, technologies, institutional frameworks, business sector response mechanisms, and livelihood choices need to respond, so that the planet remains sustainable. The conclusions of this overview indicate that, national plans, those of private sector and of the citizenry need to escalate sustainability to a higher level. Most impacts of climate change would add to costs of production, heighten risks, and bring more uncertainty as well as negatively disrupting services and industries. The climate action needs to prioritize costs of climate change, to inform action on the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), SDGs, livelihood assets and lead to the building of right investments. These are underlined by partnerships for delivery, governance, data interventions, and inclusion, in a world which is increasingly exhibiting inequalities, and their associated vulnerabilities. All these have mitigation and adaptation costs, which need to be part of Paris Agreement compliance frameworks for Parties/nations.

##### Assessment of Rice Hybrids on Growth, Yield and Economics under Different Agro-climatic Conditions in India

Golla Shantha Kumar, Vikram Singh, Shruti Grace George, . Vivek

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030765

The field experimental trial was carried out during kharif season 2021 at CRF SHUATS, Prayagraj, U.P. Experiment was laid out in statistically Randomized Block Design (RBD). The soil of experimental field was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.2), low in organic carbon (0.35%), available nitrogen (108 kg/ha), P2O5 (22.15 kg/ha) and available K2O (280 kg/ha). The experimental result revealed that the hybrid UR-16 has recorded significantly higher in growth and yield attributes.  Growth attributes viz., Plant height (120.57 cm), Number of tillers/hill (15.07), Maximum dry weight (55.91 g). Yield attributes viz., Panicle length (28.41 cm), Test weight (26.48 g) and yields viz., Grain yield per hill (28.37 g), Grain yield (6.85 t/ha), Straw yield (12.96 t/ha) and the same hybrid has also obtained maximum gross returns (589860.00 INR/ha), net returns (95174.00 INR/ha), and B:C ratio (1.76).

##### Rainfall Variability and Trend Analysis Over Nguru Yobe State, Nigeria

Yusuf Dawa Sidi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 6-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030768

Aims: This study aimed to analyze rainfall variation in a semi-arid environment by examining the annual precipitation over Nguru in Yobe, Nigeria for a period of 31 years (1975-2005).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Nguru town, an arid environment in Yobe State of Nigeria using rainfall data from Nguru meteorological station from 1975-2005.

Methods: Coefficient of variability (CV) was used to evaluate rainfall variability over time in the area, and non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Sen’s slope estimator were used to determine rainfall trend and its magnitude in the study area. The investigation was based on data collected over a 31-year period at a single site.

Results: The result indicates that the coefficient of variation CV for the annual rainfall in Nguru revealed a moderate inter annual variability (25%), whereas the CV for seasonal rainfall demonstrates that rainfall in the May June July monsoon period is highly variable between seasons (more than 40%). The CV for the August September October monsoon period, on the other hand, was 31.6%, indicating a considerable and high variability in total rainfall received.

Conclusion: The main conclusion of this study is that rainfall is highly variable over the years, posing a threat to climate change-induced drought and, as a result, affecting the socio-economic well-being of the people in the area, who are mostly peasant farmers who rely solely on agricultural activities for their livelihood.

##### Assessing Impact of Projected Climate Change on Sali Rice in a Representative District of Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam

Nikhil S. Paschapur, Kuldip Medhi, Kushal Sarmah, Bondita Goswami, Santanu K. Bal, Abburi V. M. Subbarao, Anjan K. Sarmah

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 16-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030769

Three years of field trial along with DSSAT v4.6 CERES-Rice model-based simulation experiment was carried out to study the impact of climate change on Sali rice yield under various Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) in the agro-climatic conditions of Jorhat, Assam. Field experiments were conducted during kharif, 2017, 2018 and 2019 at the Instructional-Cum-Research (ICR) farm of Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat with three varieties viz., Mahsuri (150 days), Swarna Sub-1 (140-145 days) and TTB-404 (140-145 days); transplanted under three different micro-climatic regimes created by manipulating date of transplanting i.e., 26th June (early), 11th July (mid) and 26th July (late) under split plot experimental design with four replications. The validated model showed a good agreement for estimation of days required to attain different phenological stages with RMSE value 3.5, 2.9 and 2.9 days for Swarna sub-1; 2.4, 3.3 and 4.1 days for Mahsuri and 3.7, 2.6 and 2.4 days for TTB-404, respectively for panicle initiation, anthesis and physiological maturity. The overall d-stat value varied within 0.53 to 0.85 for phenology and 0.68 to 0.79 for grain yield. The ensemble weather data under four RCPs revealed an increase in mean maximum (0.3 to 3.0°C) and minimum (0.8 to 3.5°C) temperatures along with rainfall (11.8 to 43.4%) during the crop growing period compared to experimentation period (i.e. 2017-19) in three projected years. The grain yield of Sali rice showed positive deviation in all four RCPs and projected years under successive transplanting dates. The overall results reveal an increase in mean temperature up to 3°C during the crop growing period has no substantial adverse impact on grain yield of Sali rice under the agro-climatic condition of Jorhat, Assam.

##### Enhancement of Seed Germination and Seedling Vigour in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) by Native Microbial Consortia

C. Lalhruaitluangi, N. Tiameren Ao, L. Daiho, Susanta Banik, M. Aleminla Ao, S. P. Kanaujia

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 31-37
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030770

Several biocontrol agents are being employed as one of the alternative methods to chemical measures in agricultural system to manage plant diseases as well as promoting, plant growth and development.Various studies have shown that combination of two or more beneficial microorganisms can have synergistic effect. The present The present study was conducted in 2019 at Department of Plant Pathology, SASRD, Nagaland University to check out the efficacy of indigenous compatible microbial consortia on plant growth promoting activities like seed germination, seedling vigour index, shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weight of shoot and roots by standard filter paper method Three microbial consortia were prepared using native isolates of Trichoderma and Pseudomonas fluorescens.T1[ (P. fluorescens P-7 + Trichoderma sp. T-5 + Trichoderma sp. T-11), T2 (P.fluorescens P-12 + Trichoderma sp. T-5 + Trichoderma sp. T-11), T3 (P. fluorescens P-7 + P.fluorescens P-12+Trichoderma sp. T-5 + Trichoderma sp. T-11. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) and five replications were maintained for each treatment.The result showed that, T3 significantly increased vigour index of tomato seedlings (93.24 %), including germination per cent (20.84 %), shoot length (61%) and root length (59.36 %) over control at 10 DAS. On the basis of findings, all the tested microbial consortia had significantly promoted the plant growth over control where T3was the best among the tested microbial consortia exhibiting plant growth promoting potential for commercial exploitation.

##### Influence of Sulphur and Zinc on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 93-97
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030773

Aim: To study the retaliation performances of Sulphur and zinc on growth, yield and yield attributes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculate L.)

Place and Duration of Study A field experiment was carried out during kharif season of 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh, India.

Methodology: The Experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with Ten treatments which were replicated thrice. with treatment combination of (T1 to T10) T1 20 kg/ha S + 10 kg/ha Zn, T2. 20 kg/ha S + 15 kg/ha Zn, T3. 20 kg/ha S + 20 kg/ ha Zn, T4. 30 kg/ha S + 10 kg/ha Zn, T5. 30 kg/ha S + 15 kg/ha Zn, T6. 30 kg/ha S + 20 kg/ha Zn, T7. 45 kg/ha S + 10 kg/ha Zn, T8. 45 kg/ha S + 15 kg/ha Zn, T9. 45 kg/ha S + 20 kg/ha Zn, T10 Control were used.

Result: Among various sulphur and zinc combinations T9 treatment recorded maximum

Plant height (75.64 cm), plant dry weight (67.90g/plant), number of branches per plant (9.66), harvest index (47.93 %), gain yield (13.67 q/ha), straw yield (15.26 q/ha).

Conclusion: It was determined that the application of Sulphur – 45 kg/ha + Zinc – 20 kg/ha resulted in a higher grain yield (13.67 q/ha), which was significantly superior to the other treatments.

##### Anthropocene Trails on Geomorphology of Meghalayan Chilika Basin Odisha

Siba Prasad Mishra, Abhisek Mishra, Chandan Kumar, Saswat Mishra

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 98-113
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030774

The Chilika gulf in the pre-Meghalayan era has transformed into Greater Chilika, later a leaky lagoon and now downsizing. During early Anthropocene epoch (1950) became a restricted lagoon with the stable southern half of the barrier spit and fragile the northerly half. The sediment balance governed by the inland riverine flood flows from south Mahanadi delta (SMD), and through diurnal tides during other periods. The present anthropogenic development are the emerging Bhubaneswar capital (1948), rising population, and peripheral growth of urbans. Chilika, have deteriorated its eco-bio-hydro system and its associated delta. The anthropogenic interventions to flow by dams, barrages, new mouth dredging, Gobakund cut and natural sea-level changes, frequent storms, high waves, and longshore drift, have altered the geomorphology of the area. The present search envisages the physical changes that occurred in about 6000km2 of study area. The Remote Sensing and GIS technology and the ERDAS software tool were in use to concoct for the years 1984, 1994 and 2022, and compared the basic geophysical features geospatially (1975 to 2022). The erratic changes have developed over the lacustrine area, tidal inlets variability, increase in stable barrier spit and ecosystem with the land slamming of storms. Excess tourism activities, exploitation of fishery, motorized communications, poaching and increase of stakeholders have lost its forests, hills, solitude, and tranquility within.

##### Effect of Spacing and Biofertilizer on Yield and Economic of Black Gram (Vigna mungo L.)

Peruru Sasidhar, Shika Singh, Bevara Asiri Naidu, Y. Rajeeva Subash Chandra, S. Malleswari, Neeraganti Mohan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 114-120
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030775

A field experiment was carried out during zaid season of 2021 at crop research farm of SHUATS, Prayagraj to study about the Effect of Spacing and Biofertilizer on growth and yield of Black gram (Vigna mungo L.) The experiment was laid out in randomized block design by keeping three spacing levels, i.e. S - (20 x 10 cm), S2 – (25 x 10 cm) and S3 – (30 x 10 cm) and Biofertilizers i.e. PSB and Rhizobium and which was replicated three. Results revealed that spacing of 30 x 10 cm + Rhizobium , PSB  recorded significantly higher in plant height (43.88 cm), number of branches per plant  (6.81),  number of nodules per plant (25.84), number of pods per plant (37.30), number of seeds per pod (7.51) test weight (37.73 g), grain yield (836 kg/ha) and stover yield (2144 kg/ha) and plant dry weight (6.77 g/plant), crop growth rate results are  showed in 20 x 10 cm + Rhizobium + PSB. However, net returns (54550.00 INR/ha) and B:C ratio (2.62) was also obtained with the application of spacing 30 x 10 cm + Rhizobium + PSB. Therefore I concluded that spacing of 30 cm x 10 cm + Rhizobium + PSB was produced more grains (836 kg/ha) and economic effect (2.62).

##### Studies on Variability, Correlation and Path Analysis for Seedling Vigour Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

P. Sadhana, Ch. Damodar Raju, K. Bhargava, L. V. Subba Rao, Aparna Kuna

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 121-130
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030776

The research work was undertaken in Kharif, 2019 at Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, PJTS Agriculture University, to identify lines with good vigour and high yield. Analysis of variance revealed existence of significant differences among the genotypes. Dry weight of seedling followed by seedling vigour index-II had showed high PCV and GCV. Germination (%) -first count, length of shoot, length of root, dry weight of seedling, seedling vigour index-I, seedling vigour index-II and field emergence exhibited high heritability along with high genetic advance as per cent of mean. Length of seedling, seedling vigour index-II and germination (%) -first count exhibited the high positive direct effect on per plant grain yield. Among all the traits Seedling vigour index-II and dry weight of seedling has shown high variability, correlation and cause effect analysis. Therefore, these traits have to be given importance during selection process for identification of high vigour rice lines.

##### Effect of Cotton Stalks Residues to Check Fertility Level of Soil, Yield and Energetics of Sweet Corn

K. Bhargavi Reddy, M. Malla Reddy, B. Padmaja, T. Srijaya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 131-135
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030777

A field experiment on Impact of incorporation of shredded cotton stalks to influence soil fertility status along with production of succeeding sweet corn was organized at college farm, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad in the midst of rabi 2020-21. The demonstration was proportioned in Randomized Block Design (factorial) and replicated thrice. Treatments contain two residue management viz., Shredded cotton stalks incorporation and no incorporation and five levels of fertility levels viz., control, 75% RDF, 100% RDF, 125% RDF and 150% RDF (Recommended Dose of Fertilizer). Incorporation of cotton stalks did not significantly influenced the grain and fodder yield. Grain and Fodder yield was significantly higher in 125% RDF which was on par with 150% RDF. Incorporation of cotton stalks @ 5 t ha-1 (Residue management) before sowing of the succeeding sweet corn did not influence the energy ratio, energy productivity, productivity day-1. 125% RDF recorded higher energy ratio, energy productivity, while higher productivity day-1 was observed in 150% RDF.

##### Trend Analysis on Area, Production and Productivity of Chickpea in Different Agro Climatic Regions of Madhya Pradesh

S. C. Srivastava, Megha Sahu, Akhilesh Singh, Sudhir S. Bhadauria

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 136-149
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030778

In this research paper an attempt has been made to take measure the area, production and productivity of chickpea in eleven agro climaticzones of Madhya Pradesh during 1996-97 to 2015-16. The research was carried with the objective, to study trend analysis in area, production, and productivity of chickpea in eleven agro climatic zones of M.P. The secondary time series data on area, production and productivity of chickpea were collected from website of Department of Economics and Statistics. The data pertained to the period of 20 years i.e. from 1996-97 to 2015-16. The findings of the study revealed that area of chickpea shows increasing trend in NH region of Chhattisgarh, Chhattisgarh plains, Satpura plateau, Nimar plains, Vindhya plateau, Kymore and Malwa region while Gird, Bundelkhand, Jhabua and Narmada regions show declining trend for next twenty years. Same as area, production of chickpea in all the regions of M.P. except Bundelkhand show increasing trend while Bundelkhand shows declining trend. NH region of Chhattisgarh, Chhattisgarh plains, Satpura plateau, Jhabua, Nimar plains, Vindhya plateau, Kymore and Malwa regions show increasing trend of productivity and rest of them show declining trend. The co-efficient of variation indicated that, instability in chickpea production exhibited less variation than area and productivity, at overall period.

##### Genetic Divergence in Micronutrient Rich wheat– A Tool to Identify Diverse Parents

Ashish Sheera, Tuhina Dey, Mukesh Kumar Pandey, Tushadri Singh, Taruna bhagat, Shruthi K

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 150-156
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030779

Aim: To Study genetic divergence in the micronutrient rich lines to identify diverse parents for hybridization.

Study Design: Randomized Complete Block Design

Place and Duration of Study: Division of Plant Breeding and Genetics, She-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu during rabi 2019-20.

Methodology: Nature and magnitude of variability in forty-nine zinc/iron rich genotypes along with three commercial varieties with stripe rust resistance could be grouped into five clusters using D2–Statistics.

Results: Fifty-two lines were placed in five cluster with most of the micronutrient rich lines lying in cluster I except for HP-44 , HP 49 , HP 14 and HP 13 placed in cluster II, III, IV and V respectively indicating them to be divergent than the rest. Further HD 3086, RSP 561 and JAUW-683 were in the cluster I indicating them to be less diverse with respect to traits under study. The traits that contributed mast towards divergence were grain yield per plant(25) percent followed by number of tillers per plant (20.7) percent and 1000 grain weight (14) percent zinc and iron add little contribution of 8 and 7 percent respectively to the total divergence hence could not classified the genotypes into different cluster based on inter cluster distance Cluster III and Cluster V had the greatest inter-cluster distance, followed by Cluster III and Cluster IV, Cluster II and Cluster V, and Cluster II and Cluster IV.

Conclusion: Developing wheat varieties with enhanced content of iron and zinc is one of the most sought objectives in a present world to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. Modern wheat varieties exhibit little diversity in zinc and iron levels in the grain, but large-scale screening has found significant amounts of zinc and iron in wild relatives and progenitors of cultivated wheat.

##### Influence of Potassium, Secondary (Mg) and Micronutrients (Zn & B) on Growth, Yield Attributes and Yield of Bt -Cotton

D. Swetha, P. Laxminarayana, G. E. CH. Vidyasagar, S. Narender Reddy, Harish Kumar Sharma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 157-164
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030780

A field experiment was conducted to study the influence of potassium fertilization (K @0, K @60 and K @ 90 kg ha-1) and secondary (Magnesium) and micro nutrients (Zinc and Boron) on growth and yield parameters and yield of cotton hybrid Bt (MRC 7201 BGII) at Hyderabad, India during 2015-16 and 2016-17. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three main treatments and eight sub treatments and replicated thrice. Among the potassium levels, K @ 90 kg ha-1 recorded significantly higher plant height (76.86, 106.13 cm), number of seeds per boll (30.3, 30.9), seed cotton yield (1941, 2591 kg ha-1) and stalk yield (1967, 2755 kg ha-1) during 2015 and 2016. Among secondary (Magnesium) and micro nutrients (Zinc and Boron), Mg1%Zn0.5%B0.1% recorded highest plant height (74.65, 102.80 cm), dry weight (221.39, 243.54 g), number of seeds per boll (29.27, 29.87), seed cotton yield (1941, 2591 kg ha-1) and stalk yield (1967, 2755 kg ha-1) during 2015 and 2016.

##### Economic Analysis of Marigold Flower in Research Farm of IGKV Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

Jeet Raj, Jitendra Sinha, Nilesh Kumar, Nilima Jangre

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 165-170
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030781

In floriculture, marigold is one of India's most important commercially grown flower crops, which ranked third in number after Roses and Chrysanthemum. The present experiment was carried out during the winter season of the year 2019-2020 & 2020-2021 in the laboratory field of the Dept. of SWE, SVCAET &RS, IGKV, Raipur (C.G.) India. To study the economical analysis of Marigold crop cultivation with major constraints, three kinds of growing media was used like Cocopeat, soil and Farm Yard Manure (FYM) in three  different growing containers viz:  Reusable flour bags, conventional grow bags and plastic bottles with all the same growing conditions. In marigold crop production shows that the Reuseable Flour Bag (RFB) produced 13.65 MT flower, followed by plastic bottle (PB) 13.18 MT and Conventional Grow Bag (CGB) 13.03 MT in the same way the net benefit was calculated as highest as 296997.89 /ha in RFB, 249095.86 /ha in plastic bottle and 131078.79 /ha in RFB. The benefit-cost ratio was found to be highest in plastic bottles as 2.093, followed by 1.847 in RFB and 1.277 in CGB.

##### Influence of Biofertilizers and Foliar Application of Seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) Extract on Growth of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)

Mohammed Ali Dalwale, Rajesh Singh, Geshu Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 181-186
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030782

In the Kharif season 2021, the field trial was conducted at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (UP), India. The experiment aims to reduce the impact of harmful chemical amendments in agro-ecosystems. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design with ten treatments, including control with different biofertilizers, viz., Azospirillum sp. 25 g/kg seeds + 5% seaweed, Azospirillum sp. 25 g/kg seeds + 10% seaweed, Azospirillum sp. 25 g/kg seeds + 15% seaweed, PSB 25 g/kg seeds + 5% seaweed, PSB 25 g/kg seeds + 10% seaweed, PSB 25 g/kg seeds + 15% seaweed, Azospirillum sp., PSB: 25, 25 g/kg seeds + 5% seaweed, Azospirillum sp., PSB: 25, 25 g/kg seeds + 10% seaweed, Azospirillum sp., PSB: 25, 25 g/kg seeds + 15% seaweed including control i.e., application of 80: 40:40 kg NPK (farmer’s practice) were replicated thrice. The results revealed dual inoculation by Azospirillum sp. 25 g/kg seeds and PSB 25 g/kg seeds, along with the foliar application of 10% seaweed at 30-50-70 DAS, significantly increased the growth parameters of sorghum viz., plant height (164.07 cm), number of leaves (12.47) dry matter accumulation (116.59 g), absolute growth rate (1.21 g/plant/day), crop growth rate (40.33 g/m2/day) and leaf area (332.33 cm2).

##### Impact of Foliar Application of Zinc and Biofertilizers on Growth of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)

Geshu Singh, Rajesh Singh, Mohammed Ali Dalwale

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 187-193
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030784

The field experiment took place in the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj, during the Kharif season of 2021. (UP), India. The objective of the experiment is to lessen the use of chemical fertilizers by using techniques of integrated nutrient management efficiently without compromising the nutrient availability to the crop, which ultimately reduces the effect of chemicals used in the agroecosystem. The experiment was set up in a Randomized Block Design with ten treatments, including control, replicated thrice using various biofertilizers. viz., Azospirillum species 25 gram/kilogram seeds, Phosphate solubilizing bacteria 25 g/kg seeds and combination of Azospirillum sp. 25 g/kg seeds + PSB 25 g/kg seeds and foliar application of 0.5% zinc at 30, 50 and 30 + 50 days after sowing per hectare. The research revealed that foliar application of zinc 0.5% at 50 DAS along with seed inoculation by Azospirillum sp. 25 g/kg Seeds + PSB 25 g/kg seeds significantly increased the growth parameters of Sorghum viz., plant height (163.31centimeter), dry matter accumulation (92.71 g), No. of Leaves (12.87), absolute growth rate (1.33 g/plant/day), crop growth rate (44.31 g/m2/day) and leaf area (414.67 cm2).

##### Assessment of Water Contamination at Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Site, Jawaharnagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

P. N. Rao, A. G. S. Reddy, G. Ravi Kumar, T. Raja Babu, K. Maruti Prasad, B. J. Madhusudhan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 194-213
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030786

The impact of uncontrolled municipal solid waste disposal of 3800 tons per day on surface and groundwater downstream of the Jawaharnagar dumping site was studied. The un-engineered solid waste dumping yard site spreading over about 300 hectares (ha) is located on topographic high (hillock) and falls in Madyala stream and Dammaiguda watersheds of Musi sub-basin. Granites of the Archaean age underlie the area. Both surface and groundwater samples, collected covering hydrological cycles of 2011and 2012, were analyzed for major chemical constituents. Fifteen samples belonging to both seasons of 2012 were tested for BOD, COD, and TOC. The mean values of some tested chemical constituents of surface water samples (15) were - EC 13066 m S/cm, TH 753, Na+ 813, K+ 530, HCO3- 978, Cl- 1304, and NO3- 262 (all in mg/l), which prove that tanks and stream near the dump yard were pools of leachate. The average values of contaminated groundwater samples among the four sampled sessions (17) indicate EC was above 5000 m S/cm, TH 1624, Cl- 1502, and SO42- 284(all in mg/l), which were found much above the threshold values. Very high TOC (mean SW 241; GW 154 mg/l), BOD (5410; 117), and COD (6427; 176) content in both surface (SW) and groundwater (GW) samples indicate the presence of organic pollutants sourced from domestic waste dumps. Wide temporal and spatial variability in the concentration of many ion species could be due to rainfall deviation, point source changes, and heterogeneous fracture patterns. Low resistivity values (5 to 25 ohm.m) at a distance of 4 km from the dumping site and high infiltration rate (29 cm/hr) at the Madyala stream indicate hydrological features controlled the mass flux. The chloride-sulphate alkaline-earth water facies, K+:Mg2+ and BOD/COD ratios demonstrate apart from anthropogenic input water-rock interaction and evapotranspiration governed the evolution of water chemistry. The study supports the hypothesis that solid waste dumps, which attained the methanogenic phase, were a point source of pollution that generates leachate and dissipates contaminants to the aquatic environment through preferred pathways influenced by factors like soils, topography, aquifer hydraulics, and contaminant kinetics.

##### Effect of Foliar Application of Nitrogen and NAA (Naphthalene Acetic Acid) on Yield and Economics of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

Kuruva Kaveri, Rajesh Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 214-220
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030787

A field experiment was conducted during Kharif (Autumn) season 2021 at Experimental Field of the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Praygraj, Uttar Pradesh, India which is located at 250 30’ 42’’N latitude, 810 60’ 56” E longitude and 98 m altitude above mean sea level. The treatments consisted of three levels of urea spray – 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% and four levels of Naphthalene Acetic Acid [NAA] spray – 0ppm, 25 ppm, 50 ppm and 75 ppm. The Treatments were applied as foliar spraying after 20 and 40 days after sowing. The Experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with twelve Treatments replicated thrice on the basis of one year experimentation. To determine the “Effect of foliar application of nitrogen(N) and NAA on yield and economics of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). The results showed that treatment with the application of N (Urea) 2.0% + NAA at 25 ppm recorded significantly highest number of pods per plant (16.93), number of seeds per pod (14.33), pod dry weight (4.17 g), test weight (18.42 g), seed yield (1436.26 kg ha-1), haulm yield (2651.97 kg ha-1). However, Maximum gross returns (1,20,204.7 INR ha-1), net returns (87,414.74 INR ha-1) and B:C ratio (2.66) were also reported in the same treatment of Nitrogen (Urea) 2.0% + NAA at 25 ppm.

