Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Different Irrigation Schedules and Nutrients Management Practices on Economics of Wheat

Balkrishna Namdeo, Dig Vijay Dubey, Shriman Kumar Patel, Ashok Kumar Verma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41705

A field investigation was conducted during two kharif seasons of 2020-21 and 2021-2022 at Agriculture Research Farm, Rabindranath Tagore University, Raisen, Madhya Pradesh, India, to evaluate the effect of different irrigation scheduling and nutrient management practices on yield and economics of wheat crop in split-plot design with three replications. The irrigation level N0 - No irrigation, N1- One Irrigation at CRI (crown root inition) stage, N2- One Irrigation at CRI & one irrigation before flowering were arranged in main plots whereas nutrient management treatments of N0 – Control, N1-100% RDF + FYM @ 2.5 t/ha. + Azotobacter, N2 - 100% RDF + Vermicompost @ 1.5 t/ha + PSB, N3 - 50% RDF+ FYM@5.0 t/ha, N4 -50% RDF+ Vermicompost@2.5 t/ha were used in the sub plots. The results shown that one Irrigation at CRI & one irrigation before flowering along with application of 50% RDF+ FYM@5.0 t/ha found to be best in the terms of grain and straw  yield 28.70 and 41.88 q ha-1 in 2021 and 29.52 q ha-1, 42.13 q ha-1 in 2022. Minimum yield and cost benefit ratio recorded under control plot. The study suggests economically combinations of currently used irrigation scheduling and nutrient management practices that may help farmer to obtaining optimum yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chitosan Biopolymer on Microbial Decay in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Variety ‘Dev’ under Ambient Temperature

Mahendra Meena, Kinjal Mondal , Vinod Saharan, K. K. Meena, N. K. Gupta, O. P. Garhwal, L. N. Bairwa, Shalini Pilania, . Mital , Deepak Meena

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 8-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41706

The current study sought to investigate the influence of chitosan biopolymer against microbial decay in tomato. In the present study, bulk-chitosan at different concentrations (0.01, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.16, 0.20% w/v) along with control were evaluated on tomato variety ՙDev՚  by dipping fruits for 6 min and stored at ambient temperature (27ºC±2). Bulk-chitosan at 0.16% was found most effective to prevent microbial decay and maintain sensory evaluation from day 1 to days 21 as compared to control. Based on the aforementioned results and comparative evaluation of different doses of bulk-chitosan, we concluded that chitosan is very effective at less concentration and thus exert minimum chemical load on the treated tomatoes. Therefore, it may claim that chitosan biopolymer have potential to protects tomato against microbial decay.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Nutrient Management and Crop Residue Incorporation on Phosphorus Uptake of Maize (Zea mays L) at Different Growth Stages

U. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy , G. Prabhakara Reddy , M. Srinivasa Reddy

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41707

The uptake of phosphorus was found to increase   with each successive increase in nitrogen level from 200 to 300 kg ha-1 and up to 60 kg ha-1 with increase in age of the crop with higher uptake  at 300 kg N ha-1 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1. Crop sown in N3P3 (300 kg N + 80 kg P2O5 ha-1) recorded significantly higher phosphorus uptake by grain. Higher nutrient uptake was recorded in F2 (125% of F1) and F4 (F2+ Kharif crop residue incorporation), while the sub plot F1 (Recommended dose of N and P2O5) and F3 (F1+ Kharif crop residue incorporation) recorded lower nutrient uptake during both the years. The uptake of phosphorus by maize increased with each successive increment of nitrogen and phosphorus but the trend is not consistent. The higher level of nutrients supplied through increased dose of nitrogen along with phosphorus is conducive for extensive root proliferation, to explore a greater volume of soil and absorb larger quantities of nutrients. Enhanced uptake of nutrients often tends to correlate positively with dry matter production and concentration of nutrients in the plant under higher level of nutrient supply. Residues of corn did not affect the P uptake and the nutrients released from corn residue is not a major contributor for subsequent corn nutrient uptake in sandy loam soils as is evidenced with highest nutrient uptake in the plots received with 125 % recommended dose either with or without residue incorporation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Vermicompost and Organic Formulations on Growth and Yield of Soybean Grown on Vertisol

P. B. Lokhande , A. L. Dhamak , N. M. Patil , A. J. Ingole , P. P. Satwadhar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 23-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41708

