A field experiment was conducted during zaid season 2022 at the Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and sciences. Prayagraj (UP), India. The aim was to study the effect of basal application of sulphur and foliar application of micronutrients on growth and yield of summer sesame. Treatment consisted of application of 10, 20, 30 kg/ha of sulphur and micronutrients as foliar spray (0.5% zinc, 0.5% iron, 0.2% boron). There were 10 treatments, each repeated 3 times. The soil in the experimental plot was sandy-loamy in texture, nearly neutral in soil response (pH 7.8), poor in organic carbon (0.35%), available N (163.42 kg/ha), available P (21.96 kg/ha), kg/ha). And available K (256.48 kg/ha). As a result, sulphur 30 kg/ha + zinc 0.5% (treatment -7), plant height (95.1 cm), plant dry weight (20.48 g/plant), number of capsules/plant (52.9), high number of seeds/ Capsules (63.2), test weight (3.26 g), seed yield (1.41 t/ha), stover yield (6.44 t/ha), Harvest index (17.92%).
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) is the most commonly grown prime vegetable crop in India and all around the world. Tomato is cultivated majorly in many states of the nation including Karnataka and plays an important role in the Indian economy. The ripe tomato fruits act as the best source of vitamin A, Vitamin D and also have various antioxidant properties. Tomato crop progressively gets infested by various diseases at different stages from vegetation up to fruiting. The diseases such as bacterial leaf spot, bacterial wilt, leaf curl, fruit canker and Septoria leaf spot are caused by different Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi. Nematodes also result in root-knot, stunting and fusarium wilt diseases which may reduce the crop yield and fruit quality. The present survey was carried out from June 2021 to November 2021 in selected tomato plots of Kalaburagi district to identify different species of root nematodes affecting tomato crop in the selected study area. According to the survey results a total of six species of root nematodes were isolated and identified namely Meloidogyne spp., Globodera Spp., Paratrichodors minor, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Pratylenchus spp. and Rotylenchus buxophilus from selected study plots of Nirgudi, Bhosga, Bhosga Tanda, Gobbur, Sannur, Nadikur and Khanadal. The results suggest that Meloidogyne sps and Paratrichodors minor were most commonly recorded. The highest abundance of these nematodes recrded in Nirgudi region and in Nandikur region population of these root nematodes is least abundant.
A field trial was undertaken on the crop black gram in the Zaid season of 2021–2022, at the Crop Research Farm (CRF), in the department of agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj, (U.P). The trail was carried out to research “the influence of different levels of phosphorus, sulphur, and zinc on black gram crop”. The soil of the exploratory plot had a sandy loam texture, a naturally occurring pH of 7.1, a low level of organic carbon (0.36%), and readily available amounts of N (171.48 kg/ha), P (15.2 kg/ha), and K (232.5 kg/ha). The treatment included two amounts of phosphorus (40 and 50 kg/ha), sulphur (15 and 20 kg/ha), zinc (10 and 15 kg/ha) and a control. The experiment was designed in RBD, duplicated three times, and included nine treatments. The experiment's findings indicated that applying 50 kg/ha of phosphorus and 15 kg/ha of zinc to the soil (Treatment 8) resulted in the highest plant height (28.50 cm), number of nodules per plant counted (25.77), maximum plant dry weight (4.19 g/plant), higher number of pods per plant (30.67), a greater number of seeds per pod (12.00), test weight (36.30 g), seed yield (0.85 t/ha), straw yield (1.99 t/ha), and harvest index, were found to be non-significant. The same treatment (T8) also produced the maximum gross return (73720 INR/ha), net return (47732 INR/ha), and benefit: cost ratio (1.83).
The research work was executed Research cum Instructional Farm, Genetics and Plant Breeding department of IGKV Raipur (C.G.) during kharif 2021. The research material under research comprised of 50 rice germplasm lines including two checks namely Mahamaya and Rajeshwari, which were tested in RBD with two replications. The observation of research investigation were recorded for total eight characters viz. Days to 50% flowering, Number of tillers per plant, Panicle length(cm), Plant height(cm), 1000seed weight(g), Grain yield per plant(g), Biological yield per plant(g), Harvest index(%). The analysis of variance showed that there was a highly significant variation in genotypes for all of the studied characters. A small difference between PCV and GCV suggests that the environment has little impact on the concerning traits. The number of tillers per plant, 1000 seed weight, grain yield per plant, biological yield per plant and harvest index had high heritability along with high genetic advance as a percent of mean indicates that the heritability is most likely caused by additive gene action and selection may be effective.