##### A Gendered Approach to Awareness of Climate-resilient Agricultural Practices

Angelina Patro, Debasmita Nayak, Smaranika Mohanty, Pradip Kumar Banerjee

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 221-225
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030788

Over the years climate change has become a global issue and its impact on agriculture has a distressful effect on the production of food grains and the lives of the growers. Therefore, in this fast-evolving world being aware of the rapid changes has become the necessity of the hour. And keeping in view the present condition this study had been conducted in the Ganjam District of Odisha to understand the extent of awareness of Climate Resilient Agricultural Practices. A total of 200 male and female respondents,100 each respectively were selected for the study. The findings revealed that most of the respondents i.e. 68.00 per cent male and 64.00 per cent female were partially aware, though it is also seen that (20.00%) female and (13.00%) male was unaware of climate-resilient agricultural practices which is evident that more females are unaware regarding the issues. Further, it was observed that Education, Information Source Utilization, Land Holding, and Type of family have a significant and positive relationship with the awareness of female respondents. The findings of this research would focus on creating more awareness among the people regarding the impacts of climate change and the benefits of adopting climate-resilient agricultural practices.

##### Occupational Health and Safety Practices among Sanitation Workers in a Public University in Ghana: A Qualitative Approach

Charles Owusu-Aduomi Botchwey, Dennis Kesseh, Michael Afari Baidoo, Agartha Afful Boateng, Dorothy Serwaa Boakye

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 226-237
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030789

Background: Satisfactory sanitation, together with decent hygiene and safe water, are central to good health and a bedrock of social and economic growth. If we are not able to safeguard the lives of those who protect us, then is palpable that our lives are also at stake exclusively in a period where there are so many genetic adversaries to combat so as to maintain, inspire and protect the lives of the individuals. To shield ourselves from environmental diseases, the welfare of sanitary workers is of overriding prominence.

Aim: The study aimed at reconnoitering occupational health and safety practices of sanitation workers of University of Education, Winneba, (UEW) Ghana.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place at University of Education, Winneba campus in the Effutu Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana, between May, 2021 and January, 2022.

Methods: The study employed a qualitative approach with a case study design in investigating occupational health and safety (OHS) practices among sanitation workers in UEW. A purposive sampling method was used to recruit the respondents for the study with a focus group discussion guide and in-depth interview guide as the main instruments for data collection. Data were analysed qualitatively using the content analysis technique.

Results: The findings of the study revealed four indices that embodied and affected the working conditions of sanitation workers. These included: occupational stress; hazardous conditions; remuneration; and job security. Again, it was also revealed that there was inadequate personal protective equipment (PPEs) supplied by the university management and poor use of PPEs with the most used PPEs being nose masks by the sanitation workers as a result of the enforcement of Covid-19 protocols. Major challenges faced by the sanitation workers in adhering to OHS practices were found to be poor remuneration, inadequate tools/equipment, poor supervision, unfavourable weather condition and abuse as well as assault.

Conclusion: The well-being of every individual matters, if there is a poor condition of service and poor adherence to OHS practices by sanitary workers in an institution of higher education then worse cases or scenarios may be bound to happen elsewhere. There is therefore the need for relevant stakeholders to stand and advocate for proper formulation and enforcement of OHS protocols as well as ensuring good working conditions for all.

##### Screening of Exotic Collections of Arabica Coffee Genotypes for Coffee Berry Borer and Coffee Leaf Rust Disease Incidence

Nagaraj Gokavi, P. M. Gangadharappa, N. S. Prakash, J. S. Hiremath, D. Sathish, S. Nishani, S. Koulagi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 238-246
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030790

In India, commercial cultivation of coffee relies upon two important species like Coffea arabica (Arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). In the consumer market, arabica coffee is preferred for its fine beverage quality, aromatic characteristics and low caffeine content compared to robusta coffee. In India coffee is grown under natural agroecosystem offers arabica coffee to fetch premium price in the international market. In spite of the commercial importance and the appropriate environmental conditions, the drastic reduction of arabica coffee area in India is likely associated with lack of adaptability for each ecological zone of the region, susceptibility to coffee berry borer and leaf rust and increased cost of production coupled with low productivity (470 kg clean coffee/ha). Therefore to address the issues identification of resistance source is the important criteria in crop improvement programme. With this background the study was aimed at screening of exotic collections of Arabica coffee genotypes maintained at Central Coffee Research Institute (CCRI), Balehonnur, Karnataka, India against Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) and Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR). The experiment was laid out randomized block design with three replications. Results revealed that, the CLR disease severity infection was ranged from 1.34 to 32.67 per cent and the genotypes S.1495, S.1561, S.2504, S.2509, S.2510, S.2529, S.2602 and S.2724 exhibited moderately resistant to leaf rust disease infection based on mean per cent disease severity level (1-5%). Hence, these genotypes will be valuable as new sources of resistance to these pathogens in the future and can be utilized in coffee breeding programmes in India. Similarly, all the genotypes utilized in the study were established low to least infestation of coffee berry borer (1.03 to 5.03 %).

##### Effect of Potassium and Spacing on Yield and Economics of Baby corn (Zea mays L.)

Muthe Ashwini, Rajesh Singh, Thakur Indu

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 247-252
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030791

The Crop Research Farm of the Department of Agronomy, SHUATS at Prayagraj (Uttar Pradesh) was the experimental area for the present study. The present study was about a field experiment performed during Zaid 2021. The texture of the experimental area’s soil was sandy loam. It is neutral in reaction and have lower content of organic carbon (0.72%). Moreover, rich in available N (278.48 kg/ha), available P (27.80 kg/ha) and available K (233.24 kg/ha). The experiment was designed using Randomized Block Design having nine treatments, replicated thrice for a time of one year experimentation. The treatments which are T1: 30 kg/ha K2O + 30cm x 15 cm, T2: 30 kg/ha K2O + 40cm x 15 cm, T3: 30 kg/ha K2O + 50cm x 15 cm, T4: 40 kg/ha K2O + 30cm x 15 cm, T5: 40 kg/ha K2O + 40cm x 15 cm, T6: 40 kg/ha K2O + 50cm x 15 cm, T7: 50 kg/ha K2O + 30cm x 15 cm, T8: 50 kg/ha K2O + 40cm x 15 cm, T9: 50 kg/ha K2O + 50cm x 15 cm used.  The results revealed that the application of 50 kg/ha K2O + 50cm x 15 cm had maximum number of plants (2.74), larger plant height (16.28 cm), utmost cob weight with husk (43.14 g), and cob weight without husk (16.91 g). However, applying 50 kg/ha K2O + 30cm x 15 cm resulted in higher cob yield with husk (6.52 t/ha), cob yield without husk (3.85 t/ha) and green fodder yield (34.63 t/ha).  Moreover, it also gives maximum gross profit (Rs. 1,54,000.00 /ha), net returns (Rs. 1,01,421.10 /ha) and benefit cost ratio (1.92).

##### Economic Analysis of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Production as Influenced by Different Organic Nutrient Sources under Mid Hill Condition of Himachal Pradesh

Atal Hameedi, Kuldeep Singh Thakur, Nesar Ahmad Nesar, Meenakshi Attri, Rahmat Gul Stanikzai, Rakesh Kumar, Satesh Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 253-258
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030792

A field investigation was conducted during the Kharif of 2016 at the Department of Vegetable Science, UHF, Nauni, Solan to explore the economic analysis of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production as influenced by organic nutrient sources. The experiment was designed in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) Factorial with three replications comprising 10 different treatments. The study indicated that vermicompost @ 7 t/ha + Jeevamrut (Drenching @ 5% + Foliar spray @ 3%) highly affected yield and yield attributing traits of bell pepper and documented higher fruit weight (59.33 g), no. of fruits/plant (29.13), fruit yield/plot (24.73 kg), and fruit yield/ha (366.42 q) along with the highest gross income (₹ 916,050.00/ha) and net return (₹ 713,795.00/ha) whereas the greatest B: C ratio (5.43) was attained with no organic manure + Jeevamrut (Drenching @ 5% + Foliar spray @ 3%). As a result, from an economic standpoint, Jeevamrut (Drenching @ 5% + Foliar spray @ 3%) application and Vermicompost @ 7 t/ha in combination with Jeevamrut (Drenching @ 5% + Foliar spray @ 3%) application for high yield may be suggested for commercial production.

##### Assessment of Long Term Spatio-temporal Climatic Changes Over the Central India: A GIS Approach

Nisha Sahu, G. P. Obi Reddy, B. Dash, Nirmal Kumar, S. K. Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 259-264
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030793

The climatic data of 107 meteorological stations of Central India were collected and maps of various climatic parameters were generated by using ArcGIS 10.5 software. Potential evapotranspiration (PET), rainfall, water deficit and moisture index trends were analyzed for 30 years (1988-2018). PET was computed by using Modified Penman-Monteith method as recommended by FAO. It concludes that though the amount of mean annual rainfall is moreover same but the variation in duration and distribution exists. The analysis shows that number of rainy days has decreased in this long period, which led to increase the PET. High water deficit resulted in shifting of bio-climate towards arid condition. The results indicates that Maximum mean annual rainfall was observed in Mahabaleswar station of Maharashtra (6098 mm) and minimum mean annual rainfall also reported in Malegaon (545 mm) of Maharashtra, in Central India. It was observed that western districts of Madhya Pradesh (Barwani, Alirajpur) are shifting significantly towards drier side during the period of 30 years. Thus, information of long term spatial climatic changes can be effectively used for contingent crop planning, irrigation scheduling and diversification of crops.

##### Effect of Thermal Indices on Yield of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Varieties under Variable Weather Conditions of South Saurastra Agro-climatic Zone of Gujarat, India

A. V. Savaliya, H. S. Godhani, H. V. Korat, M. C. Chopada

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 265-269
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030794

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi (spring) season of year 2017-2018 at Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat, India. Four varieties of Garlic (GG-4, GJG-5, Promising and Local variety) were sown on four different dates for generating different weather condition during various phenological stages of crop. Results revealed that sowing between 7th to 21st November produced significantly higher growth due to fulfillment of optimum thermal requirement for various plant processes. Timely sown garlic crop recorded significantly higher GDD (growing degree days), HTU (helio-thermal units) and PTU (photo-thermal units) and HTU (Heat use efficiency). Delay in sowing (after 21st November) reduced the crop duration and yield. Yield had higher value in local variety followed by GG-4and GJG-5 in all weather conditions. Yield was more in timely sown crop as compared to late and very late sown crop. Local variety was found more conducive for growth and higher thermal unit.

##### India’s Basmati Rice Export Forecasting and Performance: ARIMA Model

Stephan Raj, H. S. Srikanth, S. M. Jainuddin, . Mahesh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 270-277
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030795

Rice is the stable food in India and also in many countries of Asian continent. Indian rice is having higher demand in international market, so the Basmati and non-Basmati rice contributing a very high national income through export. The export performance and forecasting of basmati rice was carried out by using CAGR, Instability Index and ARIMA model. This study tried to understand the per cent share of rice export from the total agricultural export, growth rate from 1987 to 2022. Only secondary data was used for this study and the data was collected from APEDA. The study found that, the total export share of rice to the total agricultural export was 55.20 per cent in terms of quantity and 42.68 per cent in terms of value during the period 2020-21. This paper also predicted the next 5 years Basmati rice export from India using SPSS software. The CAGR was used to find the growth rate and it was found that 10.31 per cent and 17.37 per cent of growth with respect to quantity and value of export. The study concluded that positive growth rate of basmati and non-basmati rice was noticed in terms of quantity as well as in terms of value with higher instability. The study showed that higher instability within exports of non-Basmati rice as compared to Basmati rice during the study period. The forecasting of basmati rice exports showed increasing trends in exports over the years.

##### Deciphering Pearl Millet Grain Yield under Water Stress using Genotypic, Phenotypic Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis

Amit Kumar, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Heeralal Barupal, Mukut Bihari Meena, Ravi Kumawat, Kinjal Mondal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 278-283
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030796

Yield is a polygenic character, usually depends on its various contributing traits like days to 50% flowering, plant height, and panicle length as well as panicle girth. A study was conducted during kharif 2018 to evaluate the relationship between grain yield and its components in pearl millet using correlation and path analysis studies. In the current study, significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations were found among five yield contributing traits in eighteen pearl millet hybrids. The traits including days to 50% flowering, plant height, and panicle length were found to have positive correlation with grain yield per plant that implied the importance of those traits in selection of high yielding hybrids. Grain yield per plant was used as a dependent character in path-coefficient analysis at the genotypic level. Plant height and panicle length were the independent variables (cm). The highest positive and direct effect was found for days to 50 percent flowering (0.9946) followed by panicle diameter (cm) (0.5726). Pearl millet having deep root system are often found to survive even in various stressful conditions including water stress. These characteristics have made it popular in dry and semi-arid regions around the world; nevertheless, compared to other major cereals, less work has been put into the study of climate-resilient characteristics of pearl millet. We have revealed here some basic ideas of correlation between the grain yield of pearl millet with its yield contributing constituents under drought condition.

##### Growth and Yield of Rice as Influenced by Rice Husk Biochar and Nitrogen Levels during Kharif Season

V. Sai Surya Gowthami, B. Venkateswarlu, P. V. N. Prasad, Ch. Sujani Rao, S. Ratna Kumari

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 284-289
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030797

Aim: Impact of rice husk biochar and nitrogen levels on growth and yield of kharif rice.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a spilt plot design with different biochar doses in main plots and different nitrogen levels in subplots and was replicated thrice.

Place and Duration of Study: The field experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 2020 and 2021 at the Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla, ANGRAU, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh.

Methodology: The experiment was performed with twenty treatments in a split-plot design. The main plot comprised four biochar treatments and a subplot with five different nitrogen levels. Rice variety "BPT-5204" was taken as the test variety. The crop and soil observations during the experimentation were recorded at regular intervals. The test examined the significance of the treatment impact.

Results: Results of the experiment revealed that among the biochar treatments, the application of biochar @ 7.5 t ha-1 treatment showed the highest plant growth parameters at harvest like plant height (104.8 and 107.0 cm), number of tillers m-2 (361.6 and 369.6), leaf area index (3.69 and 3.71) and yield parameters, i.e., the number of panicles m-2 (302.5 and 304.9), grain (5706 and 5860 kg ha-1) and straw yields (7347 and 7570 kg ha-1) and was found statistically at par with the application of biochar @ 5.0 t ha-1 treatment and significantly superior over rest of the treatments during kharif of 2020 and 2021. Plant height (106.2 and 108.1 cm), number of tillers m-2 (368.3 and 374.2), leaf area index (3.72 and 3.84), the number of panicles m-2 (284.9 and 289.6), grain yield (5865 and 5997 kg ha-1), and straw yield (7631 and 7848 kg ha-1) were significantly the highest with the application of 160 kg N ha-1, which was found statistically at par with 120 kg N ha-1 treatment and significantly superior over other treatments.

##### Response of Popular Varieties on Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Growth, Seed Yield and Quality in Greengram

G. Adhithya, R. Siddarju, . Parashivmurthy, T. M. Ramanapa, P. Mahadevu, K. Vishwanath, S. Sowjanya, U. Tejaswini

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 290-304
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030798

Effect of foliar application of micronutrients on seed yield and quality were studied in three green gram varieties i.e., KKM-3, WGG-42 and TRCRM-147. Among three varieties, seed quality parameters were significantly differed in yield and seed quality parameters. KKM-3 recorded the highest in growth and yield parameters viz., plant height at 30 DAS and 60 DAS (14.55 and 30.83 cm, respectively), number of nodules and number of branches per plant (28.43 and 6.65, respectively), number of pods per plant and pod yield per plant (g) (12.96 and 11.98, respectively), seed yield per plot (g) and seed yield (q/ha) (204.42 and 3.24, respectively) also, in seed quality parameters viz., number of seeds per pod and 100 seed weight (g) (11.67 and 3.93, respectively), total dehydrogenase activity (1.836) (A480nm) respectively) and protein (24.01%). But, highest germination (%), mean seedling dry weight (mg) and seedling vigor index-II were recorded in WGG-42 (96.07, 220 and 2111 respectively) and highest mean seedling length (cm) and seedling vigor index-I recorded (33.70 and 3046 respectively) in TRCRM-147. Among foliar treatments studied seed quality parameter were significantly differed. FeSO4 recorded the highest in growth and yield parameters viz., plant height at 30 DAS and 60 DAS (15.31 and 31.49 cm, respectively), number of nodules and number of branches per plant (32.10 and 12.83, respectively), number of pods per plant and pod yield per plant (g) (14.11 and 7.60, respectively), seed yield per plot (g) and seed yield (q/ha) (234.18 and 3.72, respectively) also, in seed quality parameters viz., 100 seed weight (4.16 g), mean seedling dry weight (220 mg), seedling vigor index-II (2049), total dehydrogenase activity (1.939) (A480nm) and protein (24.24%) But, ZnSO4 recorded highest in number of seeds per pod (12.09), germination (94.89%), mean seedling length (33.89 cm) and seedling vigor index-I (3217).

##### Impacts of Future Climate and Land use Change on Water Yield in Arpa Catchment

Shruti Verma, Dhiraj Khalkho, M. P. Tripathi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 305-313
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030799

Studying the interaction between hydrology, land use, and climate change is necessary to support sustainable water resources management. In this study, we assessed the effects of both land use and predicted climate change on the Arpa Catchment water yield using the ArcSWAT model. The influence of changing climate on water yield was evaluated for different emission scenarios using CMIP6 Global Climate Models (GCM). Three GCM namely BCC-CSM2- MR, EC-Earth3-Veg and NorESM2-LM were ensemble and used for this study. Two ‘Shared Socioeconomic Pathways’ (SSP) scenarios (SSP.2_4.5, and SSP.5_8.5) were used for future climate prediction in the current study area. Land use land cover, meteorology and soil type data used as inputs to analyze the spatial and temporal pattern of water yield in the Arpa catchment from 1990 to 2020 and the impact of land use change on water yield in the basin simulated with ArcSWAT Model. Water yield compare to baseline scenario (1990) increased by 98.36 mm (18.48%) in decadal year 2000, increased by 144.51 mm (27.15%) in year 2010 and in decadal year 2020 water yield increased by 154.20 mm (28.98%). Climatic scenario (SSP2_4.5 and SSP5_8.5) changes in water components were simulated with ArcSWAT model. Model was run for three future time slices i.e. Near future (2030s), Mid future (2060s), and Far future (2090s). Water yield with reference to baseline period (646.02 mm) increased by 71.69% under SSP2_4.5 during 2090s. Similarly, under SSP5_8.5 water yield increased by 106.87% for the far future (2090s).

##### Assessment of Genetic Variability and Correlation for Floral, Yield and Yield Contributing Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

T. Niharika, T. Srikanth, P. Madhukar, T. Yellagoud

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 322-331
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030801

Developing high yielding hybrid rice varieties is much needed to ensure food security to meet the requirement of increasing population across the world. Cytoplasmic male genetic sterility system is a valuable technology for exploitation of heterosis and production of high yielding hybrid rice with better grain quality. A total of forty rice genotypes comprising 20 maintainer and 20 restorer lines were evaluated to study the variability and correlation between floral, yield and yield contributing traits. High significant variation was observed among the genotypes for all the studied traits. Number of grains per panicle, 1000 grain weight and duration of spikelet opening recorded high GCV values and high heritability coupled with high genetic advance which indicated the broad genetic base, less environmental influence and these traits are under control of additive gene action. The correlation analysis among the traits were further studied. The duration of spikelet opening, plant height, number of productive tillers, stigma breadth expressed positive significant association along with positive direct effect on grain yield per plant indicated that selection for these traits will be effective in varietal development programme as well as exploring the gene pool.

##### An Economic Analysis of Okra Marketing in Siddipet District of Telangana

K. Sruthi Sai, Md. Ali Baba, R. Vijaya Kumari

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 332-337
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030804

Aim: The present study aims to analyse the marketing pattern of okra in Siddipet district of Telangana state.

Study Design: Only primary data was used for carrying out the study and it pertained to the kharif season of the agricultural year 2019-20. 3 mandals were purposively selected from Siddipet district and from each mandal 2 villages were selected, thus making a total of 6 villages. From each village, 9 okra growers were randomly chosen to collect the primary data through personal interview. In addition, a sample of 7 wholesalers, 7 commission agents, 13 retailers were also chosen randomly for obtaining the data required for carrying out the present study.

Methodology: Marketing costs, margins, producer’s net price, producer’s share in consumer’s rupee, price spread and marketing efficiency were computed to analyze the data.

Results: Three channels were found for the marketing of the produce viz., Channel 1 (Producer – Consumer), Channel 2 (Producer – Retailer – Consumer) and Channel 3 (Producer – Commission agent – Wholesaler – Retailer – Consumer). Among the various identified channels, Channel 1 was found to be the efficient one with the highest marketing efficiency index of 21.22 followed by channel 2 and channel 3 with indices of 3.18 and 1.08 respectively.

Conclusion: Reduction in the number of market intermediaries between producer and consumer could improve the efficiency of marketing of okra.

##### Deciphering the Genotype × Environment Interaction for Identification of Superior Genotypes of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) using Ammi Stability Measures

K. Sai Krishna, Ram Kumar Chaudhary, Mahesh Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 348-358
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030806

Mango is one of India's most important commercially grown fruit crops with the greatest collection of varieties. Genotypes do not show the same response in all locations due to their interactions with the surrounding environment. Such interactions limit the breeding progress during the selection of superior genotypes. Multi-location trials are being carried out to study the behavior of genotypes in different environments. Genotype environment interaction is a major problem in selecting and recommending superior genotypes to cultivate crops. When we are dealing with perennial crops like Mango, this problem gets intensified because choosing unstable cultivars to plant in an orchard puts the farmers in a risky income situation for many years. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to identify the high-yielding and stable genotypes of Mango by using AMMI stability measures. Data on sixteen genotypes of Mango tested across four locations viz., Rewa, Sabour, Sangareddy, and Vengurla in India over nine years is considered for the study. The present study concludes that the AMMI stability measures SIPC, AVAMGE, ASTAB, DA, MASV, MASI, ZA, ASV, and ASI are based on the biological concept of stability, and the stability measures DZ and EV are based on the agronomic concept of stability. Selection of mango genotypes based on the agronomic concept of stability will be recommended in favorable environments, while selection based on biological stability will be advised in unfavorable environments.

##### Effect of Slow-Release Nitrogen Fertilizer and Foliar Spray of Nano Zinc on Growth and Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Rahul Sharma, C. Umesha, Md Kaifee, Piyush Pushkar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 359-363
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030807

A field experiment took place on Crop Research Farm at Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P) India during the Kharif season of 2021. The Soil of the experimental plot was sandy loam, having a nearly neutral soil reaction (pH 6.9), electrical conductivity 0.29 ds/m, available nitrogen (278.93 kg/ha), available phosphorous (10.8 kg/ha), and available potassium (206.4 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) which consisted of nine treatment and replicated thrice viz., T1: Neem Coated Urea 80 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 0.5 g/l, T2: Neem Coated Urea 80 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 1.0 g/l, T3: Neem Coated Urea 80 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 1.5 g/l, T4: Neem Coated Urea 100 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 0.5 g/l, T5: Neem Coated Urea 100 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 1.0 g/l, T6: Neem Coated Urea 100 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 1.5 g/l, T7: Neem Coated Urea 120 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 0.5 g/l, T8: Neem Coated Urea 120 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 1.0 g/l and T9: Neem Coated Urea 120 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 1.5 g/l. The result of the experiment showed that growth parameters viz., plant height (88.41 cm), number of tillers/hill (14.78) and plant dry weight (85.81 g) were significantly increased when the increase in the levels of Neem coated urea + Nano zinc and maximum was obtained with the application of Neem coated urea 120 kg/ha + Nano zinc 1.5 g/l (T9) and yield attributes viz., number of effective tillers/m2 (311.29), number of grains/panicle (97.35), grain yield (5.48 t/ha) and straw yield (11.45 t/ha) were also recorded maximum in treatment Neem coated urea 120kg/ha + Nano zinc 1.5 g/l (T9).

##### Growth and Yield Parameters of Black Mustard (Brassica nigra L.) under Organic Manures and Different Spacing

Pulibandla Avinash, Shikha Singh, . Manjula, Mode Girish Kumar, Peruru Sasidhar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 364-370
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030809

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.1), low in organic carbon (0.36 %), available N (171.48 kg/ha), available P (15.2 kg/ha) and available K (232.5 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments each replicated thrice on the basis of one year experimentation. The treatments which are T1: FYM @ 10 t/ha + 20 x 10 cm, T2: FYM @ 10 t/ha + 30 x 10 cm, T3: FYM @ 10 t/ha + 40 x 10 cm, T4: Poultry Manure @ 4 t/ha + 20 x 10 cm, T5: Poultry Manure @ 4 t/ha + 30 x 10 cm, T6: Poultry Manure @ 4 t/ha + 40 x 10 cm, T7: Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + 20 x 10 cm, T8Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + 30 x 10 cm, T9: Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + 40 x 10 cm. The results showed that application of Poultry Manure @ 4 t/ha + 30 x 10 cm recorded significantly higher plant height (134.04 cm), No. of Branches/plant (9.77), Plant dry weight (21.16 g/plant), Crop growth rate (5.16 g/m2/day), Siliqae/plant (174.74), Seeds/siliquae (33.19), Test weight (3.22 g), Seed yield (1749.38 kg/ha), Stover yield (3209.05 kg/ha), gross returns (Rs.96215.90/ha), net return (Rs.65210.90/ha) and benefit cost ratio (2.10) as compared to other treatments.