Soybean called as golden beans belongs to leguminosae family. It is native of East Asia. It is rich source of protein and also an excellent source of fiber. Balanced fertilization is necessary to increase the productivity of pulses. Organic manures and formulations favor plant growth and regulation and adaptability to the surrounding environments in terms of improvement in yields and quality parameters in addition to enhanced tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Unlike, chemical fertilizer, these organic products are biodegradable, non-toxic, non-polluting and non-hazardous to humans, animal and birds. Thus, integrations of organic manure and formulations with chemical fertilizer seems to be an alternative supply for plant nutrition. Keeping the above points in view the present experiment were conducted during kharif-2020 and kharif-2021 at Research Farm, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, VNMKV Parbhani, to study the effect of vermicompost and organic formulations on growth and yield of soybean grown on Vertisol. The experiment was laid in factorial randomized block design with twelve treatments and three replications. Experimental treatments consist of two factors in which one factor consist of vermicompost consist of three levels C1-RDF, C2- Vermicompost eq. to RDN, C3- Vermicompost eq. to RDN + RD of vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1, another factor organic formulations consist of four levels OF0- control, OF1- Panchagavya, OF2- Beejamruth + Jeevamruth, OF3-Beejamruth + Jeevamruth + Panchagavya. The growth parameters like leaf area, no. of pods and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll showed significant increased with the application of RDF as compared to other treatments. Among organic formulations treatments highest value recorded in combined application of Beejamruth + Jeevamruth + Pancahgavya (OF3) as compared to alone application. The significant increase in seed and straw yield was recorded in treatment receiving in treatment combination of RDF (C1) along with combined application of Beejamruth + Jeevamruth + Panchagavya (OF3). The result of the experiment revealed that application of RDF along with combined application of Beejamruth + Jeevamruth + Panchagavya was found beneficial for increase in growth and yield of soybean in Vertisol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Solid Waste Composition and Tourist Flow at Doodhpathri Kashmir

Amir Maqbool , Haleema Bano, Humayun Azad , Javeed I. A. Bhat , S. A. Shameem

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 31-36
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41709

The present study was carried out at Doodhpathri, a forest ecosystem and tourist resort, in the Kashmir valley during 2018 with the objectives of determining the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation at 3 sites in the months of May, June and July and also, the tourist rush (number of tourist and vehicles) in these months were also analyzed. Maximum solid waste was generated in the month of July (167.02 kg) followed by June (162.53 kg) and May (136.41 kg). The total quantity of biodegradable waste generated in the month of July was 167.02 kg while as 140.81 kg of non-biodegradable waste was generated during the same month. Similarly, in the month of June, total quantity of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste generated was 162.53 and 132.58 kg respectively, compared to 136.41 and 108.65 kg respectively in the month of May. The data indicated that the quantity of biodegradable waste generated was higher as compared to non-biodegradable. The tourist flow was significantly higher in the month of July. The total number of tourists in the month of July was 5870 followed by June (5505) and May (4250) (DDA).

Open Access Original Research Article

Stochastic Disaggregation of Daily Rainfall Using Barlett Lewis Rectangular Pulse Model (BLRPM): A Case Study of Middle Gujarat

Bhavin Ram , Murari Lal Gaur , G. R. Patel , A. N. Kunapara , P. A. Damor

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 37-47
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41710

Having accurate and ample data on rains is the sole golden input for deciding ultimate success of any progressive efforts towards natural resource management. Ultimate conquest of any pertinent schemes on developing and managing watersheds, canals, commands, irrigation net-works, soil-erosion, soil-conservation, drylands, forests, pastures, livestock, land use changes and many ecology-based errands; is entirely governs by the precision, relevancy and quality of rainfall data. Even the ending success of present days smart hydrologic models, modelling entirely remains regulated by the precision & relevance of rainfall data used therein. Most commonly available rain data happens to be daily rain values. However, for precise planning at microscale, we need to have its finer sub-daily temporal distribution. Rainfall disaggregation is a newly emerging applied option where utilities of advanced stochastic architecture is utilized across the globe to offer desired location specific and even rainy day specific best possible temporal disaggregated outcomes. Present paper offers some of the crisped outcomes from a detailed study performed in Gujarat. The predictive ability of one of the most popular BLRP model in this regard is shared by incorporating its basic architecture followed by its predictive performances on randomised sample rainy days covering 6 explicit locations in middle Gujarat region of western India. Preliminary findings reported herein will serve as a food for thought for smarter ways of managing water, land, watersheds and ecology. The BLRP model for rainfall disaggregation has the potential to improve the accuracy of rainfall estimates, facilitate efficient water management, improve hydrological modeling, facilitate climate change analysis, and be cost-effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Herbicides and Nitrogen Levels on Phalaris minor and Its Impact on Nutrient Uptake in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

N. Jeevan , J. K. Singh , M. K. Singh , P. K. Sharma

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 48-55
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41711