A field experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 2020-21 and 2021-22 at Crop Research station, Masodha, Ayodhya, India to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide-botanicals against rice stem borer, green leafhopper and leaf folder. The experiment was comprising Four combination modules/treatments consisting of three insecticides Chlorantraniliprole 20% SC, Cartap hydrochloride 50% SC and Triflumezopyrim 10% SC, one commercial neem formulation - Neemazal and two plant oils - Neem and Eucalyptus oil procured were compared along with untreated control (only water spray). The lowest stem borers incidence (1 %) of in all insecticides treatment module recorded as compared to 14.8% in untreated control. Among modules, all insecticides module was found to be the best with 1.0% mean white ear damage followed by neemazal, eucalyptus oil and cartap hydrochloride module with 5.3% WE. Green leafhopper infestation was all insecticides combination was the most effective treatment showing mean population of 110.7/10 hills followed by all botanical combination (120.7) and were superior to control (158.7/10 hills). The mean leaf Folder damage (1.8%) was recorded from all insecticides module followed by treatment with neemazl (? %), Eucalyptus oil (? %), and Triflumezopyrim 10% SC (3.9% DL) when compared to untreated control (14.5% )4. Grain yield all insecticides treatment - Chlorantraniliprole, Cartap hydrochloride, Triflumezopyrim recorded the highest grain yield of 5212.0 kg/ha with 95.79% increase over control (IOC) followed by neemazal, neem oil and cartap hydrochloride with 4500 kg/ha (69.04% IOC). All the treatments were significantly superior to control plot which showed a yield of 2662 kg/ha.
Water is a precious natural resource for sustaining life, agriculture and environment. The dependability on groundwater has reached high in all time in recent decades due to reasons such as unreliable supplies from surface water due to vagaries of monsoon, increase in demand for domestic, agricultural and other purposes. Karnataka is largely dependent on groundwater to meet industrial, municipal, domestic and irrigation needs. So, Rainwater harvesting (RWH) forms an important component for development and management of water resources for domestic, agricultural, municipal and industrial uses. Management of scanty rain fall by rain water harvesting, Augmentation of depleting natural resources of water (deeper ground water table) and Management of poor-quality ground water and scope for conjunctive/domestic use is need of the hour. With increase in withdrawal of ground water, ground water (GW) table is declining at a rapid pace with an urgent need to recharge GW in addition to dilute poor quality ground water. Double ring technique of Groundwater Recharge consists of filtering the water at different layers using gradation materials generally the pebbles of different size with synthetic material wrapped around the casing pipe. By harvesting rain water and recharging into point recharge soaking infiltration gallery established at Irrigation Water Management Research Centre, (IWMRC) Belavatagi Tq: Navalagund has shown encouraging results as far as water quality, discharge and water table are concerned. The results of assessment of influence of ground water recharge through rainwater harvesting on ground water yield (lps), quality (dS/m) and fluctuations (feet bgl) during the year 2020, have shown that around 3.35 lakhs liters of water could be collected from rain water harvesting during the year 2020. Also, from point recharge through 7 recharge events (rain fall events from July to October 2020), it was observed that the considerable rise in the water table from more than 100 feet below ground level to around 22 feet below ground level, drastic reduction in groundwater salinity i.e. electrical conductivity (EC) of ground water from more than 10 dS/m to an average (EC) of 1.32 dS/m and tube well yield has significantly increased from 0.4 lps to around 2.4 lps. Therefore, Artificial recharge techniques through rainwater harvesting can be a better strategic approach to combat the emerging problems of water scarcity especially over exploitation of ground water and its quality deterioration.
The study was carried out at Zonal Agricultural Research Station (ZARS) Brahmavar, Udupi district. To know the effect of Calcium, Magnesium (Mg) and Boron (B) on yield and yield components of rice and also their residual effect on groundnut. The geographical position of the area is between 74º45’ to 74º46' East longitude and 13º24'45’’ to 13º25’30’’ North latitude and is at an altitude of 10 meters above mean sea level. Field experiments were established using three levels of Ca (0, 400 & 800 kg ha_1), two levels of Mg (0 & 120 kg ha_1) and foliar spray of boron at two levels (0 & 0.5 %) combined to give 12 treatments. Groundnut crop was grown as a residual crop in the same plots in which rice has been raised in the previous season, for this recommended dose of fertilizer was applied along with that borax was sprayed on the 45th day after sowing. Results showed that the different combinations of Ca-Mg-B significantly influenced the yield and yield components of rice. The highest were recorded from Ca, Mg and B at 800 kg, 120 kg and 550 g ha-1 respectively. The lowest was recorded in control plot (Ca0-Mg0-B0). In case of groundnut the highest was found from Ca, Mg and B at 800 kg, 120 kg and 550 g ha-1 respectively this treatment was limed in previously cultivated rice crop and the lowest was recorded from control plot.