##### Local Perception of Climate Variability as a Guide to Weather Forecasting and Farmer Decision Making in Beaniky and Antseky Ambovombe – Androy, Madagascar

Rasolondraizafy Jean Fidison, Razafindraibe Rolland, Ranaivoson Rado Elysé

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 371-389
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030810

Showing the reality of climate change at the spatiotemporal scale and understanding its meanings based on readings of local indicators is fundamental knowledge for developing various adaptation strategies in Androy. Specifically, it made an inventory of the biophysical indicators used in decision making on the agricultural calendars. It also characterized the perceptions of the inhabitants on climate change impacts through determining the type of local indicators linked on weather forecasting.The ethnographic field study was conducted with 44 respondents who had not left the localities in the past 10 years and were selected by purposive sampling. Data was further analyzed qualitatively by content analysis given the prevalent use of Likert and Osgood type scales analyses. The data were collected on indigenous perceptions and knowledge of climate, types of indicators and their functioning. The findings showed that 93% of the participants perceived the reality of climate variability. This change exposed the farmers to negatives impacts (100%). Local people possessed high level of climate knowledge (61%) from which they identified main 27 local time markers in the zone of Ambovombe -Androy. This diversity implies that the populations rely mainly on the plant, animal and abiotical indicators present in their immediate environment to direct and adapt their agricultural activities/calendars.

##### Biofortification of Rice to Augment Iron Availability for Better Health of Population

Ritu Saini, Harnek Singh Saini, Sunita Verma, Ajay Verma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 390-404
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030811

Aim: Rice is one of the largely consumed cereal and masses have been expressed anemia conditions. Iron augmentation of rice varieties had been carried out by agronomical biofortification as established an easy way to reach the poor rural masses for enhancing the concentration of particular minerals.

Methodology: Six rice varieties were evaluated during kharif in the net houses of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, CCS HAU augmented with 0 mM 0.1m 0.5 mM Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA-Fe(II)). Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) related metabolites along antioxidative metabolites were estimated in grains, upper shoots & lower shoots.

Results: Roots of HBC19 and Palman579 and lower and upper shoots of PUSA1121 contained higher iron. Highest iron in dehusked grains was recorded in Palman579 followed by HBC19, PUSA1121, HKR120, Super and Govind. Production of toxic super oxide radical (O2- ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (MDA),  enhanced in all the varieties with increase in Fe concentration. Antioxidative metabolites’ contents (ascorbic acid and glutathione) and activities of antioxidative enzymes [super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR)] invariably increased with increasing iron treatment in both root and shoot.

Interpretation: Less accumulation of reactive oxygen species along with the gradual increase in antioxidative metabolites’ contents and enzymes’ activities at higher iron treatments suggest that a better ROS scavenging ability to restrict the damage to cellular membranes due to lipid peroxidation may be responsible for the adaptation of these varieties at high iron levels.

##### A Study on Awareness of Farmers about Agri Waste Management Practices in Medak District of Telangana

G. Ravi, B. Savitha, M. Sreenivasulu, G. E. Ch. Vidyasagar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 405-412
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030812

Agriculture wastes are the residuals from the growing agriculture crops horticulture and livestock. This paper focused on study on level of awareness of the respondents about agri waste management practices and its relationship with the profile of the farmers.. The Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. Thus a total of 120 respondents were selected by following simple random sampling method covering Medak district of Telangana state. From the analysis,it was found that majority of the farmers (55.00%) had high level of awareness, followed by medium (27.50%), and low (17.50%) level of awareness about agri waste management practices. From the analysis, it was found that infrastructure facilities and achievement motivation had positive and significant relationship with awareness at one percent level of significance. The variables age, education, farm size, farming experience, cropping pattern, innovativeness, information seeking behavior and training undergone had positive and significant relationship with awareness at five per cent level of significance. However cropping intensity and level of aspiration had positive and non-significant relationship with level of awareness about agri waste management practices. Government should provide subsidy on the purchase of machinery, special programmes need be to taken to improve awareness about agri waste management and encourage custom hiring centers to reach high cost technologies to the farners. Agri waste based communities need to be developed at ground level for the adoption and dissemination of agri waste management practices.

##### Studies on Response of Common Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis L.) to Scooping Technique of Propagation on Propagule Formation

Nasir Hamid Masoodi, Qazi Altaf Hussain, I. T. Nazki, . Nelofar, M. Nayeem Sofi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 413-418
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030813

An investigation on propagation through scooping in different cultivars of Hyacinth viz.Purple Sensation, Yellow Stone, Purple Star, Fondant, Gipsy Queen and Aladdin was carried out in the Division of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture SKUAST K, Shalimar Srinagar during 2019-20 with an objective to study response to scooping technique and propagule ratio. Results depicts minimum days for sectioning after incubation (36.00 days), visible bud formation days (46.50) ,days to bud development (84.50 ) resulted with cultivar Yellow stone. Further maximum no of bulbils per bulb(18.90), bulbil diameter(9.95mm), bud length(2.93 cm) and bud weight(0.38 g) after incubation resulted in cultivar yellow stone where as maximum days for sectioning after incubation (47.50 days), visible bud formation days (68.00 days), days to bud development (100.50days) and minimum values for no of bulbils per bulb(13.20), bulbil diameter(8.25mm), bud length(2.33 cm) and bud weight(0.21 g) after incubation resulted in cultivar Gipsy queen. Response of different cultivars to scooping for propagule ratio showed significant variation.

##### Evaluating the Suitability of System of Rice Intensification Practices for Enhancing Rice and Water Productivity in Semi-Arid Environment, Tamil Nadu, India

Jeevanand Palanisamy, V. Geethalakshmi, S. P. Ramanathan, A. Senthil, . Balajikannan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 419-424
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030814

In the world of rapid change in climate, irregular rainfall pattern tends to pose serious impact on water availability for agriculture. Rice is one of the important food crops to get affected by the low water availability because of its high water requirement. Various techniques were used in the past to mitigate low water availability and increase productivity but most techniques will improve one aspect at the expense of the other. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is being tried by many countries with several modifications based on their priorities, with the aim of enhancing productivity besides reducing the water demand for rice cultivation.  It is essential to have more insight into the individual and compounding effect of multiple components of SRI on yield, and water productivity of rice for identifying the potential and suitable SRI practices. Investigating the influence of different practices of SRI viz., planting of young and single seedlings per hill in wider spacing, water saving irrigation like Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD), and weed control using cono-weeders on rice using the data obtained from the field experiment carried out during 2021 in Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India. Water productivity of rice plants under SRI were compared with conventional practices. The results revealed that plants grown with complete SRI practices had increased water productivity by 0.25 kg grain/m3 of water which is almost twice that of conventional cultivation system. The yield obtained in SRI treatments was higher about 39% than conventional treatments. The total water savings were 20 % higher in AWD treatments than continuous flooding treatments.

##### Effect of Biofertilizer and Organic Manure on Growth and Yield of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)

Kali Susmitha, C. Umesha, Shahazad Ahmed Khan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 425-431
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030815

A field experiment was conducted during Kharif season of 2021, at crop research farm of Department of Agronomy at Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj in North Eastern plains of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. The objective of the research study was to determine the effect of Bio fertilizer and Organic manure on growth and yield of Pearl millet under Randomized block design comprising of 9 treatments of which treatments with different combination of Rhizobium and VAM along with Organic manure like FYM and Vermicompost which were replicated thrice. The experimental results revealed that plant height (201.20 cm) and plant dry weight (50.05 g) were recorded significantly (P<0.05) highest in treatment Rhizobium @ 5 g/kg + VAM @ 5g/kg + FYM @ 2.5 t/ha + Vermicompost @ 2.5 t/ha. The highest number of ears/hill (2.43), number of grains/ear head (2157.33), grain yield (1973.00 Kg/ha), straw yield (3920 kg/ha) and harvest index (41.32%) were recorded with treatment Rhizobium @ 5 g/kg + VAM @ 5g/kg + FYM @ 2.5 t/ha + Vermicompost @ 2.5 t/ha.

##### Association and Path Studies in Maize Over Southern Aravalli Regions of Rajasthan

Ravi Kumawat, Amit Dadheech, Heera Lal Barupal, Amit Kumar, Mukesh Kumar Yadav

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 432-437
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030816

The environment highly influences a complex trait such as grain yield and indirect selection through component traits would be an advisable strategy to increase the selection efficiency. The 45 F1s and their 18 parents and 2 checks were evaluated in three environments viz., E1, E2 and E3 in RBD design with three replications to assess the correlation among the yield components and direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield. The association analysis among the eleven traits revealed that the traits days to 50 per cent silking, plant height, ear height, ear length, ear girth, grain rows per ear, 100-grain weight and harvest index had showed positive and significant correlation with grain yield per plant. The perusal of the path coefficient analysis revealed that the maximum direct positive effect was depicted by the harvest index followed by the traits ear height, grain rows per ear, days to 50 per cent silking, 100-grain weight, days to 75 per cent brown husk, ear girth and plant height.

##### Genotype x Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis in Maize across the Southern Aravalli Ranges of Rajasthan

Ravi Kumawat, Amit Dadheech, Heera Lal Barupal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 438-448
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030817

Crop production is the function of genotype, environment and their interaction (GEI) and evaluation of genotypes in multi environments helps to identify their adaptation and stability. The 45 hybrids along with their 18 parents and two check cultivars were evaluated in three environments viz., E1 (Kharif-2019, Instructional Farm, RCA, Udaipur), E2 (Kharif -2019, Agriculture Research Sub-Station, Vallabhnagar, Udaipur) and E3 (Rabi-2019-2020, Instructional Farm, RCA, Udaipur) in randomized block design with three replications at each environment to assess the phenotypic stability of genotypes by using Eberhart and Russel (1968). The mean squares due to genotypes and environments were found significant for all the traits under study indicated inherent genetic differences among the genotypes. The G x E (linear) interaction was found significant for most of the traits under study The mean squares due to pooled deviation were found non-significant for all the traits indicated major portion of the genotype x environment interaction was formed by predictable portion. The majority of the hybrids depicted non-significant deviations from regression (S2di) for grain yield per plant indicated their predictable response across the environments. A great majority of genotypes revealed non-significant non-linear estimates (S2di) for different traits under the study indicated the prediction of stability was more or less accurate and reliable. The top three hybrids suitable for all environments (bi1) were EI-2653 x EI-102, EI-2639 x EI-670 and EI-2505 x EI-102 with non-significant S2di values. The hybrids EI-2176-3 x EI-03 (bi<1) EI-2525-2 x EI-03 (bi>1) and EI-2159 x EI-670 (bi>1) out yielded the best check cultivar CC-1. Thus, these hybrids may be used in future breeding programmes of maize after further multi location yield testing.

##### Effect of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nutrients on Yield Attributes and Yield of Maize in Aerobic Rice- Zero Till Maize Cropping System Under Sandy Clay Loam Soils in Southern Telangana Agro-Climatic Zone

J. S. Sudha Rani, B. Sreedevi, K. P. Vani, P.C. Latha, M. Venkata Ramana, P. Surendra babu, K. Naganjali

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 449-461
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030818

Continuous growing of rice –rice mono-cropping over the years and excessive dependence on chemical fertilizers alone has led to decrease in soil fertility and productivity. Rice–maize double cropping is gaining popularity in many Asian countries including India. fertilizer need of a crop in a system is strongly influenced by the preceding crops and the amount of fertilizers applied to them. Cropping with two nutrient intensive cereals like rice-maize would remove a substantial quantity of plant nutrients from soil during continued agriculture round the year, envisaging the need for adoption of efficient nutrient management practices for sustained soil health and improving system productivity. A field experimentt was carried out to study the residual effect of organic nutrient sources and inorganic fertilizer levels on yield attributes and yield of zero till maize. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with four organic sources of nutrients applied to preceding rice as main plots viz: M1: Neem leaf manure @ 6 t ha-1; M2: Vermicompost @ 2 t ha-1; M3: Goat manure @ 5 t ha-1; M4: Microbial consortia [seed treatment @ 4 g kg-1 + soil application @ 4 kg ha-1] and four subplots with graded doses of fertilizers viz: S1: Control; S2: 50% RDF; S3: 75% RDF and S4: 100% RDF (180:60:60). The study revealed that various organic nutrient sources and graded fertilizer doses exerted a remarkable effect on plant height, LAI, dry matter production and Days to 50% silking which resulted in significantly higher grain, stover yield and harvest index of zero till maize.

##### Screening of Rice Hybrids for Cold Tolerance at Seedling and Vegetative Stage under Low Temperatures

V. Kalyani Sree Kanya, P. Madhukar, T. Srikanth, T. Yella Goud

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 462-471
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030819

Low temperature is one of the most important abiotic constrains in rice cultivation. Rice plant growth and development are affected by cold stress from germination to reproductive stages. Development of 48 hybrids involving twelve restorer lines and four CMS lines by using line x tester mating design. Evaluation of 69 rice genotypes including checks based on leaf score (SES, IRRI, 2013), root length, shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight, and SPAD analysis at seedling stage as well as leaf score, number of tillers, seedling growth and establishment at vegetative stage. Results indicated that the hybrids IR72081 A x JGL 11118, IR72081 A x JGL 21071, IR80559A × JGL 29662, IR80559A × KNM 110, IR80559A × SN 470, IR58025A × JGL 29662 identified as cold tolerant genotypes. This study aimed to identify cold tolerant genotypes under low temperatures at seedling and vegetative stage. Screening for cold tolerance during early growth stages potentially be an effective way of assessing cold tolerance in breeding programmes.

##### Influence of Nitrogen and Zinc on Yield Components and Economics of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica)

Addanki Tejaswi, Shikha Singh, Guggilla Akhil, Mannepu Venkata Sai Ganesh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 472-476
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030820

Background: Foxtail millet crop has interesting characteristic features i.e., fairly tolerant to drought, and can escape terminal drought because of early maturity. Foxtail millet is comparable to that of super cereals like rice and wheat due to its capacity to withstand drought, adaptable to adverse climatic condition and input management.

Objectives:  Effect of nitrogen and zinc on yield attributes and economics of foxtail millet.

Methods: With the goal of studying the effect of nitrogen and zinc on yield and economics of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) One variety of Foxtail millet i.e., DHFt 109-3 was used with different doses of Nitrogen at 40, 50, 60 kg/ha and Zinc at 10, 15, 20 kg/ha was used. There were 9 treatments each replicated thrice. The result showed that the yield parameters viz, length of Ear (21.19 cm), seed yield (2.11 t/ha), test weight (3.36 g) straw yield (5.48 t/ha), gross return (73,850.00 INR/ha), net return (51,508.00 INR/ha), B:C ratio (2.30) were recorded superior with application of nitrogen at 60 kg/ha along with zinc 20 kg/ha.

Conclusion: Maximum Gross returns (73,850.00 INR/ha), Net return (51,508.00 INR/ha), B:C ratio (2.30) was obtained with application of 60 N kg/ha + 20 kg Zn/ha.

##### Assessment and Mapping of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation in and Around Areas of Paper Board Industry

S. Murali, D. Jawahar, P. Balasubramaniam, M. Maheswari, J. Ejilane, S. Pazhanivelan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 477-487
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030821

Water has become a scarce commodity due to its over exploitation as well as its pollution due to different reasons. For many important agricultural areas groundwater is the ultimate source of fresh water as surface water sources have been depleted. The quality of groundwater is important because it determines the suitability of water for drinking, and domestic and irrigation purposes. A survey was undertaken during the year 2020 to assess the quality of groundwater for irrigation in Mondipatti region of Tiruchirapalli district of Tamil Nadu. A totally 18 samples were collected from bench mark wells of (W1-W18) in and around the paper board industry and GPS locations of sampling points were recorded. The water samples were analyzed for various chemical properties viz., pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+; CO32-, HCO3-, Cl- and SO42-. The pH, EC, SAR and RSC in groundwater ranged from 7.6-8.4, 0.68-5.12 (dS m-1), 0.69-12.9 and -8.1 to 5.3 (meq L-1), respectively. The concentration of cations viz., Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ varied from 1.7 to 10.8, 0.7 to 14.3, 0.009 to 0.931 and 2.8 to 39.2 meq L-1 with average of 5.4, 4.51, 0.190 and 9.24 meq L-1, respectively. The concentration of anions viz., carbonate, bicarbonates, chloride and sulphate varied from nil to 3.2, 3.2 to 9.6, 2.8 to 39.2 and 0.25 to 4.52 meq L-1 with average values of 0.64, 6.72, 11.88 and 1.31 meq L-1, respectively. The relative abundance of ions for most of the water samples were Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ for cations and Cl- > HCO3-> SO42- > CO3- for anions. According to CSSRI water quality classification, 44.5, 44.5, 5.5 and 5.5 per cent of good, marginally saline, High SAR saline and Alkaline, respectively. Spatial variability maps of pH, EC, SAR and RSC of groundwater used for irrigation in and surrounding areas of paper board industry were also generated. As a result, it's critical to analyse groundwater quality not only for current use, but also as a future water source. Assessment and mapping of quality of groundwater may help the farmers in choice of crops and other agronomic management practices for getting profitable yields without affecting the soil health.

##### Diversity and Distribution of Callosobruchus spp. Attacking Stored Chickpea in Northern Tracts of West Bengal

Tumma Mounika, S. K. Sahoo, D. Chakraborty

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 488-493
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030822

Diversity of stored grain insects is often neglected, as many researchers and consumers think that it has a limited or no diversity as the consumer tolerance towards insect’s pest in stored grains is zero. In this context a survey was conducted in three districts i.e., Coochbehar, Alipurduar and Jalpaiguri districts of northern tracts of West Bengal to find the diversity of species of pulse beetle and its species abundance in stored chickpea during 2018-2020. In the collected chickpea seed samples, four species namely, Callosobruchus chinensis L., C. maculatus F., C. analis L. and Callosobruchus sp. (indet) unknown were observed. Coochbehar districts had highest diversity with species evenness (0.49), Brillouin index (1.17), Simpsons index (0.68), Shannon index (1.23), Hill index (0.49) and effective diversity (3.43) followed by Jalpaiguri with Species evenness (0.46), Brillouin index (1.04), Simpson index (0.64), Shannon index (1.09), hill index (0.48) and Effective diversity (2.99). Alipurduar district found lowest species diversity indices. Community structure of Callosobruchus spp. in three districts follows Null model which found as best fit model. It is inferred from the study that the northern tracts of West Bengal four species of pulse beetles are prevailing and further study needs to be undertaken for any strain variation of the pulse beetle in these areas.

##### Potentiality of Biofertilizers and Seaweed Extract on Growth & Yield of Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.)

Keerthi Bodapati, Biswarup Mehera, Prateek Kumar, Raghavender Reddy Seelam, Gayethri Gowriraja, Gowthami Sompalli

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 504-510
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030824

The study aimed to understand and study the effect of commercial seaweed extract and other biofertilizers on the yield attributes and economics of cultivated sweet corn. The biofertilizers were applied as seed inoculants and seaweed extract was applied as foliar spray. Totally nine combination treatments were evaluated for their performance on the growth and yield of sweet corn and revealed that green cob yield (10.58 t/ha and plant height 145.99 cm at harvest ) was found to be significantly higher in treatment combination Azospirillum @10 gm/kg + PSB @10 gm/kg +5.0% Seaweed extract  and was on par with Azospirillum @20 gm/kg +5.0% Seaweed extract (9.61 t/ha, plant height 143.01 cm). Cobs/plant, grains rows/cob, grains /cob and grains/row were also found highest in the treatment Azospirillum @10 gm/kg + PSB @10 gm/kg +5.0% Seaweed extract. Similarly with respect to stover yield and higher harvest index (34.50%) was noticed in PSB @20 gm/kg +10% Seaweed extract which was followed by Azospirillum @10 gm/kg + PSB @10 gm/kg +5.0% Seaweed extract (34.40%). The benefit cost ratio was highest in the treatment  Azospirillum @10 gm/kg + PSB @10 gm/kg +5.0% (2.77) and lowest B:C ratio (1.2) was obtained in the PSB @20 gm/kg + water spray. These findings indicate that seaweed extract can generally be used as a safe potential multifunctional biofertilizer in the agricultural field. The use of seaweed and biofertilizer could potentially help mitigate the adverse effects of main nutrient deficiencies, diminishing the use of chemical fertilizers.

##### Influence of Graded Levels of macro nutrients and Biofertilizers on Soil Health and Quality of Safflower in Vertisol

B. A. Patil, S. N. Ingle, Priya Gadge, N. R. Dange, D. P. Deshmukh, V. D. Guldekar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 511-517
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030825

An investigation was carried out at farm of College of Agriculture Nagpur Maharashtra during, 2011-2012 to evaluate the soil fertility and quality of safflower. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replication and nine treatments combination of FYM in Kharif season, biofertilizer and inorganic fertilizer at the time of sowing in rabi season using variety AKS/S-41. The result indicated that various physical properties as bulk density were decreases with increasing level of RDF with seed treatment Azospirillum + PSB and maximum water holding capacity increased with increasing level of RDF alone or in combination with Azospirillum + PSB. The changes in pH due to fertilizer application were significant. The changes in EC due to fertilizer (organic and inorganic) application were non-significant. The highest organic carbon, available NPK and S was recorded in the treatment of 100% RDF + Azospirillum + PSB and available Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu was recorded significantly highest in same treatment.

##### Agriculture Sustainability Achieved through Krishi Bhagya Scheme in North Eastern Karnataka Region

Huchhappa Gondali, D. M. Chandargi, S. B. Goudappa, Shivanand Kammar, G. B. Lokesh, B. G. Koppalkar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 518-523
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030826

In the present study an attempt is made to measures the agricultural sustainability of two districts namely Kalaburagi and Ballari in North Eastern Karnataka achieved through Krishi Bhagya scheme.The major findings of the study indicated that,over one third (38.89 %) of the beneficiaries had achieved medium level of agriculture sustainability and 31.11 per cent achieved high level agriculture sustainability in the study area.While in measurement of agriculture sustainability achieved through Krishi Bhagya scheme under different dimensions, among the nine statements studied under technological dimension, the beneficiary farmers assigned highest score to the statement “Farm pond facilitated to increase the water availability for protective irrigation” and “Farm pond enables recharge of ground water table”, respectively. Whereas, among the five statements studied under economic dimension that the beneficiary farmers was assigned highest score to the statement “Farm pond minimize the dependence on bore well or other source of water for obtaining better crop yield” and ranked first. “Krishi Bhagya scheme improve overall income of the beneficiaries” was ranked second. Similarly among the four statements studied under social dimension, the beneficiary farmers were assigned highest score to the statement “Krishi Bhagya scheme beneficiaries gain opportunities for social empowerment” and “It has enabled for mobilization and facilitation of the farming community”. Among the six statements studied under ecological dimension, the beneficiary farmers assigned highest score to the statement “Farm pond increases crop productivity” and was ranked first. The study suggested for the adoption of efficient water saving techniques by the farmers such as drip and sprinkler irrigation methods to achieve the agriculture sustainability through Krishi Bhagya scheme.

##### Morphometric Analysis of Nanjannad Hill Watershed in South India using Geographical Information System

Gangannagari Karthik, K. Nagarajan, S. Manivannan, Balaji Kannan, M. R. Duraisamy

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 524-539
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030827

Watershed is a natural geohydrological unit that allows surface runoff to a particular point or outlet, Morphometric analysis plays a vital role in the proper planning and development of the watershed. Morphometric analysis of the Nanjannad watershed is carried out using integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS techniques. The present study attempted to determine the morphometric characteristics of Nanjannad watershed of Ooty, Tamil Nadu. Geographical information system (GIS) is used to evaluate linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The drainage area of the watershed is 434 ha, the watershed is a Fourth-order drainage basin, and the lower order streams are mostly dominating in the watershed. Physiography, rainfall and lithology of the location control the stream orders. The development of stream segments in the watershed area is affected by rain, slope of the watershed varies from 0 to 87%. The mean Rb of the entire watershed is 4.38, indicating that geological structures do not influence the drainage pattern much. The whole watershed elongation ratio is 0.67 showing the majority of the area has Moderate relief and a steep slope, Relief ratio values implies that the discharge of the Nanjannad watershed is high and groundwater potential is meager, the moderate value of drainage density, stream frequency and drainage intensity, indicates that runoff is more likely to cause water logging. This work can be used as input to evaluate hydrology and water resources and will be helpful for integrated watershed planning.

##### Influence of Biofertilizers and Zinc on Growth and Yield of Mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

Vubbana Harshitha Vidmahe, Vikram Singh, Shruti Grace George, Vivek .

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 540-545
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030828

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2021-2022 to study the “Effect of biofertilizers and zinc on growth and yield of mustard (Brassica juncea)’’, at Central Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). Mustard variety of Varuna T-59 was used with biofertilizers like Azotobacter and PSB along with different levels of zinc at 5, 10 and 15 kg.ha1. There were 9 treatments each replicated thrice. The result showed that growth and yield parameters viz., plant height (191.33 cm), no of branches (10.40), Plant dry weight (34.99g), Number of siliquae/plant (283.93), Number of seeds/siliqua (14.99), seed yield (2.23t.ha1) and stover yield(4.90t.ha1) were recorded highest in treatment 9 with the application of Azotobacter 10 g/kg1 seeds+ PSB 10 g/kg seeds + Zinc 15 kg.ha1. Gross return (1,33,800.00 INR/ha), Net return (93,921.00INR /ha). B:C ratio (2.35) were recorded superior with application of Azotobacter 10 g/kg1  seeds+PSB 10 g/kg seeds + zinc 15 kg.ha1.