In the agricultural research farm of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, a field research study was carried out during the winter (Rabi) season of 2018–19 to examine the impact of levels of nitrogen and herbicides on associated weeds and wheat production. Nine weed species, including Phalaris minor, Anagallis arvensis, Cynodon dactylon, Melilotus indicus, Chenopodium album, Vicia sativa, Medicago denticulata, Solanum nigrum, and Cyperus rotundus, were frequently seen infesting wheat fields. Among these, Phalaris minor was the major weed. Application of Sulfosulfuron (25 g ha-1) + 2, 4-DEE (750 ml ha-1) significantly recorded the lowest weed density and biomass and higher weed control efficiency. HW twice (30&60 DAS) in combination with 180 kg N ha-1 followed by application of Sulfosulfuron (25 g ha-1) + 2, 4-DEE (750 ml ha-1) in combination with 180 kg N ha-1 performed significantly with respect to reduction in density, the biomass of Phalaris minor, as well as increased weed control effectiveness. Nutrient uptake was significantly highest under HW twice plot (30&60 DAS) followed by application of sulfosulfuron (25 g ha-1) + 2, 4-DEE (750 ml ha-1). The overall intake of N, P, and K in wheat grain and straw increased when nitrogen levels were high (180 kg ha-1), but uptake of these nutrients was low when nitrogen levels were low, which was ascribed to reduced plant biomass (grain and straw) and a low proportion of these nutrients in the plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Performance Evaluation of a Cocoa Bean Sheller cum Winnower

K. Shahama , M. G. Anjaly , G. K. Rajesh , M. Sneha , P. Sanjay , Anjali Palakkeel , Anjana Narayanan , Aparna Suresh , Jaseera Nasrin

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 56-63
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41712

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a commercial plantation crop in India. It is the main raw material in the production of chocolates, cosmetics, health drinks, pharmaceuticals etc. Shelling is one of the primary unit operation and critical step in the processing of chocolate. It affects the quality of the cocoa nibs in terms of flavor and purity. The present study focuses on the development of a cocoa bean sheller cum winnower and its performance evaluation in terms of percentage of cracked and uncracked beans, shelling efficiency, capacity, cleaning efficiency and energy requirement. Roasted cocoa beans were shelled using the developed cocoa bean sheller, which were further subjected to winnowing operation using cocoa bean winnower to separate the shells from the nibs. The shelling efficiency of the developed cocoa bean sheller and cleaning efficiency of the winnower were found to be 98 % and 90.38% respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Climate Variability in the Central District of Taraba State, North-East, Nigeria

Tukura Ejati Danladi , E. D. Oruonye , Y. M. Ahmed , Zemba A. Ambrose

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 64-79
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41713

Climatic maps have been very difficult to generate in Nigeria, not because of lack of knowledge or expertise, but due to dearth of climatic data. Most of the existing climatic maps are either not reliable or too generalized since Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) climatic data which is the only reliable climatic data are available only in the state capitals and which were often used to generate climatic maps. In this study, DivaGIS, WorldClim, NASA Power Project and globalweather climatic data of rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation were used to generate the spatial patterns, trends and seasonal pattern of each of the aforementioned climatic elements in Taraba State Central District; comprising Bali, Gassol, Gashaka, Gembu, Kurmi and Sardauna LGAs. The results were presented in charts and using the bar chart and the kringing tools of Microsoft Excel package and ArcGIS 10.5 software respectively. Spatial pattern of rainfall of the area revealed that the rainfall pattern are influenced by relief and latitudes as Sardauna which is on the plateau in the South has more rains than Gassol in the North. Mountainous and highland areas were also found to have higher rainfall than the immediate environment. Trends in rainfall was decreasing in Bali, Gashaka and Sardauna LGAs. Rainfall is high from June to September when minimum of 200 mm monthly rainfall are received in all the five LGAs. The spatial pattern of temperature is inversely related to that of rainfall, while trends in temperature is increasing in all the LGAs. Relative humidity has similar spatial/seasonal patterns with that of rainfall, but showing decreasing trends in all the LGAs except Kurmi LGA. The spatial pattern of solar radiation was found to be affected by the aspects of the area as Kurmi LGA at the western side recorded highest amount of solar radiation. The pattern of solar radiation in the study area is seasonal because solar radiation is low (less than 20 mj/m2) in all the LGAs except Kurmi during the rainy season (June – October). It was recommended that ground station climatic data which covers larger areas than in-situ climatic data that are only available in State capitals should be encouraged among the climate analysts to alleviate the problems associated with dearth in in-situ climatic data.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth, Yield Attributes, Productivity and Profitability of Direct Seeded Rice under Rainfed Conditions

Narendra Kumar , B. K. Tiwari , R. K. Twari , Mrinali Gajbhiye

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 80-88
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41714

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield attributes, productivity and profitability of direct seed rice under Rainfed conditions during Kharif in 2019-20 at kuthulia farm, JNKVV, Rewa (M.P.). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with nine treatments and three replications.  The results indicated that the treatment 50% RDN through fertilizer + 50% RDN through compost + seed treated with Azotobacter @ 10 g kg-1 seed recorded significantly higher growth, yield attributes and productivity viz. plant height (74.90 cm), number of tillers m-2 (387.00), number of productive tillers m-2 (340.66), panicle length (23.57 cm) and weight (3.76 g), total grain per panicle-1 (82.33), 1000-grain weight (26.69 g), grain yield (3799 kg ha-1), straw yield (6438 kg ha-1) and harvest index (37.11%). The profitability viz. Gross returns (78608 Rs. ha-1), Net returns (65650 Rs. ha-1) and B:C (2.38) of rice was also higher in 50% RDN through fertilizer + 50% RDN through compost + seed treated with Azotobacter @ 10 g kg-1 seed. The study concluded that combined use of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients with biofertilizer enhanced crop growth, yield attributes, productivity and profitability of direct seeded rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Incorporation of Sewage Sludge and Fly Ash on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties and Okra in Inceptisols of Prayagraj U.P