Banana is a major food crop globally grown and consumed in more than 100 countries throughout the tropics and subtropics. Banana (Musa paradisiaca.) is the world’s fourth most important food crop after rice, wheat and maize. Banana is usually propagated vegetatively, since sexual reproduction is difficult due to its vegetative parthenocarpic nature. Traditionally, it is been propagated using suckers, as these are easy to obtain. But the factors limiting the adoption of this method are the lower regeneration capacity of sucker, lack of year round availability of mother sucker, fear of transmission of pests and diseases to the succeeding generation. To overcome these issues and to enable the production of a feasible amount of planting material, macro-propagation technology came into existence. Macro-propagation through the use of growth media has accounted lower cost and higher net returns, on an average cost of production of a single plantlet was only Rs. 6.58/-. From the present study, it is inferred that, a feasible amount of healthy and quality planting materials can be produced with minimum expenditure, harnessing good profitability within shorter time span.
Information about soil properties helps the farmers to adopt eﬀective and eﬃcient farming practices, which can increase higher yields with optimum usage of farm resources. An attempt has been made in this paper to predict soil properties using geospatial kriging approaches. This study mainly focuses on predicting soil pH using different kriging methods. Soil pH dramatically affects many other soil processes, such as nitrification and denitrification, mineralization, precipitation, and dissolution of soil organic matter. Total of seven kriging semivariogram models, namely spherical, circular, exponential, Gaussian, and linear, while two models of universal kriging, such as linear with linear drift and linear with quadratic drift, have been taken to interpolate the spatial soil pH. The performances of these entire models have been validated using mean error, and root mean square error. Spatial analysis revealed that Universal kriging outperformed ordinary kriging with less mean error and root mean square error, 0.016 and 0.52, respectively. The spatial analysis of soil mapping can be instrumental in adopting real-time and on-the-go soil precision practices.
Aims: To correlate the influence of weather variables on population dynamics, incidence and infestation of Brinjal shoot and fruit Borer (BFSB) in Brinjal.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Regional Research and Technology Transfer Station (RRTTS) at Ranital, Bhadrak Odisha and at Instructional Farm at OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha for period of 1 year.
Methodology: The population of Brinjal shoot and fruit Borer were recorded from transplanting to harvest of the crop. Five random plants were selected and tagged for observation recording, except boarder plants. To determine the percentage of affected shoots, brinjal plants showing signs of delicate shoots drooping, withering, and drying were counted. Similarly, the population was correlated with weather conditions and the number of fruits showing signs of bore holes on fruits was tallied to estimate the percent fruit infection.
Results: The investigation indicates that quantitatively establish the relationship of weather parameters as varied with the dates of sowing (23 May,20 November2021, 21 January2022) and Brinjal fruit and shoot borer (BFSB).The studies revealed that the peak population of brinjal shoot and fruit borer was observed during 34th SMW (22-28 August), 5th SMW(30 January- 5 February) and 18th SMW(1-7May) with shoot infestation(38.44%), (11.10%) and (57.99%) respectively. The fruit was infested with a peak of 47.55%, 27.07% and 63.84% on 39th SMW (26 September- 2 October), 9th SMW (27February-5March) and 18th SMW (1-8May) respectively. The BSFB shows positive significant correlation with relative humidity.
Conclusion: The population of BSFB fluctuates with change in temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity. On first sowing date BSFB population has a less population dynamics comparatively to other two sowing dates. So it is concluded for early sowing results in less pest population.
Background: Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) is a significant food and livestock crop in the semi-arid tropics. Pearl millet is a crucial part of the nation's food security because of its capacity to thrive in drier and less fertile regions, where other grains have a comparative disadvantage.
Objectives: Effect of potassium and plant growth regulators on growth parameters and yield of pearl millet
Methods: With the goal of the study effect of potassium and plant growth regulators on growth and yield of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) Var. NBH- 5658 under a Randomized block design(RBD) with 10 treatments (T1-T10) The experiment's findings showed that a potassium concentration of 60 kg/ha combined with an NAA concentration of 100 ppm and a triacontanol concentration of 500 ppm led to the highest plant height (221.20 cm), dry weight (49.42 cm), and yield parameters for ear head length (20.50 cm), number of grains per ear head (1970), Test weight (9.38 g), grain yield (2.72 t/ha), and stover yield (3.78 t/ha).