##### Evaluation of Wheat Varieties for Terminal Heat Stress under Varying Environments

Lavkush, Alok Kumar Singh, Shraddha Singh, Deeksha Tiwari, Piyusha Singh, Syed Tazeen Zaidi, R. K. Yadav, S. R. Mishra, A. K. Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 546-554
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030829

Climate change and global warming have increasingly become relevant factors in recent years in determining the success of wheat production under heat stress conditions. Throughout its growth period wheat crop requires varying degrees of temperature to achieve ideal growth. Any variation from optimal temperature adversely affects plant growth and development. Many places where wheat is grown have high temperatures at the time of grain filling which is a major constraint on yield potential. A field experiment was conducted during the Rabi season of 2020-21 at Student’s Instructional Farm of Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh to evaluate the performance of wheat varieties under heat stress conditions. The treatment for the experiment consisted of sowing on three different dates i.e. D1 (30th November), D2 (15th December), D3 (30th December). It was observed that time of sowing decreased substantially almost all the yield components measured viz; number of ear bearing tillers per plant, number of grains per ear, ear length (cm), grain yield per plant (g), biological yield per plant (g), which caused severe reduction of yield in V1 (PBW-343) and V2 (HD-2967). This reduction was caused due to onset of high temperature during crop growth and particularly grain filling. Variety V3 (Halna) reduced the detrimental effect of heat stress by improving physiological traits which ultimately helped in obtaining higher yield.

##### Climatic Conditions and Agricultural Production in Lower Zio Valley (Southern Togo)

Lemou Faya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 555-563
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030830

This study was carried out in the lower Zio valley, an area located between a latitude of 6.13o and 6.20°N and a longitude of 1.04° and 1.32°E. This zone has increasingly undergone significant climate change in recent decades. The main consequence of this climatic phenomenon is the decline in the standard of living of rural communities whose main economic activity is agriculture. This research aims not only at investigating the variations that characterize the climate but also at analyzing the impact on agricultural production at the scale of the research site. The data of certain climatic parameters such as Rainfall, temperature and evapotranspiration from the period 1981-2020 were used in order to achieve the objective of the study. The Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPI), the Martonne aridity indices, the Lamb index and the Pettit test are the statistical treatments used to describe the hydro-climatic manifestations of the research area. The results from the various statistical processing of climate data show that the lower Zio valley is undergoing more or less significant climate changes with an upward trend in cumulative rainfall. The standardized index made it possible to highlight the rainfall variations characterized by the alternation of surplus and deficit years. Indeed, the years of increased rainfall are for example: 1999 with 30.27% water surplus; 2010 with 27.2% and 2017 with 22.99%. On the other hand, some of the deficit years are 1983 with 34.70% of deficits; 1992 with -36.98% and 2000 with -34.70%. In addition, the low temperature differences are 1.05°C in Lomé and 0.59°C in Tabligbo. In the end, all these climatic phenomena disrupt the normal course of crop development cycles and provoke lower agricultural yields.

##### Effect of Plant Growth Regulators at Different Levels of Zinc on Growth and Yield of Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.)

Kakulavarapu Navya Sri Subha, Biswarup Mehera

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 564-570
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030831

The field experiment entitled “Effect of Plant Growth Regulator at different levels of Zinc on growth and yield of Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.)”  was conducted during kharif season of 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P). The  experiment plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly acidic in soil reaction (PH 6.9), low in organic carbon  (0.112%),  available  N  (278.93Kg/ha),  available  P(10.8Kg/ha)  and  available  K  (206.4Kg/ha).The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design, treatments of different  plant growth regulator levels (75, 100 and 125 ppm) and zinc levels viz.(20,25 and 30 kg/ha) were imparted in the experiment and were replicated thrice.

The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design comprised of 3 replications and total 9 treatments viz. T1: (GA3)75PPM + 20 kg/ha ZnSO4, T2: (GA3) 75PPM   + 25 kg/ha ZnSO4, T3: (GA3) 75PPM+ 30 kg/ha ZnSO4, T4:(GA3) 100PPM + 20 kg/ha ZnSO4, T5: (GA3) 100PPM +25 kg/ha ZnSO4,  T6: (GA3) 100PPM + 30 kg/haZnSO4, T7: (GA3) 125PPM + 20 kg/ha ZnSO4, T8: (GA3) 125PPM + 25 kg/ha ZnSO4, T9: (GA3) 125PPM +30 kg/ha ZnSO4.  Results obtained indicated that there was significant increase in growth parameters at harvest viz., plant height (58.40cm), number of nodules/plant (59.77), dry weight accumulation(38.1g),and yield attributes viz., No.pods/plant(19.3), No.kernals/pod (4.3), seed index(44.50), seed yield (3169 kg/ha), Haulm yield (4747.3kg/ha) were recorded with the application of (GA3125ppm+ ZnSO4 30kg/ha). However, Maximum Gross return (142636.5 INR/ha), Net return (102971.1INR/ha) and B:C ratio (2.59) was recorded with the application of (GA3125ppm+ ZnSO4 30kg/ha). Therefore, it is concluded that the application of (GA3125ppm+ZnSO430kg/ha) was more productive and economically feasible.

##### Effect of Nitrogen Levels and Planting Methods on Growth and Yield of Black Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Khwairakpam Jesiya, C. Umesha, M. R. Meshram, Khwairakpam Akash

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 578-583
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030833

Background: Compared to other types of rice, black rice  has the highest protein content vitamins and minerals. Black rice contains essential amino acids like lysine, tryptophan; vitamins such as vitamin B1, vitamin B2, folic acid; and it is a good source of minerals including iron, zinc, calcium, phosphorus and selenium.

Objectives: Impact of nitrogen levels and planting methods on black rice growth and production.

Methods:  A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2021, at crop research farm of Department of Agronomy at Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj in North Eastern plains of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. under randomized block design comprising of 9 treatments of which treatments (T1-T9) with different combination of nitrogen along with different planting meathods which are replicated thrice.

Conclusion: The treatment Nitrogen at 75 kg/ha nitrogen + SRI  method recorded maximum. Plant height (118.13 cm), number of tillers/hill (11.00), plant dry weight (31.62 g/plant), number of panicles per hill (10.83), number of grains per panicle (196.70), number of filled grains per panicle (116.33), grain yield (4.61 t/ha) and straw yield (11.38 t/ha). Because the findings are based on research conducted during a single season, they may be repeated for further confirmation.

##### Effect of Seed Treatment with Biofertilizers and Plant Growth Regulators on the Growth and Yield Attributing Characters of Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

Md Arman, Bineeta M. Bara, Prashant Kumar Rai, Abhishek Kumar Pal, Kshetrimayum Ellena Devi, Sanka Rajesh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 584-592
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030834

India is one of the largest producers of Field pea in the world and stands at the 5th place in the list of major pea producers next to Russia. A field experiment was conducted during Rabi  2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The experiment was placed in a randomized blocking design and consisted of 13 treatments and 3 replicates. The experimental results revealed that viz: Field emergence (%), plant height @ 30, 60 and 90 DAS, Days to 50% flowering, number of branches per plant, days to maturity. biological yield (gm), were recorded significantly highest in the treatment of T9: Gibberellic acid 100 ppm @12 hrs and yield parameters like Number pods per plant, Numbers of seeds per pod, Seed yield per plant (gm), Seed yield per plot (gm), Biological yield (gm), Seed index (gm) and Harvest index (%) were recorded significantly highest in the treatment of (T3) Rhizobium 30g @12 hrs as compared to the other treatment. It is clearly concluded from the research that T3: (Rhizobium 30g @12 hrs) significantly produced more yield. Hence the seed treatment of Rhizobium 30g @12 hrs could be recommended for the field pea.

##### Mitigation Option for GHG Emission from Wetland Rice Cultivation

C. Pradipa, N. Maragatham, K. Senthil Raja, V. Geethalakshmi, S. D. Sivakumar, M. Maheswari

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 571-577
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030837

The study on the effect of soil amendments and fertilizers on the mitigation of CH4 and N2O emission from rice field was conducted in the Wetland farm of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University farm, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India during rabi season. The results showed that the use of Gypsum and Fly Ash along with recommended dose of fertilizer reduced the emission of methane whereas urea with neem treatment reduced the N2O emission from the conventional water logged rice field. Methane emission was found to peak during the panicle initiation stage while nitrous oxide emission was noted only during the maturity stage. The application of Fly Ash along with gypsum had cut down the methane emission to a greater extent at all the stages. Nitrous oxide emission was reduced with the application of slow release N fertilizer (neem treated urea).

##### Effect of Plant Growth Regulators and Spacing on Growth and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Kampally Mary Varshitha, Vikram Singh, Shruthi Grace George, A. C. Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 614-619
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030839

Background: Chickpea is leguminous crop, which offers a good nutrition to people across the world. As a rich source of vitamins, minerals, and fiber, chickpeas may offer a variety of health benefits, such as aiding weight management, improving digestion, and reducing your risk of disease.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of Plant growth regulators and spacing in growth and yield of Chickpea.

Methods: With the goal of studying the effect of plant growth regulators and spacing on growth and yield of Chickpea under a Randomized block design with 9 treatments (T1-T9) The experimental results revealed that GA3@10ppm+30cmx10cm produced maximum plant height (56.84), plant dry weight (17.45g/plant) no of nodules per plant (23.33) and yield parameters no of pods per plant (65.50) no of seeds per pod (1.84) seed yield (2.07 ta/ha) and stover yield (3.11ta /ha).

Conclusion: The combination of GA3@10ppm and 30cmx10cm proved to be the most advantageous to farmers, resulting in 56.84cm plant height, 17.45-gm plant dry weight, no of nodules per plant (23.33) and yield parameters no of pods per plant (65.50) no of seeds per pod (1.84) seed yield (2.07 ta/ha) and stover yield (3.11ta /ha), respectively.

##### Effect of Organic Manures and Boron on Growth and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

G. Amarnath Reddy, C. Umesha

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 620-625
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030840

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.1), low in organic carbon (0.36%), available N (171.48 kg/ha), available P (15.2 kg/ha) and available K (232.5 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments each replicated thrice on the basis of one year experimentation. The treatments which are T1: Vermicompost 3 t/ha + Boron @ 1 kg/ha, T2: Vermicompost 3 t/ha + Boron @ 1.5 kg/ha, T3: Vermicompost 3 t/ha + Boron @ 2 kg/ha, T4: Poultry manure 4 t/ha + Boron @ 1 kg/ha, T5: Poultry manure 4 t/ha + Boron @ 1.5 kg/ha, T6: Poultry manure 4 t/ha + Boron @ 2 kg/ha, T7: Farmyard Manure 5 t/ha + Boron @ 1 kg/ha, T8: Farmyard Manure 5 t/ha + Boron @ 1.5 kg/ha, T9: Farmyard Manure 5 t/ha + Boron @ 2 kg/ha are used. The results showed that application of Poultry manure 4 t/ha + Boron @ 2 kg/ha was recorded significantly higher Plant height (42.45 cm), No. of Nodules/plant (19.74) and Plant dry weight (8.63 g/plant). Significantly highest Pods/plant (30.06), Seeds/Pod (1.80), Test weight (223.07 g), Seed yield (1811.28 kg/ha), Stover yield (3217.59 kg/ha) was obtained in the treatment of Poultry manure 4 t/ha + Boron @ 2 kg/ha as compared to other treatments.

##### Impact of Nitrogen and Iron on Growth and Yield Attributes of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Mandra Vamsidhar Reddy, Rajesh Singh, Indu Thakur

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 626-630
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030841

Background: Chickpea is leguminous crop, which offers a good nutrition to people across the world. Chickpea ranks second after soybean as the common leguminous crop that people grow and consume across the world. Therefore, its study is significant because chickpea has nutritional and economic importance in the world.

Objectives: Effect of Nitrogen and Iron on growth and yield of Chickpea.

Methods: With the goal of studying the effect of Nitrogen and Iron on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) var RVG-202 under a Randomized block design with 9 treatments which are replicated thrice. The experimental results revealed that of 25 kg/ha Nitrogen +7.5kg /ha Iron recorded maximum plant height (48.8 cm), number of nodules per plant (23.0), plant dry weight (55.7g/plant), number of pods per plant (61.2), number of seeds per pod (3.5), Seed yield (1919.1 kg/ha), Haulm Yield (3186.6 kg/ha).

Conclusion: 25 kg/ha Nitrogen and 7.5kg /ha Iron determined to be the most beneficial to farmers, resulting in plant height (48.8 cm), dry weight (55.7g/plant), nodules per plant (23.0), number of pods per plant (61.2), number of seeds per pod (3.5), seed yield (1919.1kg/ha) and Haulm yield (3186.6 kg/ha).

##### Herbicide Options for Suitable Weed Management of Transplanted rice in North-Eastern Ghat Zone of Odisha

P. J. Mishra, H. K. Sahoo, L. M. Garnayak, P. K. Roul, U. S. Nagothu, P. K. Panda, S. Mohanty, B. P. Patra, S. Mangaraj, A. Mishra

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 631-639
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030842

A field study aimed to assess different weed management tactics in transplanted rice was demonstrated during rainy season in four villages of Ganjam district of Odisha under farmer participatory mode for two years (2019 and 2020). From the concluded research work, it was observed that application of pretilachlor (0.75 kg/ha) within 3 DAT followed by bispyribac sodium @ 25kg/ha at 25 DAT recorded the highest WCE (73.27%), grain (4186 and 4351 kg/ha) and straw yield (5349 and 5308 kg/ha). Hand weeding performed better with respect to WCE (80.1, 81.3 % at harvest) but net return (Rs. 37073 /ha, Rs. 38119 /ha) was found to be low. While Pretilachlor (0.75 kg/ha) within 3 DAT followed by bispyribac sodium (25 kg/ha) at 25 DAT recorded the highest net return (Rs. 41798/ha, Rs. 43956 /ha) and B:C ratio (1.87, 1.89) than other treatments.

##### Complementation of Biochemical and Physiological Assays with Functional PGPR Based Assays to Screen Potential Isolates

Parijat De, Ashok Choudhury, Parimal Panda, Anarul Hoque

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 640-647
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030845

The work deals with the biochemical characterization of rhizospheric isolates including Indole, Methyl Red, Voges Proskauer, Citrate test (IMViC test) based quantitative biochemical assay, PGPR properties like nitrogen assimilation (in microbes), phosphate solubilization etc. A special aspect of finding the correlation between the biochemical tests and PGPR properties were also studied. Methyl red test and tryptophanase assay (by indole test) were found to be positively and negatively correlated with phosphate solubilization. Vogues Proskeur and citrate utilization tests were negatively correlated with the phosphate solubilization. In future, these biochemical tests can be used as determining factors to identify phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Moreover, a group of bacteria was identified by the scatter plot analysis which shows low acid production with high phosphate solubilization. Lastly, we have given a new approach of screening rhizospheric bacteria based on motility on nitrogen deficient media.

##### Profitability of Annual Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronium L.) Flower Production as Influenced by Application of Mycorrhiza and Vermicompost

Ali Haidar Shah, Nomita Laishram, Arvinder Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 648-654
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030846

To check the effect of mycorrhiza on growth and flowering of chrysanthemum, an open field experiment was conducted the effect of vermicompost and mycorrhizal treatments on profitability of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Treatments comprises of 04 mycorrhiza treatments (No application, Glomus mosseae, Acaulospora laevis, Gigaspora margarita) and 04 vermicompost doses (0 g/ m2, 500 g/ m2, 750 g/ m2, 1 kg/ m2). The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications. Chrysanthemum plants showed improved growth and flowering with the application of vermicompost and mycorrhiza. In the present investigations, economic analysis of different treatments reveals that application of treatment M3V2 (Gigaspora margarita + Vermicompost @ 750 g/m2) resulted in highest benefit cost ratio (5.83) closely followed by benefit cost ratio of the treatments; M2 V2 (Acaulospora laevis + Vermicompost @ 750 g/m2) and M1 V2 (Glomus mosseae + Vermicompost @ 750 g/m2).

##### Storability and Quality Attributes of Pear (Pyrus communis L.) cv. Carmen Fruits at Ambient Storage Conditions as Influenced by Foliar Application of Salicylic Acid and Calcium Chloride

Mehnigar Hamid, Angrej Ali, Amit Kumar, Amarjeet Singh Sundouri, Shabnam Ahad, Sumaya Mumtaz, Shahida Ashraf

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 655-663
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030847

An investigation was carried out to examine the storage behaviour and biochemical quality of pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruits cv. Carmen raised on Quince C rootstock as affected by pre-harvest foliar application of salicylic acid and calcium chloride treatments. The treatments consisted of four levels each of salicylic acid (0, 100, 150 and 200 ppm) and Calcium chloride (0, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30 %). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design in factorial arrangements with three replications. The treatments were applied as a foliar spray at 3, 6 and 9 weeks after the petal fall. Control plants were sprayed with water. After harvest, fruits were stored under ambient conditions for 7, 14 and 21 days. Postharvest physiological loss in weight (PLW), rotting percentage, total soluble solids, total sugars and reducing sugars in fruits was increased. In contrast, fruit firmness, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content decreased with an increase over storage periods. Salicylic acid @ 200 ppm and calcium chloride @ 0.30 % resulted minimum physiological loss in weight and rotting percentage. Also, salicylic acid @ 200 ppm and calcium chloride @ 0.30 % were effective in minimizing the loss of fruit firmness, titrable acidity and ascorbic acid content. In conclusion, the salicylic acid @ 200 ppm and calcium chloride @ 0.30 % were found to be effective in improving pear cv. Carmen fruits storability by reducing physiological loss in weight and fruit rotting; and maintaining the biochemical quality.

##### Standarsidation, Nutritional and Phytonutrient Composition of Aerva lanata Incorporated Product

Kanneboina Soujanya, B. Anila Kumari, E. Jyothsna

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 664-672
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030848

Nutritionally rich snack item was developed by the incorporation of a wild green leafy vegetable powder-Aerva lanata. The plant has good nutritional, cultural and medicinal value. The present study evaluated and compared the nutritional and phytonutrient composition of value-added snack along with its control. It was found the increase in protein (18.24g/100g), ash (3.34g/100g), crude fiber (2.65g/100g), vitamin C (2.86mg/100g), total carotenoid (233.21μg/100g) and beta carotenoid (34.14μg/100g) content of the leaf incorporated murukku than its control. The minerals like the calcium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, phosphorus, potassium was increased by 159.47, 121.73, 20.12, 25.0, 42.7, 2.55, 6.58% whereas sodium content was decreased by 15.54% in the product then the control sample. The qualitative analysis of methanolic extracts of products identified the presence of proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, phlobatinins and steroids. The phenolic, flavonoid and tannic acid content of product was increased by 96.52, 842.99 and 64.02% respectively. The study concluded that the product was best accepted than the control sample in all organoleptic properties. In addition, incorporation of leaf powder increased the nutritional, mineral and antioxidant activity of the product. Value addition of the wild green leafy vegetable in traditional food products improves the palatability, dietary diversity and improves the nutritional status.

##### Constraints Faced by Farmers due to COVID-19 Disruptions on Agricultural Activities in Nalgonda District of Telangana, India

Amtul Waris, Battu Jangaiah, Jana Harish

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 688-695
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030851

The objective of the study was to provide insights on disruptions faced by farmers due to COVID-19 for harvest of rabi (winter) crop and preparations for kharif (summer) crop and to suggest appropriate policy measures to enable farmers to cope with similar disruptions in agricultural activities. Data were collected from 125 farmers from five tribal hamlets of Deverkonda mandal of Nalgonda district of Telangana state. The major constraints reported by almost all the farmers (99.2%) were financial problems primarily due to loss of wage work, repayment of informal loans (83%), fear of contracting COVID-19 (92%) and health of family members (89%) which adversely affected their work efficiency. Paddy crop was the most affected as rated by 80.8% of the farmers, followed by vegetables 52.8%, groundnut 41.6%, cotton 37.6%, redgram 16.8% and fruit crops(sweet lime) 13.6% respectively. The farmers faced problems in land preparation (92.8%), high cost of inputs (96.8%), and low availability of inputs (75.2%), transport problems to procure inputs (96.8%), labour shortage (67.2%) and storage of unsold produce (75.2%). Shortage of animal feed (79.2%) and health care of animals (85.6%) were the constraints faced in livestock care. The harvesting of paddy was the most affected due to shortage of labour and harvesting machines. Community seed and animal feed banks, collectives like farmer producer organizations, collateral free credit, small packaging of inputs, promotion of youth entrepreneurship in processing storage and sale of produce and mechanization of small farms, direct procurement, logistic support are some of the immediate and mid- term measures being suggested for building resilience of food systems to face future risks.

##### Determination of Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids under Agro-climatic Conditions of Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India

Prince Jose, Vikram Singh, Shruti Grace George, A. C. Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 696-699
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030852

Worldwide Maize (Zea mays L.) is referred to as the “Miracle Crop” due to its high genetic yield potential compared to other Gramineae family members. Hybridization plays a vital role in boosting the production and productivity of maize, which is crucial for mitigating food insecurity in developing countries. To find out the best hybrid among the maize hybrids, a field experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 2021 at the experimental field of the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted for “Evaluation of Maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids under agro-climatic conditions of   Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh”. The experiment was done on 10 maize Hybrids. It was carried out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The report of the study indicates that among different maize Hybrids, UM-12 produced significantly higher plant height (217.05 cm), number of leaves per plant (12.80), dry weight per plant (151.25 g), cob length (16.62 cm), number of rows per cob (14.80), number of grains per row (31.73), seed yield (8.27 t/ha) and stover yield (20.50 t/ha). Hence, it can be concluded that the Maize hybrid UM-12 was found to be the most suitable, productive and economical for the agroclimatic conditions of Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh.

##### Effect of Crop Geometry and Age of Seedlings on Its Growth, Flower Yield and Quality of Statice (Limonium sinuatum L.) under Prayagraj Agro Climatic Conditions

Myakala Rajesh Kumar, Samir Ebson Topno, Anita Kerketta

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 700-708
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030853

The objective of this study is to find out the most suitable treatments for plant growth and flower yield and quality of Limonium (Limonium sinuatum L.) under prayagraj agro climatic conditions. The study was carried out at Experimental field, Department of Horticulture, Naini Agriculture Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P.), India during Rabi season 2021-2022. The experiment was laid out in a Factorial randomized block design (FRBD) with 8 treatments which is replicated thrice. The first factor consists of four different levels age of seedlings i,e. 25,30,35,40 days old seedlings, second factor with two different spacings 45×60 cm and 30×45 cm. In Growth parameters, T7 (40 days seedlings + spacing of 45×60 cm) recorded significantly highest number of leaves (80.49), leaf length (32.20 cm), plant spread (45.65 cm2) Whereas, plant height was recorded significantly highest (84.80 cm) in T6 (35 days seedlings + spacing of 30×45 cm). In photosynthetic characteristics, the maximum leaf area (66.09 cm2), leaf weight (24.94 gm) and chlorophyll content (97.90 SPAD UNITS) was recorded in T7 (40 days seedlings + spacing 45×60 cm). In flowering parameters, the minimum number of days for flower stalk initiation (47.28 days) and flower duration (45.72 days) was recorded significantly in T7 (40 days seedlings + spacing of 45×60 cm) whereas, the length of flower stalk was recorded significantly highest (80.07) in T6 (35 days seedlings + spacing of 30×45 cm).The maximum yield with superior quality of flower stalks/plot was obtained significantly highest (80.22) in T6 (35 days seedlings + spacing of 30×45 cm). In post-harvest parameters the vase life of statice flower placed in water recorded maximum (8.69 days) in  T(35 days seedlings + spacing 30x45 cm), whereas vase life of statice flower placed in 2% sucrose (14.35 days) and self-life (63.33 days) of flower was recorded maximum in T7 (40 days seedlings + spacing of 45x60 cm).

##### Evaluation of Organic Manure and Bio-Fertilizer on Yield and Economics of Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba L.)

Bharti Sharma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 709-713
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030854

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.1). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments each replicated thrice on the basis of one year experimentation. It was consisting of combination of three level of bio-fertilizer VAM, Azotobacter, Azosprillium 10ml/kg seed each and used organic manure FYM 5.0t/h, Vermicompost and Neem cake 1.0t/h each. The results showed that application of Vermicompost 1.0 t/ha + Azospirillum 10ml/kg seed was recorded significantly higher siliquae/plant (159.32), seeds/siliquae (40.57), days to maturity (88.95), test weight (3.14 g), seed yield (1.71 t/ha) and oil content (42.38 %), gross returns (Rs.102800.00/ha), net return (Rs.72240.00/ha) and benefit cost ratio (2.36) as compared to other treatments.