Raghu Nandan Singh Khatana, Tarence Thomas, Narendra Swaroop, Akshita Barthwal, Vinay

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 111-117
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41717

The present research was conducted to determine whether it would be feasible to grow Okra in amended soil utilising sewage sludge and fly ash. Different types of nutrients and heavy metals were found in both soil amendments and for growth of the plant and crop yield they are used as ameliorate in acidic soils. In the research trial, soil properties like Bulk density, Particle density and pH are found to be positively non-significant and Pore space, Water holding capacity, EC, OC, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Iron, Manganese, Zinc and copper are found to be positively significantly low to medium range, which comprises yellowish brown sandy loam textured neutral to alkaline soil that is non-saline in nature among all the treatment combination applied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microclimate: Diurnal Temperature Variation inside Crop Canopy of Pearl Millet under Different Sowing Environments

Amit Singh, M. L. Khichar, Jagdeep Singh , Mamta, Rahul, Bittu Ram

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 118-131
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41718

The microclimate was evaluated for the pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] crop at different height inside the crop canopy. Field experiments were conducted during autumn seasons and temperature was measured at bottom, middle and top of the crop canopy at panicle initiation stage, boot stage, 50 per cent flowering, dough stage and physiological maturity stages from 09:00 in the morning to 05:00 in the evening. The temperature profiles indicates that lower temperature were recorded at the top of crop canopy as compare to bottom of crop canopy i.e. temperature inside the crop canopy was higher than at top of the crop canopy in all the treatments. Temperature profiles showed decreasing trend in temperature inside the crop canopy means temperature decrease with increase in height inside the crop canopy in all the treatments within the crop canopy in both the crop seasons. The maximum temperature was observed in afternoon hours and the minimum temperature was recorded in the morning hours.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Bioagents and Botanicals on Vegetative Growth Parameter of Betelvine (Piper betle) against Leaf Spot (Colletotrichum capsici Syd.)

Anoop Kumar , Sunil Zacharia, Mukul Kumar , Siddharth Singh, Saurabh Kumar

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 140-147
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41720

The betelvine (Piper betle L.) is a perennial climbing evergreen shrub belonging to the Piperaceae, also known as the pepper family. As leaves has economic part of betelvine crop and consumed freshly harvested leaves. The present study were carried out at farmer’s field in collaboration with Department of Plant Pathology, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences Prayagraj to find out the ecological, environmentally and biological safe treatment to manage the disease as well increases the plant height and leaves length. Among all the treatment Trichoderma harzianum found to increase maximum plant height at different days after planting. While, Trichoderma viride increases the maximum leaves length and breadth during both the year.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Boron and Biofertilizers on Growth and Yield of Summer Blackgram (Vigna mungo L.)

Venigandla Jyothika , Joy Dawson , Chilakala Vamshi Krishna

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 148-155
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41721

During the summer of 2022, the experiment was carried out at a crop research farm for agricultural research in the department of agronomy. The treatments included three levels of boron application to the soil (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 kg/ha), Rhizobium seed inoculation at 10 and 20 g/kg, and PSB seed inoculation at 10 and 20 g/kg and a control. Ten treatments were used in the experiment, which was designed as an RBD and triple replicated. Inoculating seeds with 2.0 kg of boron and 10g/kg each of Rhizobium and PSB resulted in the maximum plant height, number of branches, number of nodules, maximum plant dry weight, CGR, RGR, and yield parameters such as more pods per plant, seeds per pod, test weight, and seed yield and stover yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Muscle Proximate Composition and Nutritional Value of Six Freshwater Fish Species

Basawarajeshwari Indur, D. Vishwajit , V. Prashant, V. Ambrish

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 156-168
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41722

Fish is an economically viable source of animal protein that is widely available even in rural areas, making it an easily accessible source of protein. The aim of the present study was to determine the proximate composition and nutritional value of 6 different freshwater species of fishes: Orechromis nitoticus, Labeo rohita, Ompok bimaculatus, Notopterus chitala, Channa striata, and Catla catla. The study was conducted from March to September 2022. Nutritional and economic factors were taken into account in the selection of the fish types. According to our findings, dry fish has high-protein content and low-fat which can contribute greatly to children's as well as adult’s recommended protein intake. Fish nutritional value varies significantly depending on the species, size, and age of the fish, but understanding the proximate composition of the fish can provide us with a general idea of its nutritional profile. The data that has been summarized could prove to be beneficial for further studies to determine how dry fish can be utilized effectively to combat malnutrition issues in India and also shares an insight into nutritional values of different fresh water fishes available in the Kalaburagi region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Molybdenum and Foliar Application of Zinc on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