Conclusion: Farmers found that using potassium at a rate of 60 kg/ha in conjunction with NAA at a concentration of 100 ppm and Triacontanol at a concentration of 500 ppm produced the best results, with plant dimensions of (221.20 cm) in height, (49.42 gm) in plant dry weight, (1972) grains per ear head, (9.38 g) test weight, (2.68 ta/ha) in grain yield, and (3.26 ta/ha) in stover yields, respectively.
The experiment was conducted in CRF in Department of Agronomy during summer season of 2022 on Maize crop. The aim was to study the effect of soil application of zinc and foliar application of boron and growth and yield of maize. The Treatments consisted of 3 levels of Zinc (5,10 and 15 kg/ha) and Boron (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) as foliar spray and a control. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with Ten treatments each replicated thrice. Application of 15 kg Zinc with Boron 1.5% as foliar spray recorded highest Plant height (209.16 cm), No. of Leaves/plant (12.83), Plant dry weight (183.65 g/plant), No. of Cobs/plant (2.33), No. of Grains/Cob (523.93), No. of row/cob (14.74), No. of Grains/row (41.53), Test weight (27.5g), Grain yield (6.33 t/ha), Stover yield (14.30 t/ha) Harvest Index (30.7%).
A field experiment was conducted during Zaid 2022 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P) to determine the “Effect of different levels of potassium and zinc on growth, yield and economics of summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)”. To study treatments consisting of three levels of Potassium (30,40,50 kg/ha) and three levels of Zinc (10, 15, 20 kg/ha). There were 10 treatments, each of which was replicated three times and laid out in a random block design. The results showed that treatment 9 [Potassium (50kg/ha) + Zinc (20kg/ha)] recorded significantly higher plant height (29.5 cm), higher number of nodules/plant (64.1), higher dry weight (47.30 g). Whereas, maximum number of pods/plant (28.1), maximum number of kernels/pod (2), higher seed index (40 g), higher seed yield (2.31 t/ha), maximum haulm yield (3.74 t/ha) and higher harvest index (32.30 %) was recorded in treatment 9 [Potassium (50kg/ha) + Zinc (20kg/ha)]. Similarly, maximum gross return (1,34,970.00 INR/ha), higher net return (93,469.00 INR/ha) and highest benefit cost ratio (2.25) was also recorded in treatment 9 [Potassium (50kg/ha) + Zinc (20kg/ha)] as compared to other treatments.
A field experiment was conducted during Zaid 2022 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P) to determine the “Influence of micronutrients and naphthalene acetic acid on growth, yield and economics of summer greengram (Vigna radiata L.)”. To study treatments consisting of three Micronutrients viz. Zn @ 100 ppm, Boron @ 100 ppm and Mn @ 50 ppm and three levels of Naphthalene acetic acid viz. 30, 40 and 50 ppm. There were 10 treatments, each of which was replicated three times and laid out in a random block design. The results showed that treatment 3 [Zinc (100ppm) + NAA (50ppm)] recorded significantly higher plant height (47.6 cm), higher number of branches/plant (9.00), higher number of leaves/plant (13.60), higher dry weight (7.40g), higher number of nodules/plant (7.6). Whereas, maximum number of pods/plant (29.00), maximum number of seeds/pod (10.27), higher test weight (29.40 g), higher seed yield (1.24t/ha), higher stover yield (2.73 t/ha) and higher harvest index (30.30 %) was recorded in treatment 3 [Zinc (100ppm) + NAA (50ppm)]. Similarly, maximum gross return (86,085.00 INR/ha), higher net return (58,674.00 INR/ha) and highest benefit cost ratio (2.14) was also recorded in treatment 3 [Zinc (100ppm) + NAA (50ppm)] as compared to other treatments.
Field experiment was conducted during December 2018 to April 2019 at the Student’s farm, Department of Agriculture Science & Rural Development, Loyola Academy degree and pg college, Secunderabad to find out the effect of bio-stimulants on growth and yield of Brinjal var. Utkarsha. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) and the treatments comprised of: T1- Folicist @ 3 ml l-1, T2 – Fylloton @ 3 ml l-1, T3 – Globalga @ 3 ml l-1, T4 – Tata Bahar @ 2.5 ml l-1, T5 – Neo-Alpha @ 2.5 ml l-1, T6 – Daiwik @ 2.5 ml l-1, T7 – Recommended dose of NPK alone and T8 – control. Biostimulants were applied as foliar spray at pre-flowering, flowering and fruit setting stages. From the results of the experiment, it was observed that all the growth parameters i.e., plant height (92 cm), number of branches (12 plant-1) and number of leaves (38 plant-1) were significantly increased by the application of folicist @ 3.0 ml l-1 and it was at par with tata bahar @ 2.5 ml l-1. Same treatment also resulted significant increase in terms of number of flowers (68 plant-1), number of fruits (29 plant-1). The fruit length (7.8 cm), fruit diameter (8.35 cm), average fruit weight (90 g fruit-1), fruit yield (2.55 kg plant-1) were recorded in foliar application of folicist @ 3 ml l-1 and it was onpar with foliar application of tata bahar 2.5 ml l-1. The lowest values of growth parameters, yield attributes and yield were observed in control (T8). From the present study it can be concluded that application of folicist @ 3.0 ml l-1 will fetch the remuneration to the farmers.