##### Response of Organic, Inorganic and Bio-fertilizers on Qualitative, Yield and Economics of Bottle-gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl) c.v. BB0G-3-1

Menka Pathak, Sunil Kumar Dash, Gouri Shankar Sahu, Pradyumna Tripathy, Antaryami Mishra, Rabindra Kumar Nayak

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 714-722
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030855

The current study was carried out during the 2019 Kharif season at the Department of                 Vegetable Science, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT), Bhubaneswar, to determine the impact of organic manures and chemical fertilizers on the yield attributing characters, quality, and economics of Bottle gourd (Lagenaria Siceraria L.) cv. BBOG-3-1. The experiment consisted of Twelve treatments and three replications. Organic manures, inorganic fertilizers                    and Bio-fertilizers were used in twelve different treatments. viz.,T1(Control),T2(100% RDF)                (80:50:50 Kg NPK ha-1), T3 (FYM @15 t ha-1), T4 (Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1], T5 (50% RDF + FYM @ 7.5 t ha-1 +Biofertilizer), T6 ( 50%RDF+ Vermicompost@2.5tha-1+ Biofertilizer), T7 (FYM @ 7.5 t ha-1 +Biofertilizer),T8(50%RDF+Biofertilizer),T9(Vermicompost@2.5tha+Biofertilizer),T10(100%RDF+FYM @7.5tha1+Biofertilizer),T11(100%RDF+Vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1 + Biofertilizer) and T12(50% RDF + FYM @7.5 t ha-1+ Vermicompost @ 2.5t ha-1+ Biofertilizer), Out of these, an application of 50%RDF+FYM@7.5t ha-1 + Vermicompost @ 2.5t ha-1+ Biofertilizer (T12) had a beneficial effect on minimum days to the first fruit harvest(59.00days), maximum days to last harvest(92.00days), Average Fruit weight(1231g), TSS(4.97ºBrix), Ascorbic acid(8.60 mg100gm-1), Reducing Sugar (3.78%), Non-Reducing Sugar(1.89%), Total Sugar(5.67%),Yield (44.82kg plot-1),Yield(280.13qha-1) and B:C ratio (2.92 ).

##### Correlation and Path Analysis for Yield and Quality Traits in Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

J. Buelah, V. Ram Reddy, B. Srinivas, N. Balram

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 723-728
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030856

24 hybrids generated by crossing four male sterile lines with six testers in line x tester fashion were studied along with their parents and checks (BIO-799 and PA 6129) for correlation and path analysis. The results emphasized the need for selection, based on plant type with greater plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, head rice recovery, milling percentage, spikelet fertility, panicle length and kernel length. Since, these traits were found to be the important direct contributors for grain yield.

##### Influence of Commonly Available Food sources on Extension of Vase Life of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) cv. Swarnima

A. Sowjanya, K. Kaladhar Babu, P. Prasanth, S. Praneeth Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 729-736
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030857

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commonly available food sources in extending the vase life of cut gladiolus. It was carried out at Floricultural Research Station, Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Rajendranagar during 2020-2021. The preservatives used were Sugar (10, 20g), Coconut water (25, 50%), Sprite (50, 100 ml), Honey (5, 10%) and control (Distilled water) in Completely randomized design with nine treatments. Highest water uptake (22.62, 14.62, 11.29 g), transpirational loss of water (20.82, 13.00, 10.28 g), Water balance (6.80, 6.41, 6.01 g), Fresh weight change (106.69, 98.73, 89.36 % ), lowest optical density (0.037, 0.042, 0.054 nm) on 2nd, 4th and 6th day of vase life respectively, minimum number of days to first floret opening (1.69 days), maximum diameter of basal floret (10.33 cm) and longevity of basal floret (2.63 days), highest number of florets opened on spike when basal floret is fresh (2.33), number of florets opened per spike at the end of the vase life (10.89) and highest vase life (9.33 days) was recorded in treatment sprite 100 ml. Based on these findings it can be inferred that Sprite 100 ml can be used as an effective food source alternative to chemical preservatives to enhance the vase life of cut gladiolus.

##### Heritability Analysis for Horticultural Traits in Tomato under Low Cost Polyhouse Conditions of Jammu Subtropics

Rakesh Kumar, Anil Bhushan, R. K. Samnotra, Sonali Sharma, Reshav Naik, Mohammed Sajid Chheepa, Vimal Kumar Naga

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 737-741
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030858

Biometrical assessment of genetic parameters for horticultural traits in tomato under Low Cost Polyhouse Conditions of Jammu Subtropics divulged minute differences among GCV and PCV, indicating less environmental influences on the traits under consideration. High heritability & genetic gain were noticed for important yield and yield contributing traits viz., yield per plant (99.91% & 75.28%), fruit weight (99.42% & 74.91%), fruit equatorial diameter (99.15% & 50.08%), no. of fruits per plant (98.61% & 66.70%), no. of flowers per cluster (98.27% & 55.48%), plant height (93.27% & 46.86%), number of fruits per truss (96.17% & 44.66%), number of branches per plant (96.43% & 37.98%), fruit polar diameter (83.06% & 38.40%) and quality traits viz., lycopene content (98.69% & 98.97%),TSS (97.37% & 39.82%) and fruit pericarp thickness (83.20% & 35.21%). High heritability combined with high genetic gain suggests a significant role for additive gene action in regulating these traits and suggests using simple selection as a breeding method to improve these traits.

##### Validation and Feedback Analysis of Agromet Advisory Services in Khammam District of Telangana under KVK, Wyra

Nagaraju Dharavath, J. Hemantha Kumar, W. Jessie Suneetha, K. Ravi Kumar, V. Chaitanya, P. S. M. Phanisri, R. Uma Reddy, J. V. Prasad

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 742-752
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030860

The success or failure of a crop is heavily depends on accumulation of received amount and intensity of rainfall mostly from southwest and northeast monsoon. Crop loss can be minimized by making adjustment through timely and accurate weather forecasting. Hence, there is necessity to validate the coming five days rainfall forecast analysis to determine the accuracy skill for managing strategic decisions by farmers. For validation of rainfall forecast qualitative and quantitative verification methods were adopted by India Meteorological Department, New Delhi. In these results, validation of qualitative and quantitative verification methods for southwest and northeast monsoon, 2021 indicated that high skill score for all ASD (agro sub divisional) level and moderate skill score for Khammam district level. A survey was conducted randomly for 230 farmers during year 2021-22 for reviewing effectiveness of agromet advisory services (AAS). The results indicated that most of farmers have been following AAS and checking weather forecast for post harvest operations like sowing / transplanting, harvesting / threshing, pesticide application, irrigation application, fertilizer application and other farm operations. It was observed from survey that 60.4 % of respondents rated AAS as highly satisfactory service.

##### Impact of Yield Attributes and Yields of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.)) Varieties under Different Sowing Windows

D. Nagaraju, S. B. Kharbade, V. A. Sthool, A. A. Shaikh, J. D. Jadhav, R. Balasubramanian

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 753-762
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030861

An agro-meteorological investigation was undertaken to determine“the impact of crop yield attributes and yield of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) varieties under different sowing windows” during kharif, 2017-18 and 2018-19 at Department of Agricultural Meteorology, College of Agriculture, Pune. In this context, an experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The treatment comprised of four varieties viz., Vipula, Rajeshwari (Phule T 0012), BDN 711 and ICPH 2740 as main plot and four sowing windows viz., 24th, 26th MW, 28th and 30th MW as sub plot treatments. Yield contributing characters viz., number of pods plant-1 (149.5 and 143.0), weight of pods plant-1 (113.8 and 107.6 g) and 100 seed weight (10.79 and 10.75 g) were found significantly higher in var. ICPH 2740 over var. Vipula, Rajeshwari and BDN 711.Grain yield (26.59 and 28.14 q ha-1) and stalk yield (39.61 and 36.7 q ha-1) were significantly higher in var. ICPH 2740 followed by var. Rajeshwari, Vipula and BDN 711.On the other hand, Grain yield (24.31 and 22.86 q ha-1) and stalk yield (63.6 and 61.8 q ha-1) was higher in 24th MW sowing window during the year 2017-18 and 2018-19, respectively.

##### Contribution of Spatial Maps in Groundwater Potential Zones using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System

Neelam Bunkar, R. K. Nema, M. K. Awasthi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 763-774
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030862

Now a days, surface water resources are becoming insufficient to fulfil the water demand because utility enhanced as compare to availability. Therefore a systematic planning of groundwater improvement using modern technique is essential for the proper management and utilization of this valuable resource. Total annual supply will basically completed by major source that is groundwater. The manifesto of this paper is to identify the contribution of spatial map and their methodologies applied for acquiring groundwater potential zones of study area using remote sensing and GIS. The parameters that are used here for identifying their importance in controlling groundwater potential zones slope, drainage density, lineament density, geology, geomorphology, soil texture, land use land cover and rainfall. Vital importance of groundwater potential was to identification of appropriate locations for extraction of water. The remote sensing and GIS tool have a significant tool for land and water resource studies. The result demonstrated that integration of remote sensing and GIS tool with the detail information about the themes and their effect on the groundwater will assess the groundwater potential of study area.

##### Influence of Potassium Levels and Spacing on Growth and Yield of Summer Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Kaithi Adithya Reddy, Umesha C., Mannepu Venkata Sai Ganesh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 775-779
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030863

Background: Groundnuts are immensely rich in potassium, calcium, phosphorus and B vitamins which offers you with a host of health benefits. Groundnuts are a great blend of healthy fats, protein and fibre that curbs your appetite, lowers the risk of heart disease and regulates blood glucose levels.

Objectives: Effects of potassium levels and spacing on growth and yield of summer groundnut.

Methods: With the goal of studying the effect of potassium and spacing on growth and yield of groundnut under a Randomized block design with 9 treatments (T1-T9) The experimental results revealed that 120 kg N/ha + 60 kg P/ha produced maximum plant height (49.7 cm) No. of Nodules/Plant (106) plant dry weight (22.9) No of pods (19.3) no of kernals (2.7) pod yield (3.62 ta/ha) Halum yield (4.65 ta/ha).

Conclusion: The combination of 40 kg potassium and 30x10 proved to be the most advantageous to farmers, resulting in, plant height (49.7 cm) No. of Nodules/Plant(106) plant dry weight (22.9) No of pods (19.3) no of kernals (2.7) pod yield (3.62 ta/ha) Halum yield (4.65 ta/ha) respectively.

##### Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis in Maize (Zea mays L.)

N. Tejaswini, K. Sukumar, T. Srikanth, B. Mallaiah

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 780-787
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030864

Maize is (Zea mays L.) is one of the versatile and diversified crop grown under different agro-climatic conditions. Twenty-eight experimental hybrids along with eight inbred lines and one commercial check were evaluated at agricultural polytechnic, Polasa, jagtial to determine correlation and path analysis for yield and yield attributing traits. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with three replications. Correlation studies revealed that ear girth and 100 grain weight had showed highest positive significant correlation with grain yield per plant. Path coefficient analysis exhibited that days to 50% silking had highest positive direct effect on grain yield per plant followed by hundred grain weight, ear girth, number of kernels per row, number of kernels per row and plant height at phenotypic level and genotypic levels. Hence, these traits can be taken as the useful criteria for the development of superior hybrids that ultimately benefit the family community to improve their net income.

##### An Evaluation of the Performance of Five Meteorological Drought Monitoring Indices Over an Arid and Semi-Arid Region of Gujarat (India)

Bhukya Srinivas, Mukesh Kumar Tiwari, Gautam R. Patel

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 800-818
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030865

Drought Monitoring plays an important role in drought risk assessment and management. Different meteorological drought indices are normally used to determine drought, which are essentially constant functions of rainfall and hydro-meteorological factors. A universal drought index cannot be used to evaluate the severity of drought in a specific region due to the essential difficulty of drought phenomena, hydro-climatic factors, and watershed characteristics. Classifying an appropriate drought index requires evaluating the performance of various drought indices. This study evaluated 5 meteorological drought indices for Gujarat, India utilizing a dataset from a total of 167 raingauge and climate stations having over 30 years (1986-2015 of the dataset). In various countries, several droughts indices have been introduced and utilized. This study evaluates the effectiveness of 5 meteorological drought monitoring indices in Gujarat. The following meteorological drought indexes were chosen based on data availability: Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Percent Departure from Normal (PDN), Effective Drought Index (EDI), and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI). The EDI is a time step independent drought indicator, with 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month time intervals defined for the four multi-time scale indices. This drought index was compared using several time scales of multi-time scale drought indices based on their association with the EDI. The evaluation of drought indices during the historic drought was assessed based on the occurrence and response of drought indices within the specific drought severity classes. In the present study area, the 9-month scale is suitable for comparisons of drought indices. The SPEI-9 had the highest relative occurrence in the 'severe dry' class, and it was subtle to 9-monthly rainfall in most districts. As a result of the study, SPEI-9 is considered the best drought index.

##### Influence of Bio Fertilizers and Zinc on Growth and Yield of Lentil (Lens culinaris L.)

Sammeta Mounika, Biswarup Mehera, Devarapalli Sathvik, Nitta Chandan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 788-793
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030866

A   field   experiment  was conducted in Crop   Research   Farm,   Department of  Agronomy, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Science, Prayagraj, (U.P), during the rabi  season of 2021-22 with the objective to study the “Influence of bio fertilizers and zinc on growth and yield of Lentil (Lens culinaris L.)”. The soil in the experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, pH (7.2), low in organic carbon (0.82%), available N (274.48 kg/ha), available P (26.80 kg/ha) and available K (230.24 kg/ha).The layout of the experiment was done in a Randomized block design with nine treatments which is replicated thrice. The bio fertilizers (Rhizobium, Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM)) @ 25 g/kg of seeds and three levels of zinc (4,5,6 kg/ha).Growth and yield parameters namely plant height, number of nodules/plant, dry weight, pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, test weight, seed yield, Stover yield, harvest index were collected from this experiment. Results revealed that significantly higher plant height (35.24 cm), dry weight (25.64), number of nodules (8.33/plant), pods/plant (160.32), seeds/pod (1.89), seed yield (1.79 t/ha), Stover yield (2.60 t/ha) were recorded with treatment combination of Rhizobium at 25 g/kg seeds + Zinc at 6 kg/ha (treatment 3). Maximum gross return (91290.00 INR/ha), net returns (62405.65 INR/ha), and benefit cost (2.16) were obtained highest in the treatment combination of Rhizobium at 25 g/kg seeds + Zinc at 6 kg/ha (treatment 3).

##### An Alternative to Conventional Rice: Direct Sowing with Drum Seeder

K. Ravalika, Y. Archana Karuni, K. Suhasini, T. Bharat, D. Srinivasa Chary

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 794-799
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030867

Objective: The current study is to compare the economics of rice cultivation by Conventional method (CR) versus Direct sowing with drum seeder (DSR) and to rank the constraints faced by DSR adopted farmers.

Methods: Cost concepts were used for comparative economic analysis and Garrett ranking technique was used for analysing the constraints faced by the DSR adopted farmers. The present study was conducted in Nalgonda district of Telangana with sample of 80 farmers.

Findings: Direct sowing with drum seeder was proved to be cost effective and profitable compared to conventional rice cultivation. Cost C2 of DSR (81518.9 Rs./ha) was lower than Cost C2 of CR (87535.4 Rs./ha). Net returns of DSR (44839.2 Rs./ha) was higher when compared to CR (41784 Rs./ha).

Conclusion: It is evident from the results of the economic analysis and the feedback received from the farmers that, direct sowing of rice with drum seeder with proper weed management was feasible and most practical alternative for the farmers to go for rice cultivation in the event of uncertain monsoon, increased cost of cultivation and labour shortage besides resource optimization in Telangana state. Therefore, DSR is considered to be the best alternative for rice cultivation addressing the issues of conventional system.

##### A Study on Extent of Adoption of Agro- Enterprises by Women Agripreneurs and Constraints Faced Due to the Climatic Severity in Coastal Odisha, India

Debasmita Nayak, Radhashyam Panigrahi, Angelina Patro

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 819-822
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030868

Women agripreneurship development became an essential part of human resource development. It makes the women financially independent and enhances the self esteem of them. The present study has been conducted with the objective to know the extent of adoption of agricultural enterprises by women agripreneurs of Coastal Odisha and it also determine climatic constraints. The study has been conducted in two districts of Odisha that are Balasore and Jagatsinghpur. Total 210 women agripreneurs were included in the study. Total sample size for the present study was 210. Result shows that in the research area Crop production enerprise is the highly adopted enterprise with a mean score of 2.00 and gap percentage of 33.34 where the fishery enterprise is the least adopted enterprise with a mean score of 1.19 and gap percentage of 60.15. Among the constraints incidence of flood and cyclone emerged as the main constraint.

##### Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as Affected by Bio-Fertilizer and Seaweed Extract

Prithvi Raj Kewat, Rajesh Singh, Md Kaifee, Lalit Kumar Sanodiya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 823-829
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030869

The field experiment was conducted at crop research farm (CRF) during Rabi season 2021- 22 Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P), to evaluate the influence of bio-fertiliser and seaweed extract on growth and yield of wheat. The 9 treatments consisting of Seed inoculation with Azotobacter (ASI) 20g/kg seed and 0% application of seaweed extract (SWE) (T1), ASI 20g/kg seed and 5% application of SWE (T2), ASI 20g/kg seed and 7.5% application of SWE (T3), Seed inoculation with PSB 20g/kg seed and 0% application of SWE (T4), Seed inoculation with PSB 20g/kg seed and 5% application of SWE (T5), Seed inoculation with PSB 20g/kg seed and 7.5% application of SWE (T6), Seed inoculation with both Azotobacter and PSB 10+10g/kg seed and foliar application of 0% SWE (T7), Seed inoculation with both Azotobacter and PSB 10+10g/kg seed and foliar application of 5% SWE (T8), Seed inoculation with both Azotobacter and PSB 10+10g/kg seed and foliar application of 7.5% SWE (T9), were carried in Randomized Block Design and replicated thrice. The results showed that seed inoculation with both Azotobacter and PSB 10+10g/kg seed and foliar application of 7.5% SWE at 30 and 60 days after sowing (DAS) (T9) had superior values of growth parameters i.e., plant height  (35.39, 82.58, 84.59 cm) and dry weight (6.19, 16.61, 22.85 g) at 60, 90 days after sowing (DAS) and harvest, respectively, and found more productive as it attained higher values of spikes/m2 (391.67), grains/spike (53.79), test weight (40.00), as well as grain (6.68 t/ha) and straw yields (10.68 t/ha) and proved statistically superior over other treatments but found at par to seed inoculation with both Azotobacter and PSB 10+10 g/kg seed and foliar application of 5% seaweed extract (T8).

##### Influence of Iron and Bio-Fertilizer on Growth Parameters and Yield of Baby Corn (Zea mays L.) Prayagraj Condition

Dugginaboyana Nagendra Babu, Biswarup Mehera

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 830-836
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030870

Back Ground: Baby corn maize (Zea mays L.) is a highly profitable alternative to farmers due to its short crop duration, being harvested at the juvenile stage. It demands large amounts of nutrients in a short time. Iron micronutrients gives higher yield as they play major role in assimilation rate and metabolic activities in plant. Biofertilizers are required to restore the fertility of the soil. Prolonged use of chemical fertilizers degrades the soil and affects baby corn yield.

Objectives: Effect of iron and bio-fertilizers on growth and yield of baby corn.

Methods: With the goal of studying the effect of iron and bio-fertilizers on growth and yield of Baby corn (Zea mays L.)  Var. ABV - 04 under a Randomized block design with 8 treatments (T1-T8).The experimental results revealed that 0.5% FeSO4 (3g/lit of water) + Azotobacter seed inoculation (200 g/10kg of seed)  produced maximum plant height (185.27), number of leaves/plant(12.58),plant dry weight (89.28) and yield parameters cobs/plant (2.34), cob weight without husk (12.34g), cob yield with husk(10.81 t/ha), and cob yield without husk(3.91t/ha).

Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that 0.5 percent FeSO4 (5g/lit of water) + Azotobacter seed inoculation (200 g/10kg of seed) can ensure the profitable production of baby corn. These practises could be passed on to farmers to help them earn more money in this agro-climatic zone. Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that 0.5 percent FeSO4(5g/lit of water) + Azotobacter seed inoculation (200 g/10kg of seed) can ensure the profitable production of baby corn. These practises could be passed on to farmers to help them earn more money in this agro-climatic zone.

##### Effect of Various Presowing Seed Treatments on Growth and Yield Parameters of Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba.L) Variety (ISP -186)

Bestha Kavya Sree, Bineeta M. Bara, Abhishek Kumar Pal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 837-843
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030871

The present investigation was conducted during Rabi season in the year (2021-2022) at post graduate Central Research Farm, Department of Genetics and plant Breeding , Naini Agriculture Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology And Sciences, PRAYAGRAJ-211007 (U.P) with a goal to evaluate the influence of different seed priming treatments on growth and yield attributes of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba) Variety (ISP-186) and to find out suitable seed priming method for mustard under Randomized Block Design with 13 priming treatments which are replicated thrice. The seed priming materials are rhizobium, vermiwash, neem leaf extract and tulsi leaf extract. The results revealed that treatment T3 rhizobium (10%) recorded maximum Field emergence (97.17), plant height (90.26cm) ,Number of Branches (15.07),Days to 50% flowering (71), Days to Maturity (117days), Number of siliqua\plant (289.33), Number of seeds\siliqua (16.40), seed yield /plant (7.35gm)seed yield \plot(28.7gm) Biological yield (131.54),Harvest index (17.94).significance mean sum of squares due to seed priming treatments were observed for all the characters under study viz., Field emergence percentage, Plant height (30, 60, 90, 120 DAS and at harvest), Number of branches/plant, Days to maturity, Number of silique/plant, Number of seeds/plant, seed yield/plant (gm), Seed yield/plot (gm), Biological yield (gm), Harvest index (%) which were highly significant at 1% level of significance indicating presence of good amount of variability among the treatments for these characters.

##### Impact of Climate Change on Egg Production in India and Price Behaviour of Eggs in Selected Markets of India

P. Soumya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 844-857
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030872

The present study entitled “Impact of Climate Change on Egg Production in India and Price Behaviour of Eggs in Selected Markets of India” aims to study the impact of climatic variables such as temperature, rainfall and relative humidity on egg production in India and various components of prices of eggs in selected markets of India. Multiple regression analysis revealed that temperature has a negative effect and rainfall and relative humidity have a positive effect on egg production in India. Decomposition of prices of eggs to trend, seasonal, cyclical and irregular components was done using Minitab. The data on egg prices from June 2009 to May 2022 was obtained from National Egg Coordination Committee (NECC) website. Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai are the four markets considered for the study. The average price per 100 eggs is highest in Mumbai (Rs.366.06) followed by Chennai (Rs.360.25), Bengaluru (Rs.348.52) and Delhi (Rs.341.17). the prices of eggs showed wide fluctuations and there is uniformity in prices of eggs across all the selected markets due to organized egg marketing. The prices of eggs in all the selected markets showed a highly significant increasing trend. The annual increase in egg prices was highest in the Mumbai market (Rs.1.57/100 eggs) and lowest in the Delhi market (Rs.1.35/100 eggs). The highest seasonal index was observed during the month of June in Bengaluru and Chennai markets and during the month of July in Delhi and Mumbai markets. In the month of April, the prices of eggs decreased due to their short shelf life because of summer whereas in the month of November the prices of eggs decreased due to an increase in arrivals of eggs. The highest price of eggs during the June and July months is due to an increase in the consumption of eggs. Egg prices do not have any price cycles and irregular variations are observed for all the markets considered under study. Government should take initiative to educate poultry farmers regarding the impact of climate change on egg production as well as prevailing egg prices in the market.

##### Analysis of Rainfall Probabilities and Crop Planning for Different Districts of Chhattisgarh

Twinkle Sahu, J. L. Chaudhary, Khilesh Kumar Sahu

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 858-862
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030873

Rainfall data of 17 districts in Chhattisgarh state has been used to determine the quantity of rainfall at different probability levels through incomplete gamma distribution.  Bastar has the highest total annual rainfall, with 1090.0 mm, 1247.5 mm, and 1440.0 mm, respectively, at 90 percent, 75 percent, and 50 percent likelihood levels. Sukma district has the highest total annual rainfall with 1696.6 mm and 1955.3 mm at the 25% and 10% probability levels, respectively. At 90 percent and 75 percent probability levels, Bilaspur district has the lowest total annual rainfall of 300.8 mm and 542.8 mm, respectively. Kabirdham district has the lowest total annual rainfall at 50%, 25%, and 10% likelihood levels, with 983.1 mm, 1126.4 mm, and 1267.0 mm, respectively. Sukma district has the most rainfall (1466.6 mm) while Kabirdham district has the least (996.1 mm). Crop planning strategies have been designed in several districts of C.G. based on probability analysis. Potential crops are found by examining the appropriate agro-ecosystem, and suitable recommended types for production in various places are indicated. Only the inclusion of maize and sugarcane crops in cropping systems is being criticized.

##### Design and Development of a Two-row Power Operated Maize Dibbler

P. K. Padmanathan, Govind Meena, S. Nithya, R. Shonali, S. Ajith, B. Kailashkumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 863-869
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030874

Seed sowing is an essential and time-bound process agriculture. The basic objective of the sowing operation is to put the seed in rows at the desired depth and maintain seed to seed spacing, covering the seeds with soil and providing proper compaction over the seed. Early or postponed sowing adversely disturbs the crop yield. Therefore, the sowing of seeds in the optimum level is important to ensure more outcomes and high quality of crops. At present, the maize planting is done manually by broadcasting, dibbling, putting seed behind the plough, and other methods or with the help of animal or tractor-drawn seed drills/planters. Though, these techniques have many problems, such as worse efficiency and reduced quality seed placement. Currently among different sowing methods, dibbler planter delivers more uniform and adaptable seed spacing than other approaches for sowing hybrid seeds. But available dibbler planter has some shortcomings of lower field capacity. By considering the apparent advantage of the dibbler planter mechanism, the power-operated dibbler planter for pulse crop was modified and improved to minimize the problems of the existing dibbler planter. Henceforth, the two-row power-operated dibbler was designed and developed to promote mechanization of maize planting operation among small and marginal farmers.