Chilakala Vamshi Krishna, Joy Dawson, Venigandla Jyothika

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 169-175
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41723

During the summer of 2022, the experiment was carried out at a crop research farm for agricultural research in the department of agronomy. Three different doses of molybdenum (800, 1000, and 1200 g/ha) were applied to the soil as treatments, coupled with zinc (5 kg/ha, 1% foliar spray, 2.5 kg/ha along with 0.5% foliar spray), as well as a control. Ten treatments were used in the experiment, which was designed as an RBD and triple replicated. The highest plant height, maximum number of branches, maximum number of root nodules, plant dry weight, CGR, RGR, and yield parameters, such as more pods per plant, seeds per pod, test weight, seed yield, and stover yield, were observed after the application of 1200g molybdenum with 2.5kg of zinc and 0.5% foliar spray.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physio-Chemical Properties and Oxidative Stability of Microencapsulated Silkworm Pupae Oil Enriched Mayonnaise

Akshay R. Patil, R. Jaganmohan, R. Meenatchi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 176-183
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41724

This study investigates to enrich the mayonnaise with novel oil replacer which is from silkworm pupae insect. Due to their health benefits, the well-known omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid families are the most significant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) demanded in foods. Insects are traditionally consumed as food in different parts of the world since they are both a good source of protein and rich in essential fatty acids (EPA and DHA). The product Mayonnaise was developed using Encapsulated Silkworm Pupae Oil powder (Mayo-ESOP of 10 g) and Silkworm Pupae Oil (Mayo-SPO OF 10 ML) and was compared with control mayonnaise prepared out of sunflower oil. The mayonnaise samples were analysed for oxidative stability through peroxide values at 0, 7, 14 and day 21 days and after preparation of physical parameters such as droplet size for surface (µm), volume (µm), viscosity (γ=10 s-1), proximate analysis, colour values (*L, *a and *b) fatty acids profile. The study revealed that Mayo-ESOP and Mayo-SPO samples showed better oxidative stability as a result of this not affecting any quality aspects of mayonnaise samples. The proximate composition among the three variations of mayonnaise Mayo-SPO was found to have a maximum fat content of 76.13±0.01g per 100 g, followed by Mayo-ESOP 72.3±0.01g/100 g and Control 66.21±0.01g/100 g respectively. The fat composition indicates that silkworm pupae have a very good fatty acid profile, which includes omega 9 and omega 6. The colour values (L*, a*, b*) and the total colour difference represented as (ΔE values) had no much significant difference show the yellowness colour for mayonnaise sample compared to control due to the presence of carotenoids. Overall, the colour assessment reveals that the oil was of good quality. Oxidative stability indicates the mayonnaise samples stored at a refrigerated temperature for 0, 7, 14, and 21 days had significantly difference on peroxide values due to oxidation of mayonnaise samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fertility Levels and Boron on the Development and Production of Cauliflower

Atma Ram Meena, L. N. Bairwa, M. R. Choudhary , Suman Meena, Bhagchand Yadav

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 184-189
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41725

A field experiment consisting five levels of fertility and four levels of boron in RBD with three replications was conducted at Horticulture Farm, SKNAU, (Jaipur) during Rabi season. The findings showed that different levels of fertility used to have a significant impact on the growth, yield of cauliflower. Plant height at 30 and 60 DAT, the number of leaves per plant at 30 and 60 DAT and leaf area were all highest when 75% RDF through inorganic fertilizers and 25% RDF through vermicompost were applied. Also, it was found that the application of 50% RDF using inorganic fertilizers and 50% RDF through vermicompost treatment resulted in the highest curd yield per plot and curd yield per ha (190.89 q/ha).

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Agro-Meteorological Advisory Services in Wheat Crop of Kushinagar District in Uttar Pradesh

Swati Swayamprabha Pradhan , Sudhanshu Verma , Pooja

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 198-202
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41727

A study was conducted in April 2020 to assess the impact and usefulness of agrometeorological Advisory Services in increasing the production of wheat crops under DAMU KVK, Kushinagar. The two villages were selected for this study, and two groups of farmers were selected, namely, a group adopting the agrometeorological Advisories (50 farmers), regularly in their operations (AAS Farmers), and another group of farmers not aware of the agrometeorological Advisories (Non AAS Farmers) during the rabi season. The data were recorded from both the farmer groups, particularly on crop expenditure incurred by the farmers from land preparation to harvest at every stage, and crop growth and yields were observed regularly. The impact assessment was based on feedback that indicated a significant impact in terms of the use of the agrometeorological Advisory Service by farmers. The assessment study indicated that the farmers who adopted agrometeorological advisory services on a real time basis obtained a 28% higher net return in wheat crops compared to Non-AAS farmers who benefited from timely agricultural operations, timely rainfall forecasting, recommended doses of fertilisers, efficient irrigation management, and standard plant protection majors in a required base manner during the crop growing period, as advised in biweekly bulletins. AAS farmers benefited from the timely application of fertilizers, timely and accurate weather forecasting, and timely agricultural operations to obtain a better yield in wheat crop as compared to Non-AAS farmers. Agrometeorological Advisory Services (AAS) might be used to be helpful to the farmers in managing changing weather, resulting in decreased input costs in agriculture and profitable agricultural production by adopting of weather based agrometeorological Advisory.