A novel method for rainfall forecasting has been proposed using Multi Resolution Analysis (MRA). This approach decomposes annual rainfall series and long-term climate indices into component sub-series at different temporal scales, allowing for a more detailed analysis of the factors influencing annual rainfall. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) is then used to predict annual rainfall, with climate indices sub-series as predictive variables, using a step-wise linear regression algorithm. The proposed model has been tested on Indian annual rainfall data and compared with the traditional MLR model. Results show that the MRA-based model outperforms the traditional model in terms of relative absolute error and correlation coefficient metrics. The proposed method offers several advantages over traditional methods as it can identify underlying factors affecting annual rainfall at different temporal scales, providing more accurate and reliable rainfall forecasts for better water resource management and agricultural planning. In conclusion, the MRA-based approach is a promising tool for improving the accuracy of annual rainfall predictions, and its implementation can lead to better water resource management and agricultural planning.
A field experiment was carried out in Zaid 2022 at the Department of Agronomy's Agricultural Research Farm in Prayagraj (U.P).The three planting geometries used in the experiment are 30 cm x 10 cm, 40 cm x 10 cm, and 50 cm x 10 cm. There are three nitrogen management treatments used in the experiment: 50% of the Recommended Dose of Nitrogen (RDN) through inorganic fertiliser, 50% of the RDN through inorganic fertiliser in combination with 50% of Nitrogen provided through FYM with Azotobacter seed inoculation, and 50% of the RDN through inorganic fertiliser. Ten treatments were duplicated three times in the randomised block design of the experiment. Findings showed that 30x10cm spacing ,Maximum plant height (124.48 cm), dry weight (29.85 g), number of capsules/plant (78.69), number of seeds/capsule (36.39), and seed yield (552.38 kg/ha) were obtained with 5% RDN + 50% N via FYM + Biofertilizer (Azotobacter).
The cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicon L., a commercial annual crop that is grown all over the world for local consumption or export purpose. It belongs to the Solanaceae family and has diploid chromosome number (2n= 2X= 24). Application of fertilizers, insecticides and herbicides is crucial for improving productivity per unit area, however excess usage more than that of a recommended dose can lead to issues including environmental contamination (air, water and soil pollution). According to a thorough study, farmers exposed to chemical insecticide spray for a period of 18 months experience impaired vision symptoms like eye stinging or burning (18.42%), dry sore throat (21.05%), blurred vision (23.68%), nose burning (28.9%), shortness of breath and excessive sweating (34.2%), and skin itching or redness (50.0%). The purpose of this brief review article is to explore the function of various organic and inorganic nutrient sources in tomato crop by analysing previous works and studies. Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) is an approach that boosts the agricultural production and safeguards the environment for future generations.
As we know that fruit plays important role in the daily human diet for healthy living and is also a commercial commodity in trade and processing industries. The primary factor that customers use to determine whether or not a fruit is acceptable is its quality like appearance, shape, size, colour and taste, etc. Success in a breeding program depends upon the overall acceptability of fruit quality because most of the developed varieties having desired traits like resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses could not be commercialized and are not in commercial cultivation owing to their poor-quality traits. Therefore, the development of cultivars with desirable quality attributes in fruit crops is challenging. Quality improvement in fruit crops is restricted by several factors such as long juvenility, tall stature, environmental stress and high heterozygosity. Quality traits in fruit crops are polygenic and governed by many genes which makesit difficult to improve particular desirable traits. Many attempts have been made to enhance the qualitative characteristics of annual crops, although perennial fruit crops neatly overlook this issue. Accordingly, the use of both combined conventional and modern breeding techniques could in overcoming these problems. Biotechnological and molecular approaches like marker-assisted selection, transgenics, genomic editing, genomics cis-genics and candidate gene offer precision and reliability to reduce the breeding cycle and are also advantageous when dealing with tedious fruit crops. The challenges with fruit breeding and the state of various breeding techniques for enhancing fruit quality in fruit trees will be the main topics of this review.