##### Assessment of Promising Diverse Germplasm Accessions for Stability with Respect to Yield and Its Attributing Traits in Vegetable Amaranth

T. N. Lakshmidevamma, Sanjeev K. Deshpande, R. C. Jagadeesha, B. R. Patil, Ramangouda V. Patil, Kiran Mirajkar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 870-881
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030875

Vegetable amaranth is one of the popular leafy vegetable that occupies a prominent place in India owing to its high nutritive value and fast growing ability. The presence of considerable genetic variability in the amaranth along with very high phenotypic plasticity demands the development of stable genotypes to secure sustainable production. The present research was carried out to quantify the effect of genotype x environment interaction on the performance of 30 identified promising genotypes of vegetable amaranth. The experiment was laid out in the Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at three locations viz., Arabhavi, Dharwad and Bagalkot during kharif 2018-19. Stability analysis was done as per the linear regression model described by Eberhart and Russell [1] that measures the genotypic response to changing environments. Variance due to environment + (genotype x environment) was significant for four of the studied traits viz., fresh green yield per hectare, fresh green yield per plant, plant height and leaf length which specified the existence of noteworthy interaction between the genotypes and the environmental conditions. The accessions, VA-16, CO-1, IC-553719 and IC-469645 have been identified as the high yielding stable genotypes for fresh green yield. Stable accessions for plant height include IC-536714, IC-541407, Arka amaranth, IC-469579 and IC-553719 and for leaf length were CO-1, IC-550143, IC-551472, IC-536714 and IC-469722. Further, some stable accessions for yield and its attributes were indicated that can be, commercialised or used in future breeding programs.

##### Influence of Aquatic Plants and Flow Rate on Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sewage Effluent Treated through Constructed Wetland Technology

K. Suganya, Joneboina Easwar Kumar, R. Jayashree, S. Paul Sebastian

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 882-891
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030876

Aims: To evaluate the influence of aquatic plants and flow rate on physico-chemical properties of sewage effluent with constructed wetland technology.

Study Design: Randomized block design

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Environmental Sciences, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 03 and June 2020 – Dec 2020

Methodology: Constructed wetland (CW) model was designed and three different aquatic plants viz., Canna indica, Arundo donax, and Xanthosoma sagittifolium were used for the study. Two different flow rates viz., 5ml/min and 10 ml/min were compared for assessing their influence in treating sewage effluent in the constructed wetlands.

Results: Among the aquatic plants, the pollutants like BOD, COD,TDS and TSS in the sewage effluent were declined and found to be 320, 1220, 666, 22 mg L-1 in Canna indica and 340, 1380, 866, 36 mg L-1 in Xanthosoma sagittifolium and 340, 1380, 866, 36 mg L-1 in Typha angustifolia utilized treatments at flow rates 5 ml/min respectively during 7th day retention time. Similar decreasing trend was observed in BOD, COD, TDS and TSS of the sewage effluent at flow rates of 10 ml/min.

Conclusion: Based on the study, it was evident that constructed wetland (CW) with Canna indica, Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Typha angustifolia found to perform better under flow rate of 5 ml/min for treating sewage effluent at the retention time of 7 days.

##### Mapping Spatio-temporal Variations of Surface Water Area of Tanks in Coimbatore Corporation Using Google Earth Engine

M. Akshaya, Balaji Kannan, G. Thiyagarajan, R. Kumaraperumal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 892-903
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030877

Surface water is one of the most significant elements of the earth's ecosystem. It is the basic information for analysing the changes in the environment. Therefore it is important to monitor water resources accurately. Nowadays remote sensing plays a major role in extraction of water spread area. In this study, change in water spread area of tanks was mapped for Coimbatore corporation from 2000 to 2021. The analysis was performed in Google earth engine platform using Landsat ETM+ and Landsat OLI datasets. The images for pre monsoon and post monsoon season were scrutinized and classified using random forest classifier in Google earth engine. The area of each tanks and their deviations were calculated for the study period. Results of the study showed that the lowest water spread area was observed in the period from 2000 to 2005 for both pre monsoon and post monsoon season. The tank has maximum water spread area during post monsoon season. The difficulties that has been confronted during the research is the unavailability of images due to cloud cover. The study shows that the random forest classifier can be effectively used to extract water features and water spread area.

##### Analysis on Length of Growing Period use NDVI Value in Coimbatore Region

T. Govindaraj, P. Muralai Arthanari, G. A. Dheebakaran

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 904-912
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030879

Study has been conducted to analyses length of growing period use NDVI value. The LGP is normally analyses weather station data. In this study LGP analyses using NDVI data (1992-2015) from public domain AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) 1km resolution for Coimbatore regions. The duration of the growing period was calculated using the NDVI threshold value and compared to the NBSS&LUP normal length of growing period (1999). For J. Reddy technique validation, ground station data such as rainfall and PET analyzing LGP are used. According to the study, the maximum LGP was found in the Karamadai, Pollachi north, and Pollachi south regions, while the lowest LGP was found in the sulur region, and short-duration crops were recommended.

##### Development and Design of Laboratory Scale Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland System

Thaksande Vishal, S. Selvakumar, Balaji Kannan, K. Boomiraj, U. Sivakumar, R. M. Jayabalakrishnan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 913-924
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030880

Wetlands have traditionally functioned as a natural filtration system. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are a cost-effective and efficient green technology for treating many different types of wastewaters. The efficiency of constructed wetland depends upon the type of media, vegetation, effluent concentration, and applied hydraulic load. The objective of the present paper is to Development and Design a laboratory scale constructed wetland system. The important considerations in the design are the size of the wetland, aspect ratio, depth of each layer, and slope. The length, width, and height of the CWs are 1.2 m; 0.3 m; and 0.65 m; respectively. The total volume of CWs is 0.234 m3 and the treatment section in the system consists volume of 0.135 m3. Twelve sampling points are provided to collect the water from the different layers (media) of the wetland. An aeration pipe is provided at the bottom of CWs. With the laboratory scale constructed wetland system, we can analyze the different types of wastewater.

##### Terrace Gardening: A Sustainable yet Economic Approach

M. Medha, T. Lavanya, G. P. Sunandini, A. Meena

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 925-932
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030881

The study emphasizes the importance of terrace gardening in providing fresh, seasonal, and most importantly, chemical-free vegetables for everyday family requirements. It also tackles the problem of odorous, untouchable and unwanted kitchen waste by converting it into valuable organic manure that may be used as a low-cost, environmentally acceptable input for organic terrace gardening. This study was conducted with the ultimate aim to document the socio-economic profile of households practicing terrace gardening and list out the perceived benefits and constraints in adoption of terrace gardening. Ninety sample respondents who were practicing terrace gardening in Hyderabad were chosen for the study. Respondents who were practicing terrace gardening for the past 5 years were selected randomly from the list obtained from Horticulture Training Institute. The results inferred that majority of the respondents perceived that terrace gardening was providing them fresh fruits and vegetables with minimal investment as well as increased emotional well-being. Lack of availability suitable land near residential areas is identified as the major constraint and followed by lack of time was reported along with other constraints.

##### Response of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) Genotypes for their Germination and early Seedling Parameters Grown Under Different Saline levels

Sarla Kumawat, Ravi Kumawat, D.K. Gothwal, Kana Ram Kumawat

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 933-942
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030882

Seedling establishment is a most critical stage that determined the crop production at later stages. An in vitro investigation was carried out at the Laboratory of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sri Karan Narendra College of Agriculture, Jobner (Rajasthan) in Rabi season 2016-17 to study the response of fenugreek genotypes for their germination and early seedling parameters under five salt stress levels viz. 0.0 mM, 40 mM, 80 mM, 120 mM and 160 mM. Fifteen seeds of each genotype were sown in sterilized Petridish and seedling observations were recorded. Results revealed that the average value was found maximum in the control and minimum at higher salinity level for most of traits. Higher reduction was found at higher salinity levels for most of the characters viz., plumule length, radicle length, seedling length, plumule to radicle length ratio, plumule fresh weight, radicle fresh weight, plumule dry weight, radicle dry weight and seedling vigour index but germination percentage showed less reduction. The contrast between mean of various genotypes in control  conditions (S0) versus Sm (mean of S1, S2, S3 and S4) for each character also showed that overall mean was highest in control as compared to the overall mean of salinity levels for all the traits. This investigation concluded that higher level of salinity (above 60 mM) adversely most affected to seed germination and other early seeding traits rather than (below 40 mM) lower salinity levels. Based upon the rank totals of genotype over different salinity levels S1, S2, S3 and S4 (Sm) and characters, the RMt-303 was found to be most desirable genotype followed by UM-385, RMt-143 and RMt-305. These lines would be used as a viable option under saline conditions and better exploit in hybridization programme.

##### Effect of Watering Schedules on Seed Germination of Two Major Agroforestry Species Dalbergia sissoo and Gmelina arborea

Preeti Gupta, Rikesh Kumar, Ayushman Malakar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 954-962
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030884

Aims: Water is an important natural resource supporting life and growth of plants heavily relies on water availability throughout its life cycle. Moisture stress is a major limiting factor in forest crops leading to unsuccessful seed germination. This study investigates the impact of moisture stress on the seed germination of two important agroforestry species Dalbergia sissoo and Gmelina arborea through manipulating watering schedules after sowing seeds.

Study Design: Two independent experiments for Dalbergia sissoo and Gmelina arborea were designed in a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with six treatments and three replications for each treatment

Place of Study: Faculty of Forestry, Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi.

Methodology: The complete experiment was carried inside a temporary polyhouse where the experimental materials were exposed to the six different watering schedule treatments. The first irrigation for all the treatments were started at the same time. The data recorded during the experiment were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) for statistical significance and difference among treatments were determined by Duncan’s Multiple range test at (P = .05) level.

Results: Significant differences were observed among the treatments and the results show that with increasing level of moisture stress, the germination performance in both species is highly reduced both in terms of germination percentage and germination energy.

Conclusion: Daily watering to the seeds can help to achieve maximum and early seed germination as evident from data of germination energy with maximum values recorded for the treatments with daily watering schedule.

##### Perfomance of Varieties on Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Under Prayagraj Condition

Reddi Satish, Joy Dawson, C. Umesha, Peram Vamsi Krishna, Satti Maheswara Reddy, Gorla Venkata Raju

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 967-971
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030886

A field experiment was conducted to find out growth and yield of ten wheat varieties in the Rabi 2021-2022 at Wheat Breeding experimental Field, Naini Agriculture Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P.). Soil of experimental plots was sandy loam in texture with neutral soil reaction (pH 7.1). Experiment consists of ten varieties HD-3440, HD-3406, HD-2967, HD-3411, HD-3437, DBW-187, HD-3436, HD-3249, HD-2733, HD-3086  which are replicated four times in Randomized Block Design  and evaluation was recorded. The results showed that growth parameters viz., higher plant height (118.73 cm), number of effective tillers/hill (13.63), dry weight (43.00 g) and yield attributing parameters viz.,  spike length (14.12 cm), no. of grains/spike (100.50), test weight (39.53 g), grain yield (4.21 t/ha), straw yield (6.26 t/ha), harvest index (40.10 %), were recorded significantly higher in DBW-187 variety. where DBW-187 variety was found to be more potential, viable and productive over rest of the varieties.

##### Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis Studies in Rice Hybrids (Oryza sativa L.)

Ch. Sucharitha, K. Sukumar, B. Laxmi Prasanna, P. Swarna Sree

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 972-980
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030887

The present investigation was carried out at Agricultural Polytechnic, Polasa, Jagtial, Telangana, to understand the correlation and path analysis for yield and yield attributing traits for 38 genotypes including 3 checks in Randomized Block Design replicated thrice during Rabi, 2022. Association studies revealed that genotypic correlation values were higher than that of phenotypic correlations. Important traits i.e., spikelet fertility (0.8151**/0.8199) followed by 1000 grain weight (0.7889**/0.7956) exhibited the highest positive significant association with single plant yield. Path coefficient analysis also revealed that the traits spikelet fertility and 1000 grain weight had reported the highest positive direct effect of on single plant yield at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. Hence, these traits could be used as selection indices for heterotic rice hybrid development.

##### Trend Analysis of Annual Rainfall in Bastar Plateau and Northern Hill Zones of Chhattisgarh, India

Keerti Kumar, G. K. Das, H. V. Puranik, Manoj Kumar Beck

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 981-990
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030888

This study was to find out the trend of annual rainfall for 11 districts of Bastar plateau and the Northern hill zone of Chhattisgarh. Long-term rainfall data of (27 years) in respective districts were collected from the Department of Agro-meteorology. IGKV, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). The trend analysis of rainfall was computed with the help of the Mann-Kendall method and linear trend graph method. Results revealed that the annual rainfall of two districts i.e. Sukma and Kondagaon of the Bastar plateau zone recorded a significant increasing trend at a 5 % level of significance whereas two districts i.e. Bastar and Bijapur were showing a significant increasing trend at a 1 % level of significance. Jashpur district of Northern hill zone shows a significantly decreasing trend at a 5 % level of significance whereas rest five districts i.e. Dantewada, Narayanpur, Surguja, Surajpur, and Koria districts reported non-significant. Two districts showed a non-significant increasing trend i.e. Narayanpur and Balrampur districts. The maximum number of districts reported more or less stable rainfall during the years. On an annual basis, the Bijapur district recorded the maximum amount of rainfall i.e. 3144.5 mm in a year while the lowest rainfall was 511.4 mm in the Dantewada district. The maximum average annual rainfall over the study period was 1624.7 mm in the Sukma district and the lowest average annual rainfall was 1029.5 mm (in 17 years data set) in the Balrampur district.

##### Physico-Chemical Analysis of Groundwater of Shekhawati Vicinity of Rajasthan (Pre-Monsoon)

Hari Ram, N. P. Lamba, Praveen Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 991-996
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030889

The Shekhawati regions constitute of Sikar, Neemkathana and Khandela areas of Rajasthan where actually exist various types of groundwater problems. Due to this reason, there are various diseases found in these regions such as Fluorosis, methaemoglobinaemia etc. For this purpose, samples from the Shekhawati region in Rajasthanwere first collected and subsequently various parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity, Calcium Hardness, Magnesium Hardness, Chloride content, NO3-content, F-content were determined. The study showed that many of the all given parameters were either lower or higher than the ideal limits prescribed by WHO and ISI and are causing health problems to the people living in the region.

##### Effect of Levels of Nitrogen and Seed Rate on Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Chebrolu Sravani, Rajesh Singh, Pratyasha Tripathi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 997-1004
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030890

The effect of nitrogen and seed rate on wheat trails like growth and yield was studied through an experiment conducted during Rabi 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.1), low in organic carbon (0.36 %), available nitrogen (171.48 kg/ha), available phosphorous (15.2 kg/ha) and available pottasium (232.5 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments each replicated thrice on the basis of one year experimentation. The treatments which are T1: nitrogen 80kg/ha + seed rate 75kg/ha, T2: nitrogen 100kg/ha + seed rate 75kg/ha, T3: nitrogen 120kg/ha + seed rate 75kg/ha, T4: nitrogen 80kg/ha + seed rate 100kg/ha, T5: nitrogen 100kg/ha + seed rate 100kg/ha, T6: nitrogen 120kg/ha + seed rate 100kg/ha, T7: nitrogen 80kg/ha + seed rate 125kg/ha, T8: nitrogen 100kg/ha + seed rate 125kg/ha, T9: nitrogen 120kg/ha + seed rate 125kg/ha are used. The results showed that among different seed rate and nitrogen, the treatment with nitrogen 120kg/ha and seed rate 75kg/ha produced significantly highest plant height (101.20 cm). The treatment combination with nitrogen 120kg/ha + seed rate 100kg/ha produced significantly higher No. of Tillers/plant (7.27), Plant dry weight (21.60 g/plant), Crop growth rate (0.48 g/m2/day), Relative Growth Rate (0.014g/g/day), spikelets/spike (20.07), Grains/spike (58.53), Test weight (46.23 g) and Grain yield (5.91 t/ha). However, the treatment with nitrogen 120kg/ha and seed rate 100kg/ha was found to be effective in highest gross returns (89060.00 INR/ha), net return (58360.03 INR/ha) and benefit/cost ratio (2.90) when compared to other treatments.

##### Performance of SPV 2217 Variety of Sorghum in the North-eastern dry Zone of Karnataka

Raju G. Teggelli, Vijaysingh Thakur, Zaheer Ahamed, Yusuf Ali

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 963-966
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030885

Most of the rabi sorghum in the country and Karnataka is cultivated under receding soil moisture conditions, which is subjected to drought at various growth stages. In this context, the growing of drought-tolerant genotypes which are adaptable to water-limited conditions is the need of the hour. With this view, front-line demonstrations were conducted to popularise the variety (SPV 2217) in the Suntnoor village of Aland taluka, Kalaburagi District. The results of front-line demonstrations indicated a higher yield (22.75 q/ha) of SPV 2217 as compared to the local variety (19.10 q/ha) due to the maintenance of greenness at physiological maturity. Due to higher yield, higher income was obtained and that led to a higher B:C ratio (2.42) as compared to the local variety (2.06). So, this improved drought-tolerant variety of sorghum can be effectively utilized by the farmers for higher productivity as compared to the local variety.

##### Efficacy Evaluation of Abiotic Elicitors for the Management of Black Rot Disease of Cauliflower Incited by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

Neelam Geat, Dinesh Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1023-1030
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030894

Aims: To find out the effective abiotic elicitor for management of black rot disease of cauliflower.

Study Design: Completely randomized block design (Pot experiment in glasshouse condition).

Place and Duration of the Study: This experiment was conducted at glasshouse of Division of Plant Pathology, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi during the year 2021-22.

Methodology: Different abiotic elicitors were applied by spraying whole plants (45 days old) with the aid of a fine atomizer onto the upper leaf surfaces. Pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris was inoculated after 72 h of elicitor treatment, Control plants were treated with the distilled water. The disease assessment was done at 14 and 21 days after inoculation by using six- point scale and Percent Disease severity was calculated.

Results: In case of foliar spray of Salicylic acid before 72 h of inoculation of pathogen, minimum percent diseases severity (25.56) was recorded at the concentration of 3 mM after 21 days of pathogen inoculation. In case of BABA, minimum percent disease severity (18.37) was observed at 800 $$\mu g/ml$$ concentration. INA helps to reduce the disease severity at 100 uM concentration. ASM was found effective at 350$$\mu g/ml$$ with 14.07% disease severity and 82.91% disease control efficiency. In case of MeJA, minimum percent disease severity (30.32) was observed at 2mM concentration.

Conclusion: Among all the tested abiotic elicitors at different concentration, ASM at the concentration of 350 $$\mu g/ml$$was found very effective to manage the disease.

Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a very important and devastating disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) crop resulting into 10–50% yield losses every year. So for the management of black rot disease, five abiotic elicitors viz; salicylic acid(SA-0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mM), methyl jasmonte (MeJA-0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0mM), $$\beta$$-Aminobutyric acid (BABA-200, 400, 600, 800 $$\mu g/ml$$, acibenzolar-S- methyl (ASM-150, 250, 350, 450 $$\mu g/ml$$) and dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA-50, 100, 150, 200 $$\mu$$M) were tested to induce systemic resistance against the disease. The experiment was conducted under glasshouse condition at Division of Plant Pathology, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi during the year 2021-22. Foliar application of these abiotic elicitors was done on 45 days old plants of susceptible cv. Pusa Sharad of cauliflower. Results indicated that among all the tested chemical elicitors at different concentration, ASM@350 $$\mu g/ml$$ was found very effective to manage the disease. It shows 82.91% disease control efficacy with 14.07% disease severity.

##### Effect of Organic Manures, Sulphur and Foliar Application of Micronutrients (Zinc and Boron) on Growth and Yield of Mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

B. Ramya, O. Sampath, N. Mahesh, R. Saikumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1044-1051
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030896

A field experiment was performed on growth and yield of mustard (Brassica juncea L.)” variety NRCHB-101 at Agricultural college, PJTSAU, Polasa, Jagtial, during spring 2021-2022. The soil of the experimental site was sandy clay loam in texture. The present research work was tested in randomized block design with 11 treatments comprising of different nutrient management practices i.e. T1: Control, T2: 100% NPK @60-40-40 NPK Kg ha-1, T3: 100% NPKS @60-40-40-40 NPKS Kg ha-1, T4: 100% NPK+ Vermicompost @2.5 t ha-1, T5: 100% NPK+ FYM @5 t ha-1, T6: 100% NPK+ Foliar spray of 0.5% Zinc-EDTA at flower initiation and at 50% flowering, T7: 100% NPKS + Foliar spray of 0.5% Zinc-EDTA at flower initiation and at 50% flowering, T8: 100% NPK + Foliar spray of 0.2% Boric acid at flower initiation and at 50% flowering, T9: 100% NPKS + Foliar spray of 0.2% Boric acid at flower initiation and at 50% flowering, T10: 100% NPK+ Foliar spray of 0.5% Zinc-EDTA and 0.2% Boric acid at flower initiation and at 50% flowering and T11: 100% NPKS+ Foliar spray of 0.5% Zinc-EDTA and 0.2% Boric acid at flower initiation and at 50% flowering. The results revealed that significantly higher plant height (174 cm), Leaf area index (LAI) (2.94), No. of primary branches plant-1 (10), No. of secondary branches plant-1 (19.3) dry matter accumulation (4260 kg ha-1) No. of siliquae plant-1 (189.33), seeds siliqua-1 (16.13), test weight (5.97 g), seed yield (1271 kg ha-1) and stover yield (3141 kg ha-1) with the application of 100% NPKS along with  foliar spray of 0.5% Zinc-EDTA and 0.2% Boric acid at flower initiation and at 50% flowering.

##### Remote Sensing and GIS Based Crop Acreage Estimation of the Rabi Season Growing Crop of the Middle Gujarat (India)

Sanjay H. Parmar, G. R. Patel, M. M. Trivedi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1031-1043
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030897

Accurate and precise information about crop type, crop stage, and crop acreage is essential for sustainable utilization of available water resources. The present study is concerned with the estimation of Rabi season growing crops in the Panchmahal district of Gujarat state, India. In these study generation of spectral profiles and crop acreage estimation, Sentinel-2 satellite images were classified using unsupervised classification with ISODATA clustering classification techniques. The satellite image of the study area was classified into 52 classes and overlaid with a ground truth point shape file on the classified image. Total twelve date NDVI based signature derived from sentinel – 2 data during rabi season 2020 - 2021. NDVI based data set is used to classify the study area's major crops, which are maize, wheat, castor, chilli, cotton, pigeon pea, sorghum, and tobacco. The total research area's growing crops was estimated as 34472.59 ha, 16517.09 ha, 2186.92 ha, 250.59 ha, 8005.56 ha, 1130.93 ha, 1719.38 ha and 1468.52 ha for maize, wheat, castor, chilli, cotton, pigeon pea, sorghum and tobacco, respectively. The overall accuracy and kappa coefficient for crop acreage estimation were calculated to be 90.71% and 0.78%, respectively. The resulted acreage estimation will help to understand the cropping pattern and their interaction with spatial and temporal variability for present and future estimation of crop water requirement and proper resource availability in this selected region.

##### Changes in Activity of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL), Phenols and β 1, 3 Glucanase in Crossandra Plants affected by Fusarium incarnatum (Desm.) Sacc and treated with Bioagents, Organic Amendments, Silver Nanoparticles and Fungicide in Pot Culture

B. Mallaiah, M. Muthamillan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1052-1059
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030898

Laboratory and pot culture experiments were carried to study the effect of different bioagents, organic amendments, silver nanoparticles and fungicide in management of crossandra wilt caused by Fusarium incarnatum and nematode Pratylenchus. delattrei During the study observations are made on changes in activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenols and β 1, 3 Glucanase in crossandra plants. All the treatments applied recorded increased levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenols and β 1, 3 Glucanase in treated plants, but among all soil application (SA) of T.viride @ 2.5 kg/ha at 20 DAP plus soil drenching (SD) of carbendazim @ 0.1% at 30 DAP plus SA of T.viride @ 2.5 kg/ha at 50 DAP plus Foliar application (FA ) of P. fluorescens@ 1.0 kg/ha at 70 DAP plus Foliar application (FA ) of B. subtilis @ 1.0 kg /ha at 90 DAP was found to be significantly higher in induction of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenols and β 1, 3 Glucanase in crossandra. The same results are also noticed in later stage in reducing disease incidence compare to control and other treatments.