Open Access Original Research Article

Communication and Raising Citizen's Consciousness of Climate Change Challenges and Adaptation in Nigeria

Akudo Azu, Kizito Ogedi Alakwe

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 203-219
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41728

The global impact of climate change remains a grave concern to every nation, from severe droughts in East Africa to wildfires in Australia and extreme floods and landslides in India, Nepal and Bangladesh, and, recently, the devastating floods witnessed in Nigeria, climate change challenges continue to escalate. Climate change is driving people out of their homes and ushering in a world of poverty. Extant literature avers that at the centre of mitigating the adverse effects of climate change and stimulating the desired action is communication. Consequently, this paper seeks to interrogate the centrality of communication as a tool in the hands of policymakers, the media and international donor agencies in stimulating public consciousness in Nigeria towards climate change challenges and adaptation. Leveraging a quantitative and exploratory approach and using surveys with structured and unstructured questionnaire questions, the study exposed gaps in citizens' knowledge of the causes of climate change and revealed the level of awareness of climate change challenges, people's attitudes to climate change, sources of information, and desired medium of communication among the Nigerian public. The study highlights the interplay between the contents of climate change communication and actionable steps that are easy to be understood and relatively simple to be followed by the citizens. Finally, the paper contends that much more needs to be done in sensitising citizens on climate change while suggesting a combination of alternative communication strategies that promise to stimulate citizens' awareness of climate change challenges and adaptation in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Species Composition and Diversity of Tree Species in Nanta Forest Region in Kota District, Rajasthan, India

Anita Malav , Poonam Jaiswal

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 220-227
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41729

The objective of this work was to study species composition and diversity of tree species between two vegetation stands, one is a protected vegetation stand and the other is a non-protected vegetation stand. The tree species composition and community structure were analyzed by field visits in Nanta forest region. Random sampling was done by using a standard size of quadrat i.e., 10x10m2. Results showed that a total of 30 species belonging to 25 genera and 11 families are present in the protected site whereas 8 species belonging to 7 genera and 5 families are present in the unprotected site. Anogeissus pendula (Edgew) and Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) were the most important species in protected and non-protected sites respectively. The Simpson’s index is higher in protected vegetation stands showing greater sample diversity. Family Fabaceae is dominant in both the vegetation stand which shows the ecological importance of this family.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Irrigation Scheduling and Foliar Organic Nutrition on Growth and Yield of Summer Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Elukur Karthik, Rajesh Singh, Indu Thakur, Akankhya Pradhan

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 228-233
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41731

A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2022 at Crop Research Farm (CRF). Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (UP) on soil with sandy loam in texture with Organic carbon 0.48%, Available Nitrogen 278.93 Kg/ha, Available Phosphorus 19.03 Kg/ha, Available Potassium 238.1 Kg/ha, Soil Ph 7.4, EC 0.47 ds/m to investigate the effect ofrrigation scheduling and foliar organic nutrition on growth and yield of Zaid Groundnut. The treatments consist of three irrigation schedulings viz., I1: 3 irrigations (25,45,70 DAS), I2: 2 irrigations (25,45 DAS), I3: 2 irrigations (25,70 DAS) and three foliar organic nutrition F1 – Panchagavya at 3%, F2 – Jeevamrutha at 3%, F3 – Panchamrutha at 3% whose effect is observed on Groundnut (var. Kadiri-6). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with ten treatments replicated thrice. The treatment with application of 3 irrigations (25,45,70 DAS) + panchagavya-3% recorded significantly higher plant height (60.07cm) and plant dry weight (39.62 g), number of pods per plant (20.33), number of kernels per pod (2.47), seed index (39.84  g), pod yield (2.85 t/ha) and haulm yield (4.4 t/ha) compared to other treatment combinations. It is concluded that 3 irrigations (25,45,70 DAS) and panchagavya-3% accomplished better growth parameters, yield attributes and higher pod yield in groundnut crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heterotic Classification of Inbred Lines of Maize Based on Combining Ability for Kernel Yield

I. Sudhir Kumar, D. Keerthana, V. Sujatha, P. Bharat Chandra

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 234-241
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41732