##### Comparative Analysis of Aerosol Optical Properties over High Altitude Region of Western Ghats in Southern India

S. Natha Shree, R. M. Jayabalakrishnan, M. Maheswari, R. Kumaraperumal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1060-1066
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030899

Observations of aerosols and Black Carbon (BC) were carried out at Ooty, high altitude region in Western Ghats using Multi wavelength solar radiometer (MWR) and Aethalometer. For the years 2018 and 2021, the Optical Characteristics of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) model was used to estimate monthly, seasonal, and spectral variations of aerosol optical properties such as Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Single Scattering Albedo (SSA), and Asymmetry Parameter (ASY). The dominance of fine anthropogenic aerosols was shown by higher AOD during the pre-monsoon period. The maximum and minimum seasonal variation of AOD occurred during pre-monsoon (1.1 ± 0.02) and winter (0.21 ± 0.001) respectively. The significant spectral variation of AOD occurred during March to May as it decreases with the increase in wavelength .The SSA increases as the wavelength increases, ranged between 0.83 ± 0.02 and 0.77 ± 0.01.The variability of SSA is significant during January and February which is a characteristic of coarse type aerosols. Asymmetry Parameter with the monthly mean of 0.75 ± 0.01 indicated the forward scattering of aerosols and there is no significant difference in them over the years.

##### Deviation in Occurrence of Climatic Drought Over Western Zone of Tamil Nadu

M. Rajavel, C. Pradipa, K. Bhuvaneeshwari, V. Guhan, V. Vakeswaran, R. Gowtham, S. Prinyanka

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1077-1081
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030901

Drought is the major precipitation anomaly that has greater impact on water resource management, ground water table and agricultural production. The WASP index (Weighted Anomaly of Standardized Precipitation Index) was estimated for a period 1901-2019 (119 years) – four time scales (12 months, 9 months, 6 months and 3 months) based on the IMD precipitation dataset to analyse the dry events. Analysis over different time scales is necessary to find out the impact of the slowly evolving drought on the agricultural production as well as water resources. The numbers of moderate dry events were 276, 256, 188 and 100 for WASP12, WASP9, WASP6, and WASP3 respectively for the whole of 119 years data. The number of extreme dry events with WASP12, WASP9, WASP6, and WASP3 were 0, 4, 29 and 59, respectively, for 119 years. There was no specific trend in number of dry events over the study region and 1991-2019 was found to have higher number of dry events when compared with the other tri-decadal periods.

##### Effect of Nipping and Plant Growth Regulator on Growth and Yield of Chick Pea (Cicer arietinum)

Sake Mounika, Shikha Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1088-1094
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030903

A field experiment was carried out at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS ,Prayagraj(U.P.)in rabi 2021 to study the "Effect of nipping and plant growth regulator on growth and yield of Chick pea (Cicer arietinum)".It was consisting of three combinations of nipping and plant growth regulators. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments each replicated thrice. The experiment results revealed that the growth parameters and yield parameters such as Plant height (23.93cm),Number of Nodules (22.00cm),Dry weight (11.41cm),Number of Branches (8.20cm), crop growth rate(16.96) Recorded highest At harvest, Significantly recorded in treatment T2 with application of Nipping and GA3 at 100ppm. Moreover, No.of pods/plant (56.40),No.of seeds/pod (1.53),Test weight(264.82),Seed Yield (3.43t/ha),Harvest index (41.34%),Gross return (154,350.00),Net return(107,252.50),and were also recorded significantly higher in the treatment T4 With application of Nipping and NAA at 50ppm among all treatments.

##### Influence of Organic and Inorganic Nutrients on Horticultural and Biochemical Traits of Garlic (Allium sativum L.)

Manish Chauhan, . Shilpa, Priyanka Bijalwan, H. R. Sharma, Y. R. Shukla

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1095-1099
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030904

The present study was conducted at Vegetable Research Farm at Dr YSP UHF Nauni, Solan during the year 2019-20 and 2020-21. The experimentation was designed in RCBD along with three replications. The data was worked out for various growth, yield and biochemical attributes of garlic. The outcomes of the investigation  presented that maximum plant height (88.49 cm), number of leaves per plant (10.35), bulb weight (64.81g),  yield per hectare (199.46 q), was calculated for the treatment combination comprising of 75% RDN + Zn @ 5kg/ha + S @ 40kg/ha + 5% Jeevamrit @ 1 l/m2(T13). Observations from  the recorded data also proved that 75% RDN + Zn @ 5kg/ha + S @ 40kg/ha + 5% Jeevamrit @ 1 l/m2(T13) recorded maximum oleoresin content(%)and dry matter content (%) i.e. 1.55 and 46.12. Hence, this combination can be further recommended to grower, so they can fetch more yield from the limited land holding.

##### Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis of Some Rice Genotypes (Oryza sativa L.)

Shraddha Singh, A. K. Singh, Sumant Pratap Singh, Alok Kumar Singh, R. K. Yadav

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1100-1109
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030905

An experiment was carried out to study the correlation and path analysis in twenty-six rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties, among 26 rice genotypes, 15 rice varieties and 11 landraces collections from hilly region of Mirzapur in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The experiment was performed during kharif 2021-22 in Randomized Block Design with three replications to analyze correlation and path Analysis. At phenotypic and genotypic level, number of grain per panicle (GPP 0.603), chlorophyll content (Chl 0.326), Ear bearing tillers per plant (EBT 0.356) showed highly positive significant correlation with yield per plant (YPP) to emerge as most important associates of grain yield in rice. Path analysis identified the highest positive direct effect on grain yield per plant was exhibited by number of grain per panicle (GPP 0.485), days to 50% flowering (DFF 0.414), plant height (PH at 45DAT 0.255), chlorophyll content (Chl 0.255), Ear bearing tillers per plant (EBT 0.173), plant height (PH at 30DAS 0.042), number of tillers per plant (NOT 0.029), panicle length (PL 0.024) are the most significant direct as well as indirect effect. Yield contributing components which under consideration at time of devising selection strategy aimed at developing varieties having higher yield.

##### Value Chain Analysis of Safflower: A Way Forward

G. Sowmya, K. Sravanthi, C. Sudhakar, T. Lavanya, A. Meena, T. Rajeshwar Reddy

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1110-1115
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030906

Safflower is essentially a rabi season oil seed crop that grows well under the residual moisture with very limited requirement of water. This study traced the value chain of safflower in the Vikarabad district, in realization to the increased importance of safflower as a source of edible because of its nutritional status. The value chain analysis is helpful in identifying the product flow from producer to the consumers and defining the roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders along the chain. Value chain of safflower is complex with various stake holders along the chain and also the product flow is also observed   through various channels. There is a lot of untapped potential for value addition in safflower, which if exploited would help all the stakeholders along the value chain by increasing the profits to them.

Findings: The value chain of safflower is complex with the involvement of various stakeholders along the chain and the product flow was also observed to be through various channels. Though value addition to safflower has lot of potential but not exploited to the extent due to lack of knowledge about value added products and the complex nature of the crop.

##### Variability, Correlation, Path Coefficient and Genetic Diversity Analysis in Indian Mustard

Jeevan Sai Akkenapally, C. P. Chetariya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1116-1125
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030907

Phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation (PCV & GCV), heritability, genetic advance (GA), correlation, path and diversity analysis for fourteen characters in twenty-five genotypes of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) were evaluated for seed yield and thirteen other yield contributing traits. Genetic variability indicated that, the PCV was greater than GCV for all the traits studied was majorly due to the influence of environment. High heritability along with high genetic advance as percent of mean were recorded for plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, length of main raceme, number of siliqua on main raceme, number of siliqua per plant, 1000 seed weight, biological yield per plant, seed yield per plant and harvest index, Indicating the breeding improvement through direct selection. In correlation analysis, seed yield per plant had significant and positive correlation with number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches, number of siliqua on main raceme, number of siliqua per plant, length of siliqua, number of seeds per siliqua, 1000 seed weight, biological yield per plant and harvest index at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. Path coefficient analysis indicated that, the highest positive direct effects was noted for days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of siliqua per plant, number of seeds per siliqua, length of main raceme, number of primary branches per plant, 1000 seed weight, biological yield per plant, harvest index. Therefore, these traits should be given more priority for selection in breeding programme. Genetic divergence assessed using D2 statistics for characters enabled grouping of all the genotypes in six clusters. Diversity among the clusters varied from 9.67 to 24.03 inter-cluster distances, cluster II and V showed maximum inter cluster distance followed by that between cluster V and VI. The genotypes falling in these clusters could be utilized for hybridization programme in Indian mustard.

##### Multivariate Analysis in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for Yield and Yield Contributing Traits

. Neha, Aneeta Yadav, Saurav Verma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1143-1147
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030910

The present investigation was conducted to examine the 20 Bread Wheat genotypes to study the genetic parameters, correlation and genetic diversity. The experiment was carried out in main experimental station of Agricultural Research Farm, Rama University (U.P), Mandhana, Kanpur during Rabi Season, 2020-21 in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among 20 Bread Wheat for 11 characters studied. Genetic divergence was estimated among 20 genotypes by using Mahalanobis’s D2 statistic. The genotypes were grouped into 5 clusters. Cluster 1 comprises maximum genotypes which is 15 in numbers namely (HPST-16-17-07, BHU 25, BHU 31, ZINCO1, ANKUR, PBW Zn 1, WB 02, HPAN 101, HPAN 147, HPAN 164, HPAN 57, HPAN 65, HPAN 111, HPAN 127, HD 2967) followed by cluster 2 comprises 1 genotypes ((HPAN 42), cluster 3 comprises 1 genotype (HPST 16 -17-15), cluster 4 comprises 2 genotype (HPST 16-17-16, CRD GHEHU 1), cluster 5 comprises 1 genotype (PBW 677). The maximum Intra-cluster (D2) was registered for cluster 1 (7.93). Inter-cluster distance (D2) was found maximum between cluster 4 and cluster 5. Cluster 4 showed maximum cluster mean value for grain yield per plant. Cluster means indicated that none of the clusters was superior for all the characters studied. Therefore, hybridization between genotypes belonging to different clusters is suggested for development of superior genotypes. Thousand seed weight was the main factor contributing towards genetic diversity accounting for (26.32%) followed by grain per spikelets (25.79%).

##### Decadal Changes in Land use and Land Cover of Noyyal River Basin using Geo-spatial Techniques

Martha Sravani, . Valliammai, Balaji Kannan, R. Kumaraperumal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1148-1158
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030911

Aims: River Noyyal was the life line of the people of Coimbatore, Tirupur and Karur districts of Tamil Nadu and has nurtured a rich civilization. The river is mentioned in many ancient travelogues by European travelers which suggest the importance of the river. But over the years, the condition of the river, both in terms of quantity and quality has deteriorated owing to the expanding population size and its related land use changes.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted to investigate the decadal land use               and land cover changes of the Noyyal basin for the year of 2000 to 2020 in the year 2021-                 2022.

Methodology: The study was undertaken to produce the land use/land cover map and to explore the change detection analysis of the Noyyal river basin for 20 years. Based on RS and GIS for monitoring the temporal variations of land use land cover, multi-temporal Landsat satellite 30m spatial resolution images of Landsat 4/5 MSS and TM 2000, 2010, and Landsat 8 (OLI) 2020 were obtained from the google earth engine. At the first stage NDVI calculation was done by using ArcGIS software and the second stage supervised classification maximum likelihood classification was done for 3 years 2000,2010 and 2020.

Results: The analysis suggests that Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI of without any vegetation (Class1), medium density (Class3), and high density (Class4) increased by 8.37%, 1.29%, 0.42% respectively. Low density (Class2) decreased by 10.1%. The urban area and agriculture land increased by 13.82% and 18.46%.The forest cover, waste land and barren land decreased by 12.24% 11.99% and 7.90% over the 2 decades and water bodies increased in the year of 2010 and then decreased.

Conclusion: The study has revealed a decline in area under forest and wasteland and an increase in area under built up activities and agriculture land.

##### Effect of Paddy Straw Incorporation and Nitrogen Levels on Yield and Nutrient Uptake by Mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

V. Mounika, K. Chandrashaker, A. Krishna Chaitanya, G. Satyanarayana Reddy

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1159-1167
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030912

Burning of crop residues results in immense loss to soil fertility, in addition to this burning causes greenhouse gas emissions into atmosphere thereby disturbs the environment.  A Field experiment was conducted to ascertain the crop residue and fertilizer management practices on yield and nutrient uptake of mustard at Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Polasa, Jagtial situated in Northern Telangana Zone of Telangana State during rabi, 2020-21. Grain yield, nutrient content and nutrient uptake were significantly influenced by crop residue and fertilizer management practices. Highest grain and stover yield of 1194 and 2654 kg ha-1 were recorded, when 20 % excess nitrogen was applied than RDN along with residue incorporation. Nutrient uptake was significantly higher in burning treatment during initial stages of crop growth later more uptakes were observed in residue incorporation treatments. Among the treatments lowest yields and nutrient contents (N and P) were recorded in residue burning treatments. This study concluded that, instead of burning, paddy straw was to be incorporated along with 20% excess nitrogen to obtain better yields and nutrients uptake in succeding mustard crop.

##### Development, Fruit setting and Pomological Characteristics in Strawberry (Fragaria ananasa Duch.) as Affected by Biofertilizers under Vertical Farming System. Cv. Winter Dawn

Jitendra Chaurasia, Saket Mishra, Ravi Kumar Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1168-1176
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030913

A field experiment was carried out during 2021-2022 to see the Development, Fruit setting and Pomological characteristics in Strawberry ( Fragaria ananasa Duch.) as affected by Biofertilizers under vertical farming system. Cv. Winter dawn with 10 treatments including control in combinations of organic and microbial sources of nutrients (Vermicompost, FYM, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and PSB) replicated thrice with 3 plants per replication in Randomized Block Design. Observations were recorded for vegetative growth, fruit yield, quality. In different combinations (biofertilizers and organic manure) the treatment T9 (Soil (50%) +Vermicompost (50%) + Azotobacter (2g) + Azospirillum (2g) recorded highest plant height, plant spread, number of leaves and leaf area as compared to T7 (Soil (50%) + FYM (50%) + PSB (2g) + Azotobacter (2g). Plant treatment T9 (Soil (50%) +Vermicompost (50%) + Azotobacter (2g) + Azospirillum (2g)) registered earliest flowering and also highest number of flowers per plant. The maximum fruit weight, number of fruits per plant and yield were recorded with plants treated with T9 (Soil (50%) +Vermicompost (50%) + Azotobacter (2g) + Azospirillum (2g) followed by T7 (Soil (50%) + FYM (50%) + PSB (2g) + Azotobacter (2g) at 90 DAP followed by T8 (Soil (50%) + coir pith (50%) + Azospirillum (2g) + PSB (2g) treatment. The maximum Benefit: Cost ratio (1: 3.39) was recorded in the T9 (Soil (50%) +Vermicompost (50%) + Azotobacter (2g) + Azospirillum (2g) than T7 (Soil (50%) + FYM (50%) + PSB (2g) + Azotobacter (2g) due to its lower cost of production. The highest yield and best quality fruit were recorded in the combination of T9 (Soil (50%) +Vermicompost (50%) + Azotobacter (2g) + Azospirillum (2g).

##### Effect of Low Light Stress on Plant Height, Tiller Number, Panicle Number, Leaf Area and Yield of Long Duration Rice (Oryza sativa. L) Varieties

Deepali Dash, Debasis Pattanaik, Darshan Panda, Prajjal Dey, M. J. Baig, G. R. Rout, R. K. Paikray, K. C. Samal, R. K. Panda, Akhilesh Kumar Gupta

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1177-1183
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030914

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of low light stress on the morphological parameters and yield of long duration rice genotypes. The experiment was carried out in the field of National Rice Research Institute, and the field layout was done as per the split plot design, with the light in the main plot and the varieties in the sub-plot. During Kharif 2019, the experiment was carried out at plot-4, V-block under the Department of Crop Physiology and Biochemistry at the National Rice Research Institute (NRRI), Cuttack. The experiment was carried out with three different light intensities, namely 100% light as treatment-I (Control), 75% light as treatment-II, and 50% light as treatment-III. Eleven long duration rice varieties were chosen based on yield to investigate the effect of low light on their morphology and yield. It was observed that at 50% flowering stage in 75% and 50% light intensities, plant height and leaf area increases but tiller number, panicle number and yield reduces. At 50% light intensity, yield reduction was significantly greater than 75% light intensity. Among the varieties Nasati Sali, Nalini Sali and Swarnaprabha was recorded highest grain yield in 100% (5.10 t ha-1), 75% (4.27 t ha-1) and 50% light intensity (3.05 t ha-1) respectively.

##### Effect of Climate, Growth and Decomposition Analysis of Maize in India

P. Soumya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1184-1189
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030915

Maize is third most important cereal crop in India after rice and wheat. Maize can be grown under various agro-climatic zones.

Aims:

• To study the effect of temperature, rainfall and crop are on crop yield in maize in India.
• To study Compound Annual Growth Rate of area, production and productivity of maize in India.
• To study percentage contribution of area, yield and their interaction to maize production in India.

Study Design: Only secondary data has been considered for the present study. Maize in India is considered for study purpose.

Data Considered: All the data required for the study is obtained from Indiastat website. The impact of climatic variables on yield is studied by using data for a period of 28 year i.e., from 1992-93 to 2019-20. For calculating CAGR and for decomposition analysis data from 1950-51 to 2019-20 were considered.

Methodology: Ordinary Least Squares method, Compound Annual Growth Rate(CAGR) and decomposition analysis were tools employed for the study.

Results: For every 10c rise in temperature, the yield of maize decreased by 1.6 units. For every 1 mm increase in rainfall, the yield increased by 0.05 units and for every thousand hectares increase in temperature, the crop yield increased by nearly 1.37 units. Temperature, Rainfall, crop area and time explain 89 per cent of variation in maize yield. Highest and significant growth rate of 3.39 per cent per annum was observed in area during the period II i.e., from 1960-61 to 1969-70. Similarly, in the case of production and yield a highest and significant growth rate of 7.32 and 4.03 per cent respectively were observed during the period I i.e., 1950-51 to 1959-60. For the entire study period i.e., from 1950-51 to 2019-20 significant and positive growth rates of 1.26, 3.34, and 2.05 per cent per annum were observed in area, production and yield respectively. For the entire period, the contribution of interaction effect is high (58.30%) followed by yield (28.73%) and area effects(12.97%). The results revealed that area and yield effect contributes more to production than their interaction when data is considered for a shorter period (10 years) whereas the interaction effect contributes more to production if the period considered is of longer duration(70 years).

Conclusion: Care should be taken by the government in the supply of hybrid maize seeds to farmers. Farmers should be educated about the effect of climatic variables on maize yield and they are also trained in following an improved package of practices.

##### Character Interrelationship and Principle Component Analysis of Some Black Gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) Genotypes under Moisture Stress Deficit Environment

Dibosh Bordoloi, Akashi Sarma, Debojit Sarma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1190-1204
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030916

Two pot experiments were conducted with ten black gram genotypes during winter in the net house of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Assam Agricultural University, Assam. The present experiment was conducted to assess the character interrelationship and grouping of genotypes based on their performance under water stress. The experiment was conducted in a controlled environment in a complete randomized block design with three replications and two environments (Non-stress & Stress environments). The plant was exposed to drought stress during the first flower bud initiation (i.e., 33 days after sowing). The genotypes were screened on the basis of the results of multivariate analysis viz., pearson correlation, path analysis, modified path analysis, cluster analysis based on usual Euclidean distance and principal component analysis. The Pearson correlation, path analysis and modified path analysis identified the proline content and pod per plant as the critical yield determinants under both the environments. Besides, other significant yield contributing traits for water deficit stress were leaf area, chlorophyll content, pod length and seeds per pod. Usual Euclidean distance-based clustering categorized the genotypes into three groups with substantial variation in cluster composition of both stress and non-stress environment. Based on the relationship of characters and genotypes to the PC 1, it can be concluded that the genotypes AKU 10-6 and SBC 40 can be selected for Number of seeds per pod, Chlorophyll content, number of pods per plant and grain yield per plant characters for breeding purposes in both the environments.

##### Heat Unit and Heat Use Efficiency under Different Growing Environments of Mustard Crop (Brassica juncea L.)

Rajesh Kumar Agrahari, A. N. Mishra, S. R. Mishra, A. K. Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1205-1209
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030917

A field experiment was conducted at Agro-meteorological Research Farm, A.N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya, India during 2019-20. The experiment was conducted with Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated four times with nine treatment combinations consisting of three different sowing times D1 (31st October) (23.5oC), D2 (10th November) (23oC), and D3 (20th November) (21oC) and three varieties V1 (Bio-902), V2 (NDR-8501) and V3 (Varuna). Results showed that higher growth and yield was observed when crop was sown on 31st October than other sowing times. Among the varieties Varuna gave highest growth and maximum yield as compared to other varieties due to fulfillment of congenial Heat unit/GDD, HUE. Maximum heat use efficiency and heat unit requirement from sowing to maturity was obtained when the crop was sown on 31st October while minimum heat use efficiency was obtained when the crop was sown on 20th November. Hence it can be concluded that the best sowing date of mustard is on 31st October in the early sowing. This study may help to select suitable sowing time under climatic condition of eastern Uttar Pradesh.

##### Effect of ENSO on Seasonal Temperature Over Tamil Nadu

M. Rajavel, M. Vengateswari, V. Geethalakshmi, K. Bhuvaneswari, V. Vakeswaran, R. Gowtham, S. Priyanka

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1210-1221
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030918

Increased concentration of greenhouse gases is expected to alter the radiative balance of atmosphere, causing increase in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns. Climate variability has been principal source of fluctuations in Indian food production. Even though there is no long-term trend, inter - annual variability of Indian monsoon rainfall leading to frequent droughts and floods has profound influence on agriculture and intern, national economy. It is well recognized that El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of climate variability on seasonal to inter-annual scales and its impacts are felt worldwide. ENSO often affects seasonal temperature, precipitation and thus crop yields in many regions, however, the overall impacts of ENSO on global yields are uncertain Maximum and minimum average temperature was calculated for different seasons such as Cold Weather Period (CWP), Hot Weather Period (HWP), South West Monsoon (SWM), North East Monsoon (NEM) for each El Niño, La Niña and neutral years at various districts of Tamil Nadu. Relation between ENSO and temperature was analyzed by computing the anomaly in temperature at different districts of Tamil Nadu. The temperature deviation between the ENSO and neutral phases was not significant as the deviation was within + 0.3oC in all the seasons.

##### Influence of Weather on Groundnut Genotypes under Extended Sowing Window during Kharif Season

Irayya Hiremath, B. S. Yenagi, S. C. Alagundagi, H. Y. Patil

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1222-1232
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030919

A field experiment was conducted at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during the year 2018. The experiment was laid out in split plot design consist of four sowing window as main plots i.e., June 1st fortnight, June 2nd fortnight, July 1st fortnight and July 2nd fortnight and four groundnut genotypes as sub plots i.e., GPBD-4, G2-52, Dh-245 and JL-1085 with three replications. The groundnut crop sown during first fortnight of June recorded significantly higher pod yield (3,551 kg ha-1) and haulm yield (4,477 kg ha-1) compared to second fortnight of July and was at par with first fortnight of July and second fortnight of June. Among groundnut genotypes, G2-52 recorded significantly higher pod yield (3,364 kg ha-1) and haulm yield (4,239 kg ha-1) over JL-1085 and was on far with Dh-245 and GPBD-4. The groundnut genotype, G2-52 sown during first fortnight of June recorded higher pod yield (3,841 kg ha-1) and haulm yield (4,840 kg ha-1) compared to JL-1085 sown during second fortnight of July.

##### Assesment of Crop Residue Generation in Major Crops of Telangana, India

I. Sindhuja, Md. Ali Baba, K. Suhasini, D. Srinivasa Chary

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1233-1236
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030920

India is one of the key producer of food grains, oilseeds, sugarcane and other agricultural products. Agricultural crops generate considerable amounts of leftover residues, with increase in food production crop residues also increasing. These leftover residues exhibit not only resource loss but also a missed opportunity to improve a farmer’s income. Crop residue burning has become a major environmental problem causing health issues as well as contributing to global warming. Composting, biochar production and mechanization are a few effective sustainable techniques that can help to curtail the issue while retaining the nutrients present in the crop residue in the soil. The main aim of this paper is to assess the amount of crop residue generated in four major crops paddy, maize, red gram and cotton of Telangana in the year 2021. The assessment of crop residue generation is done using the residue production ratio of the above four crops and the total production in the year 2021 in Telangana state. The results shows that the paddy crop generating high amount of crop residue i.e., 15,29,60,297 followed by cotton, maize and redgram. The generated crop residue is needed to be disposed or managed without causing any harm to the environment. The study suggests that the proper management of crop residue by various methods like in-situ incorporation, cattle feed, industrial purpose etc., instead of burning of the crop residue which causing environmental pollution with the emission of harmful gases.

##### Climate Change Impact on Farmers’ Perception and Adaptation Response under Rainfed Agriculture in Southern India

S. Senthilnathan, V. Saravanakumar, M. Prahadeeswaran, S. Moghana Lavanya, S. Gurunathan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1237-1244
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030921

Rainfed agriculture covers 80 percent of the World’s cropland and produces about 60 percent of the World’s food grains. In India, 55 percent of gross sown area accounts 40 percent of food production. In Tamil Nadu, nearly 48 per cent of gross sown area is under rainfed cultivation which is highly vulnerable to climate change and therefore it requires appropriate climate adaptation strategies. The present study covering 180 sample households to examine the farmers perception on climate change and various adaptation responses practiced in rainfed agriculture in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. The farmers were requested to choose one or more response among the three options namely, change in rainfall pattern, change in temperature and decrease in ground water availability. The results of the analysis indicated that rainfall and ground water availability are major concerns due to climate change were perceive by 84 and 58 percent of farmers. The adaptation responses to climate change are examined and the farmers were requested to indicate the various adaptation strategies viz., changing the cropping pattern, drilling new bore wells, deepening existing wells, introducing water saving irrigation methods and reducing the number of irrigations etc. The change in rainfall and temperature perceived by farmers were followed the reduction in number of irrigations, change in cropping pattern, advancement or delaying of cropping seasons and growing rain-fed crops are the major adaptation strategies to reduce the impact of climate change.