Grouping of maize inbred lines into heterotic groups is an initial step in exploitation of heterosis. Hence a field study was conducted to classify 27 inbred lines into two heterotic groups by evaluating the performance of 54 crosses along with lines and testers in a simple lattice design. The 27 inbred lines were crossed to two broad based heterotic testers. Highly significant differences were noticed for kernel yield per plant, days to anthesis, days to silking and plant height among all the genotypes. One cross PI 330 × LM 13 was found to be promising among the crosses. Highly significant GCA and SCA effects for kernel yield per plant was recorded. Five inbred lines were identified as good general combiners for kernel yield per plant while nine test crosses were found to be good specific combiners. Out of 27 inbred lines, the testers could classify 15 inbred lines into heterotic groups based on GCA and SCA effects and mean kernel yield per plant. The study demonstrated the applicability of combining ability effects in classifying the inbred lines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Grooved Belt Type Fertilizer Metering Mechanism for Spot Fertilizer Applicator

Aman Mahore, K. P. Singh, Bikram Jyoti, Manoj Kumar, Abhishek Patel

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 242-250
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41733

Higher risks involved in excess fertilizer application require precise placement of fertilizer in adequate amount in the root zone of the crop. The drawbacks of current fertilizer application techniques (band placement, pellet application, and ring basin method) include over-fertilization, soil acidity, nutritional imbalances, soil structure damage and an increase in bulk density. Development of a spot fertilizer applicator with precise fertilizer metering was planned to address the problem. The physical and mechanical properties of di-ammonium phosphate were determined. A new grooved belt type fertilizer metering mechanism was developed for orchard application using the fertilizer properties determined. The metering mechanism was equipped with a fertilizer box of 100 kg capacity. The torque requirement of metering mechanism was determined using torque transducer to select a DC motor. The maximum torque required was 4.5 N.m at 8 m.min-1 of metering belt speed. An automatic plant detection-based spot fertilizer applicator with developed fertilizer metering mechanism has potential to save about 20% fertilizer compared to band placement along with reduced labour requirement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heterosis Analysis Over Environments for Seed Yield and Its Attributing Traits in Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.)

Prakashsinh Rathva, Mukesh P. Patel, Ujjval Solanki , Vikas Pali

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 251-284
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41734

A complete set of 79 entries comprising of twelve parents, their 66 F1s and one check RLC-92 were evaluated during rabi 2020-21 at two locations i.e., ARS, Dahod, and BTRS, Anand, under two dates of sowing i.e., 2nd fortnight of October and 1st fortnight of November. The present study aimed to investigate the Heterosis analysis over environments for seed yield and its attributing traits in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). Among the all four environments, E1 had higher mean value for seed yield per plant and all other important yield contributing traits indicating sowing in second fortnight at Dahod conditions best for linseed cultivation. The hybrids viz., Indira × ILS 264, RLC 133 × Kartika, H 45 × Kartika, IPI 10 × H 45 and IPI 10 × Kartika depicted higher better parent heterosis (HB) and Shekhar × GS 384 and Shekhar × H 45 noted significant standard heterosis for seed yield per plant and other traits. Parental lines, Shekhar, GS 384, H 45, KB 961, IPI 10 and Kartika yielded superior heterotic crosses for seed yield and its component characters. The heterotic effect for seed yield per plant was found to be associated with heterosis for its related traits in the majority of the crosses. High standard heterosis and heterobeltiosis for seed yield per plant and its component characters suggested ample scope of exploiting heterosis commercially. The magnitude of heterosis provides information on the extent of genetic diversity in parents of a cross and helps in choosing the parents for superior Fl’s, and to exploit hybrid vigour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Chilli Varieties for Growth, Yield and Thrips Incidence in Central Telangana Zone

L. Suhasini , M. R. Bhanusree , A. Venkatram , M. Harika , S. Malathi , M. Jagan Mohan Rao

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 285-291
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41735

Aim: To know the performance of chilli varieties for growth, yield and its attributing characters, incidence of thrips and leaf curl index at Central Telangana Zone of Telangana state.

Study Design: Ten (10) treatments in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three (3) replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Warangal, Central Telangana Zone of Telangana state. Experiment was conducted in the Kharif season in 2019-20 and 2020-21.

Methodology: Ten chilli varieties namely Surajmukhi, Muchia, LCA-616, Bullet, Bor, Byadgi Kaddi, LCA-625, LCA-960, LCA-620, and Teja were sown in raised bed nursery and transplanted in the main field by following all the recommended package of practices. Observations were made on five randomly selected tagged plants from each variety and replicated for evaluation of characters like plant height, canopy spread, number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, chlorophyll content, fruit length, fruit width, ripe fruit colour, fruit shape at pedicel attachment, fruit position, fresh fruit weight, dry fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, dry fruit yield, mean thrips population and upward leaf curl index.

Results: Out of ten chilli varieties, the dry chilli yield was found to be significantly higher in Teja (26.13 q/a) and on par results were noticed in Surajmukhi (25.12 q/a), whereas lowest dry chilli yield was observed in variety Bor (4.47 q/a). Thrips incidence and leaf curl index was found to be significantly lowest in Muchia. The trend indicates that the higher yield depends on the average fruit weight and number of fruits per plant.

Conclusion: Among the ten chilli varieties under study, Teja and Surajmukhi yielded more dry chilli. Whereas the variety Muchia has shown lowest incidence of thrips and leaf curl index. Hence, these varieties have scope for future crop improvement programme.