##### Generating Soil Parent Material Environmental Covariates Using Sentinel – 2A Images for Delineating Soil Attributes

M. Nivas Raj, R. Kumaraperumal, S. Pazhanivelan, D. Muthumanickam, K. P. Ragunath, M. Ashmitha Nihar, N. S. Sudarmanian

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1245-1256
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030922

Soil mapping procedures typically involve the combination of possible soil-forming SCORPAN factors. Among the factors, parent materials/ mineralogy has been considered important for the soil classification besides the Organisms (O) and Relief (R). Inclusion of the parent material covariate for the Digital soil mapping involves implication through geological maps, spectral derivatives and predictive modelling. In this study, the most prominent parent materials identified were derived using the spectral indices formulated based on the Sentinel – 2A multispectral information. While considering the coarse spatial resolution constraints of the existing Landsat -8 bands that may limit certain applications, Sentinel-2 images were used for the indices derivation. The generated mineral maps can support the digital soil mapping of the soil attributes at different spatial scales.

##### Characterization of the Genetic Variability in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its Assessment Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

Mudavath Ramesh Naik, C. P. Chetariya, Jeevan Sai Akkenapally

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1257-1269
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030923

Present investigation was conducted to estimate genetic parameters such as Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV), Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV), heritability and Genetic Advance (GA) along with correlations, path coefficients, Genetic divergence and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) from data collected on 21 rice genotypes. The results revealed highly significant mean squares due to genotypes for all traits studied, indicating the existence of sufficient variation among the genotypes and therefore an ample scope for effective selection. High PCV, GCV, heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed for 1000-grain weight, seed yield per plant, and harvest index, indicating the effectiveness of direct selection for improvement of these traits. Thousand grain weight and harvest index had recorded positive and significant association with seed yield per plant. The results on path analysis also revealed high and positive direct effect for harvest index followed by flag leaf width, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, panicle length, number of filled grains/panicle, number of spikelets/panicle and hence, these traits were identified as the most effective selection criteria for improvement of seed yield per plant in rice genotypes. The results on divergence analysis revealed that the genotypes were grouped into five clusters. Cluster I constituted maximum number of (17) genotypes. Maximum differences among the genotypes within the same cluster (intra-cluster) were shown by cluster I (18.33) followed by cluster II, III, IV, V showed zero intra -cluster distance. Cluster III and V (37.41) showed maximum inter cluster distance, suggesting that the genotypes constituted in these clusters may be used as parents for future hybridization programme. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was utilized to estimate the relative contribution of various traits for total variability. Five components were found to possess eigen value more than 1.00. The PC1, PC2, PC3, PC4 and PC5 contributed 31.2, 14.5, 12.6, 10.5 and 10.1 per cent of variability. Together, they accounted for 78.9% of the variability of the genotypes used in the study has revealed the traits contributing for the variation.

##### Area Assessment for Rice Crop in Thiruvarur District Assimilating Sentinel 1A Satellite Data

S. Satheesh, S. Pazhanivelan, R. Kumaraperumal, S. Radhamani, K. P. Ragunath, N. S. Sudarmanian

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1270-1278
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030924

This study proposes an effective method to map rice area using the Sentinel-1A SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) time series data over the Thiruvarur district during samba 2021. Fully automated MAPscape-Rice software was used to pre-process the SAR data and extraction of multi-temporal features. The rice-growing area was estimated based on the extracted multi-temporal features and statistics were derived at district and block level in Thiruvarur district. The study area registered a total rice area of 127027 ha; among the blocks, the Kottur block recorded the largest area of 16615 ha and the lowest area of 6865 ha was recorded in the Thiruvarur block. The estimated rice area was validated with the observed rice area in the Thiruvarur district using accuracy assessment, which indicates an overall accuracy of 92.0 per cent and 0.84 kappa co-efficient.

##### Influence of Presowing Seed Treatments with Organic Manures and Botanicals on Plant Growth, Yield and Yield Attributing Traits of Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) Variety (ISP-186)

Boya Raga Sudha, Bineeta M. Bara, Abhishek Kumar Pal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1279-1286
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030926

The present investigation was conducted during Rabi season in the year (2021-2022) at post graduate Central Research Farm, Department of Genetics and plant Breeding, Naini Agriculture Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology And Sciences, PRAYAGRAJ-211007 (U.P) with a goal to evaluate the influence of presowing seed treatments with organic manures and botanicals on plant growth, yield and yield attributing traits of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba) Variety (ISP -186) and to find out suitable seed priming method for mustard under Randomized Block Design with 13 priming treatments which are replicated thrice. The results revealed that treatment T6 Jeevamruth (7%) has recorded maximum Rate of emergence(97.52), plant height (131.07cm) ,Number of Branches (13.60),Days to 50% flowering(40.36), Days to Maturity(99), Number of silique/plant (83.45), Number of seeds\silique(13.47), seed yield/plant(4.73), seed yield/plot(56.44), Biological yield (250.67),Harvest index (41.00).significance mean sum of squares due to seed priming treatments were observed for all the characters under study viz., Field emergence percentage, Plant height (30, 60, 90 DAS), Number of branches/plant, Days to maturity, Number of silique/plant, Number of seeds/plant, seed yield/plant(g), Seed yield/plot(g), Biological yield(g), Harvest index (%) which were highly significant at 5% level of significance indicating presence of good amount of variability among the treatments for these characters.

##### Projected Changes in Climate Over Cauvery Delta Zone of Tamil Nadu in Southern India

M. Rajavel, M. Selva Kumar, K. Bhuvaneswari, V. Vakeswaran, S. Mohan Kumar, N. K. Sathyamoorthy, N. Balakrishnan, R. Gowtham, S. Priyanka

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1287-1294
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030927

Climate change, as well as an increase in extreme weather, are posing a serious threat to socioeconomic and livelihood security. For this study, the Cauvery delta zone (CDZ) was chosen to examine current and anticipated climate variability and trend. The four largest districts of Tamil Nadu's Cauvery delta region are Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, Mayiladuthurai, and Nagapattinam. The Indian meteorological agency provided the baseline data sets (IMD). Using IPCC AR5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, the maximum and minimum temperatures, as well as precipitation, were investigated. The maximum temperature could rise to 1.1oC to 3.6oC, while the minimum temperature could rise to 2.8 to 4.5oC, according to the findings. It was also concluded that there will be 15-16% rise in the rainfall during end of the century.

##### Influence of Nutrient and Weed Management on Zn and S Uptake by Crop and weeds in Mustard

Shashank Tyagi, Arun Kumar, S. C. Paul, S. S. Acharya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1295-1305
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030928

A field experiment was conducted in rabi season 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 at Research farm of Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour to study the effect of nutrient levels and weed management on zinc and sulphur uptake by crop and weeds in mustard. This experiment consisted of three nutrient levels (N1-soil test-based recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), N2-100 % RDF, N3-125 % RDF) in main plot; eight weed management practices (W1-Weedy, W2- Hand weeding (HW), W3-pendimethalin, W4-pendimethalin followed by (fb) quizalofop, W5-pendimethalin fb clodinafop, W6-oxyflourfen, W7-oxyflourfen fb quizalofop, W8-oxyflourfen fb clodinafop) in sub plots, was laid out in split plot design. Results indicated that in both the years 2018-19 and 2019-20, hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS along with 125% RDF exhibited minimum Zn uptake by weeds. Among herbicides, application of pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha-1 PoE along with 125% RDF exhibited lowest Zn uptake by weeds. In both the years 2018-19 and 2019-20, hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS along with 125% RDF recorded minimum S uptake by weeds. Lowest S uptake by weeds was noted under application of pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha-1 PoE along with 125% RDF. In 2018-2019, Zn uptake by mustard was maximum under 125% RDF being at par with soil test-based RDF and was superior over 100% RDF. Hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS exhibited highest Zn uptake by mustard. Maximum Zn uptake by mustard was noted with pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha-1 PoE. In 2019-2020, hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS along with 125% RDF exhibited highest Zn uptake by mustard. Among herbicides, application of pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb clodinafop 15 WP @ 60 g a.i. ha-1 PoE along with 125% RDF registered highest Zn uptake by mustard. In 2018-2019, hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS exhibited highest S uptake by mustard. Maximum S uptake by mustard was recorded with pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha-1 PoE. In 2019-2020, although hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS along with 125% RDF exhibited highest S uptake by mustard, however, pendimethalin 30 EC 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 PE fb quizalofop 5 EC 60 g a.i. ha-1 PoE along with 125% RDF registered highest S uptake by mustard.

##### Alterations Due to Heat Shock in Biological and Commercial Features of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

Muzafar Ahmad Bhat, Abdul Salam, Suraksha Chanotra, Sumya Kapoor, Abdul Aziz

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1306-1317
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030932

The impact of HS on larval growth and development, ERR, cocoon characteristics and biochemical elements of carbohydrate content was investigated using FC2 X FC1 bivoltine hybrid silkworm breed. On the third day of the fifth instar, the FC2 X FC1 bivoltine hybrid was treated to HS at 30, 35, 40 and 45ºC for 1 h with 1 h retrieval. Following that, silkworms were maintained in the rearing house under naturally fluctuating environmental circumstances in order to assess their intrinsic potentiality for overcoming temperature changes and producing cocoons in contrast to non-HS B. mori larvae. At 40°C, the biological and commercial features gained the most weight. As a result, although all larvae heat shocked at 35 and 40°C metamorphosed into pupae with better growth than controls, the fifth instar showed the greatest improvement in it. However, heat shock temperature of 45˚C was lethal since all the biological and commercial characters were severely affected in all instars. Thus, temperatures of 40°C should be considered when screening for better parents to develop thermotolerant breeds/hybrids for tropical countries such as India, in order to elicit a profound response and acquire tolerance to overcome the fluctuated environmental condition. Both control and HS showed a sequential increase in carbohydrate content but found declined upon HS of 45˚C.

##### Economic Feasibility Analysis of Processing of Sesame (Edible Oil) in Northern Telangana Zone

N. Mary, B. Sowjanya, G. P. Sunandini, K. Supriya

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1318-1323
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030933

Sesame is an ancient crop and is often called as Queen of seeds. Sesame oil is consumed from ancient times for its extensive health benefits. The study was aimed to analyze financial feasibility of processing of sesame to sesame edible oil in Northern Telangana Zone of Telangana state where sesame is produced extensively. The data was collected from three districts from NTZ where sesame is grown extensively. Random sampling method is used to select the sesame processors in the study area. The data has been collected from 30 sesame processors from three districts through pre schedules. The data was analysed by using discounted cash flow techniques involving Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Net Present Worth (NPW), Benefit cost Ratio (BCR) were employed.

Result: The Net Present Worth of the processing units in the study area was positive and the results revealed that the sesame processing units higher IRR (30.33) and BCR (1.60) greater than one. The study showed that sesame processing units in the study area are financially feasible and profitable. The study suggests to increase awareness about the consumption and health benefits of using sesame oil in the study area.

##### Seasonal Incidence of Ginger Shoot Borer (Conogethes punctiferalis) and its Correlation with Abiotic Factors

K. Lalruatsangi, M. Aleminla Ao, Khrieketou Kuotsu

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1324-1329
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030934

A field experiment was carried out in the Experimental farm, Department of Entomology, School of Agricultural Sciences and Rural Development (SASRD), Nagaland University, Medziphema campus during 2018 and 2019 to study the seasonal incidence of ginger shoot borer (Conogethes punctiferalis) and its correlation with abiotic factors. The results revealed that the incidence of C. punctiferalis was observed from 120 DAP (Days after planting) in D1 (15th February planting) which falls in the second week of June and for D2 (17th March planting) the incidence of C. punctiferalis was observed from the second week of July and for D3 (16th April planting) the incidence of C. punctiferalis was observed from the second week of August respectively for both the years. In both the experimental year, the highest incidence of C. punctiferalis was observed at 210 DAP in D3 which falls in the second week of November whereas the lowest incidence was recorded at 120 DAP in D1 which falls in the second week of June respectively. Among the weather parameters, maximum temperature and rainfall showed negative correlation whereas maximum relative humidity (RH) showed positive correlation on the incidence of C. punctiferalis for both the years respectively.

##### Evaluating the Irrigation Regimes and Fertigation Schedule of Red Gram (Co (Rg) - 7) under Drip Irrigation System

N. K. Sathyamoorthy, S. Krishnasamy, C. Swaminathan, J. Prabhakaran, S. P. Ramanathan, M. Anbarasu, K. Senthilraja, V. Guhan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1330-1336
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030948

Red gram occupies a unique position in Indian agriculture by constituting the regular protein supplier to the average Indian diet. Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of different irrigation regimes of drip irrigation on red gram under two different of  methods sowing viz., dibbling and transplanting condition during Kharif seasons of 2013 and 2014 at AICRP on Irrigation Water management Research block, Department of Agronomy, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai. The experimental soil is clay loam in texture with low N, medium P and K content. The treatments consistst of drip irrigation at three pan evaporation ratios (40, 60 and 80 per cent PE) under two different methods of planting (dibbling and transplanting) with surface irrigation with conventional sowing and transplanting (Totally two) as a control. The study was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with thrice replication. The Recommended Dose Fertilizer (RDF) followed was 25:50:25 kg’s NPK /ha and soil application of sulphur as basal @ 20 kg /ha was common to all the treatments. Fertigation was scheduled once in a week from 15 to 90 DAS. Seedlings were raised in protrays and Poly bag single: 6x4” (200 $$\mu$$ ) planted at 28 days (Second crop). The lateral spacing was followed was 1.5 m. The results revealed that conventional sowing (dippling) under drip irrigation with 60 percent PE and fertigation of recommended dose of fertilizer recorded significantly higher growth, yield attributes and yield. This treatment was on par with transplanting of red gram under drip irrigation at same irrigation level recommended dose of fertilizer. However, higher net income and B: C ratio was registered in conventional sowing under drip irrigation due to cost involved in raising nursery and transplanting. The conventional sowing under drip irrigation recorded water saving of 21 per cent and transplanting under irrigation recorded water saving of 36 per cent. The highest water use efficiency was observed in drip irrigation at 40 per cent PE level.

##### Climate Change Resilience and Adaptation Strategies in Ecologically Fragile Urban Mining Communities: A Review of Existing Research and Practice

Phanuel Chuka Hakwendenda

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 38-73
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030771

##### Anthropocene Bearing on Snow-Avalanche Disasters over the West Indian Himalayas: An Appraisal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 74-92
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030772

The Himalayas is massive mountainous hills of altitude about 2000m to 6500m garlanding India in the north extending about 2500km arc-shaped snowy glaciers covering parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, China, and Bhutan at various heights in sub-tropics. Snow avalanches in winter with floods and landslides cause maximum fatalities with increasing vulnerability in West Indian Himalayas (WIH) dropping temperature to ≈ -60°C. The ignored calamity has encountered unplanned relief to inaccessible areas that warrant a disaster risk reduction (DRR) approach with modern structural interventions under downsizing glacier due to Anthropocene stresses.

The present study envisions the various avalanche occurrences in the three most pretentious states Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand, in WIH. Correlation between geological vs meteorological responsibilities such as temperature, earthquake, snowfalls, and Indian summer monsoon with avalanche sorted out and causes depicted. Present investigation is about vulnerability, risk, track, impact, forecasting procedures, early warning system (EWS), disaster risk reduction processes, moderating strategies and other factors.

The inferred results are the cause of avalanche formation, the decline in the glacier area, the increase in frequency, and intensity, and the disaster risk reduction processes including the disaster management action plan (DMAP).  The vulnerability area designation, awareness among people, disaster mitigation by public private partnership (PPP) mode, as combined effort on war footing basis by the line departments.

##### Application of Plantibodies, the Plant-MADE Vaccines

Arthee R., S. R. Shri Rangasami, R. Murugaragavan, P. C. Prabu, P. T. Ramesh, K. Chelladurai, S. S. Rakesh, P. Pandiyarajan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 171-180
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030783

Various approaches are used to integrate the desired genes encoding the antigen protein for a given illness into the genome of plant tissues in plant-based vaccination technology. Gene transfer by agrobacterium and transformation via a genetically engineered plant virus are two typical approaches for producing efficient vaccinations. Antibodies are an important component of vertebrates' adaptive immune systems, and they may now be made by converting plants with antibody-coding genes from animals and humans. Despite the fact that plants do not produce antibodies naturally, plant-derived antibodies (plantibodies) have been proven to behave similarly to mammalian antibodies. However, as science and technology have progressed, new approaches have been created to improve the efficiency of older technologies including biolistic, electroporation, agroinfiltration, sonication, and polyethylene glycol treatment. Despite the fact that plant-based vaccinations have numerous advantages for the vaccine industry, there are still constraints that limit the rate at which these third-generation vaccines may be successfully manufactured. Despite these limitations, continued attempts are still underway to develop effective vaccines for a variety of human and animal diseases, owing to its enormous potential.

##### Environment Friendly Indirect-direct Type Evaporative Cooling Technology: A Review

K. V. Vala

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 494-503
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030823

This paper reports a review based study into the two stage indirect- direct evaporative cooling technology, which is referred as two-stage evaporative cooling (TSEC) system. The direct-type (evaporative) cooling system is widely using natural cooling technology for storage of agricultural produce particularly fruits and vegetables because of its simplicity, eco-friendly and low-cost. But EC system is environment based and got the limitation that cooling of air can be done up to wet bulb temperature. To overcome this and owing to the continuous progress in cooling technology innovations are done by combining other indirect methods with direct type evaporative cooling system. Such system is known as two stage evaporative cooling, includes indirect and direct type cooling system. The indirect cooling has potential to be an alternative to conventional mechanical vapour compression refrigeration system to take up the air conditioning duty. Indirect cooling system is mostly heat exchanger(s) whereas direct cooling is wet pad type system. Combination of these two systems has obtained significantly enhanced cooling performance, with near to 90% and high energy efficiency ratio up to 80. The experimental and research work done on the indirect and direct cooling technology on the basis of their design, structural, type of indirect cooler, materials of construction,  pad materials, effectiveness and energy saving have been reviewed and presented. This review paper explains the working principles of two-stage evaporative cooling systems and its performance assessed. This system is energy efficient, environment friendly and having potential for cooling and storage of fruits and vegetables in countries where hot and dry weather prevails for most of the part.

##### Income Generation through Value Addition of Flower Crops: A Review

Ali Haidar Shah, Arvinder Singh, Nomita Laishram, Komaljeet Gill

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 593-613
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030838

Value added floriculture is a process of increasing the economic value and consumer appeal of any floral commodity through processing and packaging diversification. The value addition for marketing flowers includes adoption of postharvest technology and improved logistics. Value- addition ensures high premium to the grower, while providing more acceptable quality products for the domestic and export market, and it provides the most important aspects of marketing and give the customers a reason to buy such products. Value addition reduces post-harvest losses and diversifies the economic base of rural communities. The value-added products can be classified into three categories namely fresh flower products, dried flower products and processed flower products. The success of floral industry lies upon by strengthening the fresh flower market through value addition. Dry flower value added products of flowers through different methods have shown promising results. Tinting of cut carnation with food dye Pink and Orange Red @ 5% recorded the fastest uptake of 1 hour Jasminum sambac flowers harvested at the fully open stage yielded better quality essential oil compared with flowers harvested at the closed bud stage. Marigold is one of the richest source of carotenoids especially lutein which possess antioxidant activities and moreover intake of lutein helps in curing age related macular diseases. Natural dyes are mostly used in the colouring of textiles, drugs, cosmetics, etc. Chrysanthemum petals can be used as a substitute of synthetic reactive dyes for dyeing of cotton and silk fabrics (Das et al., 2016). Marigold flower provides a source of carotenoids commercially used in food colouring industries and poultry feed high in carotenoids has been shown to increase performance and egg yolk color as well as decrease egg cholesterol levels.

##### The Role of Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture: An Approach to Economic Integrity

Rachel Taki, Animesh Ghosh Bag, Shaik Sadhik, B. Keerthika, Kandregula Venkata Sasi Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 943-953
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030883

India is primarily known for its agriculture. Agriculture provides livilyhood for over three-quarters of the people directly and indirectly. As a result, any advancement in agriculture is inextricably linked to the happiness and delight of the people of this country. Agriculture in the India continues to face major issues as the population grows. The growth of high-yielding crop increases the use of fertilizers and irrigation, and as a result of intense cropping techniques, weeds, insects, and pests emerge, wreaking havoc on the crop and its produce. Our economy is founded on property farming, particularly rainfed agriculture, in which vegetables play an important role in feeding humans, animals, and the environment. Country’s most important post-independence worry has been feeding its fast expanding population in an increasing rate. As a result, high-yielding varieties are utilized in conjunction with irrigation water, fertilizers, and pesticides. This combination of high-yielding production has aided the country's development of a food surplus but in the same manner that destroys soil health, enhances environmental pollution, pesticide toxicity. As a result, agricultural systems that rely significantly on organic inputs rather than chemical fertilizers and pesticides are being rethought by researchers and experts. Organic agriculture would generate high-quality feed while also conserving the soil and, as a result, the environment's health; however, whether large-scale organic farming will be able to feed India's huge population remains to be seen. India produces certified organic solutions as well as all types of food products, such as basmati rice, pulses, honey, tea, spices, coffee, oilseeds, fruits, cereals, flavoring medications, and their by-products. Non-edible fresh produce includes cotton, clothing, cosmetics, practical food products, body care goods, and products. But the scope of increasing the organic farming is huge because in India most of the fertile land is cultivated with inorganic inputs.

##### Sorghum Physiology and Adaptation to Abiotic Stresses

Partha Pratim Behera, Niharika Saharia, Nayanmoni Borah, Soibam Helena Devi, Ramendra Nath Sarma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1005-1022
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030891

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is the world's fifth most important cereal and a staple crop for nations in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, with great biomass production potential. In the dry and semi-arid tropics, it may be considered as a source of human food, grain, and pasture for cattle, as well as fuel. Abiotic stress factors such as drought, warmth, salt, and submergence remain key limitations to crop growth and yield as a result of climate change. Although sorghum can resist a variety of conditions such as heat, drought, salt, and floods, in dry and semi-arid areas, this crop is typically damaged by water stress at the post-flowering stage. Drought tolerance is a result of morphological and anatomical characteristics (thick leaf wax, leaf rolling, deep root system, and kranz anatomy), as well as physiological responses such as osmotic adjustment via osmoprotectants, stay green traits, quiescence, and ROS-scavenging enzymes such as catalases (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases (POD), and ascorbate peroxida (APX). Drought resistance is enhanced by functional proteins such as aquaporin, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, heat shock protein, and regulatory proteins such as protein kinase, various transcription factors such as DREB2, bZIP, and phytohormones such as ABA and ethylene. Drought-tolerant sorghum genotypes contain greater osmolyte, chlorophyll, RWC decrease, leaf rolling, and up-regulation of various enzymes and regulatory proteins. When breeding for drought resistance, it's crucial to understand the various drought tolerance mechanisms in plants. The key to generating abiotic stress-tolerant agricultural plants in the future is to understand the physiological underpinning of crop production, crop responses, and crop adaptability in stress-prone locations under sustainable agriculture.

##### Relevance of Algae as Biological Indicators of Pollution Management Studies

Agbogidi, O. M., Michael, O. E., Egboduku, O. W., Stephen, O. F, Agbogidi, O. M.

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1126-1133
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030908

Algae are multicellular or unicellular organisms that photosynthesize but lack the typical features such as leaves, roots, flowers and stems evident in higher vascular plants. They constitute the grasses of the waters. Algae differ in colour and class and occur in all water bodies including lotic and lentic fresh, brackish or salt. An attempt has been made here to establish the fact that as primary producers in aquatic systems, they can be utilised as bio-indicators to ascertain and qualify the outcome of pollutants and assess the degree of contamination in the ecosystem with the ultimate objective of ensuring that local resources used in the water sector applying biodiversity friendly management measures within their day-to-day practices. Among the benefits of utilising algae as bioindicators are short life cycles and rapid reproduction, direct influences by physical and chemical environmental factors, a cost effective monitoring tool, and ease of sampling, less labour and less impact on other organisms. Besides, their role in removing different pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic substances from aquatic environments qualify them as candidates for bionindicators.

##### A Review of Agri-Voltaic System in India: Opportunities and Constraints

Aditya Shukla, Mukesh Kumar, Akanksha Shukla

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Page 1134-1142
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030909

The rising trend of solar PV generation from ground-based installations has led to competition for land between agriculture and PV generation. The solution to this challenge lies in the agri-voltaic system (AVS). However, many of them encounter difficulties as a result of their reliance on unreliable farming techniques. The difficulties can sometimes become so overwhelming that they commit suicide. Furthermore, India is densely populated, and its population is continually growing, necessitating the government's growth in GDP and energy supply to keep pace. This article examines Agrivoltaics, or the integration of solar farming with agriculture, as a Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) option for Indian farmers. Similarly, the paper presents opportunities and constraints to agrivoltaics in India.