Open Access Review Article

Amplification of Small and Marginal Farmers Income through Integrated Farming Systems

A. Devivaraprasad Reddy, T. Vijaya Nirmala, J. Venkata Satish, C. H. Balakrishna, K. Venkata Subbaiah, V. Deepthi, G. Shali Raju, M. Raghavendra Reddy, K.Venkata Satish, E. KarunaSree, J. V. Prasad

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 89-101
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41715

India is a farming country, and agriculture is the primary source of income for most Indian households. Monocropping is used by the majority of small and marginal farmers. Low yields, low income, a late monsoon, pest and disease concerns, and other risk factors are all linked. Integrated farming systems (IFS), or the integration of many crops and enterprises, are the current day's answer to increasing income. With the growing demand for animal products and decreasing in land, which reflects in the reduction of feed, such as grain deposits are used properly. It is clear that the Integrated Farming System (IFS) focuses on enhancing farmer profitability by improving and integrating properties, reusing wastes, and reducing chemical dependency. One of the changes in farming standards is improvement. Because monocropping entails a high level of risk for a little yield, the issues include low income. Paddy, fish, maize, stew, feed grass, dairy, and poultry are among the units to support the enterprise. It has been established that the expansion of agribusiness leads to an increase in farmer efficiency within the development zone, as well as a reduction in human resources. Diversification in the cropping systems and integrated farming systems are very beneficial for enhancing income for livelihoods and socioeconomic status.

Open Access Review Article

Agro-Techniques for Enhancing Wheat Productivity under Dry-land Conditions; An Overview

Santosh Kumar Chaudhary, Sushil Kumar Yadav, Dilip Kumar Mahto , Yogesh Kumar , Vinod Kumar , Sanjay Kumar Singh

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 102-110
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41716

Wheat, being a most important stable food crop of the world and second most important food crop after rice in India, played vital role in food security of the country. Wheat is grown in India in 6 wheat growing zones, both under irrigated and dry land conditions with a lot of variation in yield. Agronomic practices such as planting pattern, seeding rate, nitrogen (N) application strategy as well as cultivars influences the pattern of use of soil water [1]. Despite sizeable area under dry land condition, production is very low mainly due to lack of proper adaptation of agro-technology. Although, there is sufficient scope to increase the dry land wheat productivity by treating seed with 1% Potassium salts, sowing drought tolerant varieties on or before 20th November in moist zone that gives more yield as compared to delayed sowing. Fertilizer application in the moist zone @ 50, 45 and 30 Kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1, and one foliar application @ 2 % urea performed best under dry-land condition. Intercropping of dry land wheat with legume and oilseed (4:1) give more wheat equivalent yield over sole wheat. Weed management during (30-45 DAS) critical period of crop-weed competition increase wheat productivity.

Open Access Review Article

Trend during Growth, Development and Quality Attributes of Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) Fruits: A Review

Shiwanand Pandey , Vivek Kumar Tripathi , Ankur Sharma , Himanshu Trivedi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 132-139
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41719

The trends in growth, development and quality attributes of Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) included changes observed during growth and development, namely fruiting behavior, physical properties and biochemical components of the ber fruit at different stages of growth and development. Flowering began in mid-September and ended in mid-November with the peak of the flowering period in mid-October. While the fruit setting was between the third week of September to the first week of December, but the peak fruit initiation period was the last week of September to mid-October. During fruit growth, development and yield attribute the percentage of fruit drop and retention also changes. Ber fruits were harvested in five times collections and the peak yield period was the first week of March. In the physical changes, the study revealed that length, width, weight, volume, pulp weight, and seed weight increased from fruit set to maturity at all stages of growth and development except for specific weight, which first increased in month of mid-November and then decreased when the fruits continued in the harvest phase. The biochemical changes in fruit in terms of total sugars, ascorbic acid, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and total sugars increased steadily from fruit set to maturity, when titratable acidity showed a trend decreasing during fruit growth and development.

Open Access Review Article

Advancements in Modeling Protocols for Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources: A Review

Soubhagya Laxmi Ray , Ansuman Pati, Anwesha Jhankar, Ambika Prasad Sahoo , Jagadish Chandra Paul , Bharat Chandra Sahoo , Dwarika Mohan Das , Pradipta Majhi

International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, Volume 13, Issue 4, Page 190-197
DOI: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i41726

The scientific community has dedicated significant attention to climate change and climate variability in the past two decades, with numerous investigations focused on these topics. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's third and fourth assessment reports have provided clear evidence that the planet's climate has undergone significant changes since the pre-industrial era, resulting in a warmer phase. These changes have had severe effects on hydrological processes and the availability of water resources due to shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns. A better comprehension of climate change's impact on water resources can aid in developing sustainable strategies for their management and development. Hydrological models combined with climate models can offer a framework to comprehend and explore the interplay between climate, human activities, and water resources.